Commit f0c0b2b8 authored by KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki's avatar KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki Committed by Linus Torvalds

change zonelist order: zonelist order selection logic

Make zonelist creation policy selectable from sysctl/boot option v6.

This patch makes NUMA's zonelist (of pgdat) order selectable.
Available order are Default(automatic)/ Node-based / Zone-based.

[Default Order]
The kernel selects Node-based or Zone-based order automatically.

[Node-based Order]
This policy treats the locality of memory as the most important parameter.
Zonelist order is created by each zone's locality. This means lower zones
(ex. ZONE_DMA) can be used before higher zone (ex. ZONE_NORMAL) exhausion.
IOW. ZONE_DMA will be in the middle of zonelist.
current 2.6.21 kernel uses this.

Pros.
 * A user can expect local memory as much as possible.
Cons.
 * lower zone will be exhansted before higher zone. This may cause OOM_KILL.

Maybe suitable if ZONE_DMA is relatively big and you never see OOM_KILL
because of ZONE_DMA exhaution and you need the best locality.

(example)
assume 2 node NUMA. node(0) has ZONE_DMA/ZONE_NORMAL, node(1) has ZONE_NORMAL.

*node(0)'s memory allocation order:

 node(0)'s NORMAL -> node(0)'s DMA -> node(1)'s NORMAL.

*node(1)'s memory allocation order:

 node(1)'s NORMAL -> node(0)'s NORMAL -> node(0)'s DMA.

[Zone-based order]
This policy treats the zone type as the most important parameter.
Zonelist order is created by zone-type order. This means lower zone
never be used bofere higher zone exhaustion.
IOW. ZONE_DMA will be always at the tail of zonelist.

Pros.
 * OOM_KILL(bacause of lower zone) occurs only if the whole zones are exhausted.
Cons.
 * memory locality may not be best.

(example)
assume 2 node NUMA. node(0) has ZONE_DMA/ZONE_NORMAL, node(1) has ZONE_NORMAL.

*node(0)'s memory allocation order:

 node(0)'s NORMAL -> node(1)'s NORMAL -> node(0)'s DMA.

*node(1)'s memory allocation order:

 node(1)'s NORMAL -> node(0)'s NORMAL -> node(0)'s DMA.

bootoption "numa_zonelist_order=" and proc/sysctl is supporetd.

command:
%echo N > /proc/sys/vm/numa_zonelist_order

Will rebuild zonelist in Node-based order.

command:
%echo Z > /proc/sys/vm/numa_zonelist_order

Will rebuild zonelist in Zone-based order.

Thanks to Lee Schermerhorn, he gives me much help and codes.

[Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com: add check_highest_zone to build_zonelists_in_zone_order]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: build fix]
Signed-off-by: default avatarKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@suse.de>
Cc: "jesse.barnes@intel.com" <jesse.barnes@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
parent 18a8bd94
......@@ -1196,6 +1196,11 @@ and is between 256 and 4096 characters. It is defined in the file
nowb [ARM]
numa_zonelist_order= [KNL, BOOT] Select zonelist order for NUMA.
one of ['zone', 'node', 'default'] can be specified
This can be set from sysctl after boot.
See Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt for details.
nr_uarts= [SERIAL] maximum number of UARTs to be registered.
opl3= [HW,OSS]
......
......@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@ Currently, these files are in /proc/sys/vm:
- min_slab_ratio
- panic_on_oom
- mmap_min_address
- numa_zonelist_order
==============================================================
......@@ -231,3 +232,47 @@ security module. Setting this value to something like 64k will allow the
vast majority of applications to work correctly and provide defense in depth
against future potential kernel bugs.
==============================================================
numa_zonelist_order
This sysctl is only for NUMA.
'where the memory is allocated from' is controlled by zonelists.
(This documentation ignores ZONE_HIGHMEM/ZONE_DMA32 for simple explanation.
you may be able to read ZONE_DMA as ZONE_DMA32...)
In non-NUMA case, a zonelist for GFP_KERNEL is ordered as following.
ZONE_NORMAL -> ZONE_DMA
This means that a memory allocation request for GFP_KERNEL will
get memory from ZONE_DMA only when ZONE_NORMAL is not available.
In NUMA case, you can think of following 2 types of order.
Assume 2 node NUMA and below is zonelist of Node(0)'s GFP_KERNEL
(A) Node(0) ZONE_NORMAL -> Node(0) ZONE_DMA -> Node(1) ZONE_NORMAL
(B) Node(0) ZONE_NORMAL -> Node(1) ZONE_NORMAL -> Node(0) ZONE_DMA.
Type(A) offers the best locality for processes on Node(0), but ZONE_DMA
will be used before ZONE_NORMAL exhaustion. This increases possibility of
out-of-memory(OOM) of ZONE_DMA because ZONE_DMA is tend to be small.
Type(B) cannot offer the best locality but is more robust against OOM of
the DMA zone.
Type(A) is called as "Node" order. Type (B) is "Zone" order.
"Node order" orders the zonelists by node, then by zone within each node.
Specify "[Nn]ode" for zone order
"Zone Order" orders the zonelists by zone type, then by node within each
zone. Specify "[Zz]one"for zode order.
Specify "[Dd]efault" to request automatic configuration. Autoconfiguration
will select "node" order in following case.
(1) if the DMA zone does not exist or
(2) if the DMA zone comprises greater than 50% of the available memory or
(3) if any node's DMA zone comprises greater than 60% of its local memory and
the amount of local memory is big enough.
Otherwise, "zone" order will be selected. Default order is recommended unless
this is causing problems for your system/application.
......@@ -566,6 +566,11 @@ int sysctl_min_unmapped_ratio_sysctl_handler(struct ctl_table *, int,
int sysctl_min_slab_ratio_sysctl_handler(struct ctl_table *, int,
struct file *, void __user *, size_t *, loff_t *);
extern int numa_zonelist_order_handler(struct ctl_table *, int,
struct file *, void __user *, size_t *, loff_t *);
extern char numa_zonelist_order[];
#define NUMA_ZONELIST_ORDER_LEN 16 /* string buffer size */
#include <linux/topology.h>
/* Returns the number of the current Node. */
#ifndef numa_node_id
......
......@@ -958,6 +958,17 @@ static ctl_table vm_table[] = {
.mode = 0644,
.proc_handler = &proc_doulongvec_minmax,
},
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
{
.ctl_name = CTL_UNNUMBERED,
.procname = "numa_zonelist_order",
.data = &numa_zonelist_order,
.maxlen = NUMA_ZONELIST_ORDER_LEN,
.mode = 0644,
.proc_handler = &numa_zonelist_order_handler,
.strategy = &sysctl_string,
},
#endif
#endif
#if defined(CONFIG_X86_32) || \
(defined(CONFIG_SUPERH) && defined(CONFIG_VSYSCALL))
......
......@@ -1621,8 +1621,8 @@ void show_free_areas(void)
*
* Add all populated zones of a node to the zonelist.
*/
static int __meminit build_zonelists_node(pg_data_t *pgdat,
struct zonelist *zonelist, int nr_zones, enum zone_type zone_type)
static int build_zonelists_node(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct zonelist *zonelist,
int nr_zones, enum zone_type zone_type)
{
struct zone *zone;
......@@ -1641,9 +1641,102 @@ static int __meminit build_zonelists_node(pg_data_t *pgdat,
return nr_zones;
}
/*
* zonelist_order:
* 0 = automatic detection of better ordering.
* 1 = order by ([node] distance, -zonetype)
* 2 = order by (-zonetype, [node] distance)
*
* If not NUMA, ZONELIST_ORDER_ZONE and ZONELIST_ORDER_NODE will create
* the same zonelist. So only NUMA can configure this param.
*/
#define ZONELIST_ORDER_DEFAULT 0
#define ZONELIST_ORDER_NODE 1
#define ZONELIST_ORDER_ZONE 2
/* zonelist order in the kernel.
* set_zonelist_order() will set this to NODE or ZONE.
*/
static int current_zonelist_order = ZONELIST_ORDER_DEFAULT;
static char zonelist_order_name[3][8] = {"Default", "Node", "Zone"};
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
/* The value user specified ....changed by config */
static int user_zonelist_order = ZONELIST_ORDER_DEFAULT;
/* string for sysctl */
#define NUMA_ZONELIST_ORDER_LEN 16
char numa_zonelist_order[16] = "default";
/*
* interface for configure zonelist ordering.
* command line option "numa_zonelist_order"
* = "[dD]efault - default, automatic configuration.
* = "[nN]ode - order by node locality, then by zone within node
* = "[zZ]one - order by zone, then by locality within zone
*/
static int __parse_numa_zonelist_order(char *s)
{
if (*s == 'd' || *s == 'D') {
user_zonelist_order = ZONELIST_ORDER_DEFAULT;
} else if (*s == 'n' || *s == 'N') {
user_zonelist_order = ZONELIST_ORDER_NODE;
} else if (*s == 'z' || *s == 'Z') {
user_zonelist_order = ZONELIST_ORDER_ZONE;
} else {
printk(KERN_WARNING
"Ignoring invalid numa_zonelist_order value: "
"%s\n", s);
return -EINVAL;
}
return 0;
}
static __init int setup_numa_zonelist_order(char *s)
{
if (s)
return __parse_numa_zonelist_order(s);
return 0;
}
early_param("numa_zonelist_order", setup_numa_zonelist_order);
/*
* sysctl handler for numa_zonelist_order
*/
int numa_zonelist_order_handler(ctl_table *table, int write,
struct file *file, void __user *buffer, size_t *length,
loff_t *ppos)
{
char saved_string[NUMA_ZONELIST_ORDER_LEN];
int ret;
if (write)
strncpy(saved_string, (char*)table->data,
NUMA_ZONELIST_ORDER_LEN);
ret = proc_dostring(table, write, file, buffer, length, ppos);
if (ret)
return ret;
if (write) {
int oldval = user_zonelist_order;
if (__parse_numa_zonelist_order((char*)table->data)) {
/*
* bogus value. restore saved string
*/
strncpy((char*)table->data, saved_string,
NUMA_ZONELIST_ORDER_LEN);
user_zonelist_order = oldval;
} else if (oldval != user_zonelist_order)
build_all_zonelists();
}
return 0;
}
#define MAX_NODE_LOAD (num_online_nodes())
static int __meminitdata node_load[MAX_NUMNODES];
static int node_load[MAX_NUMNODES];
/**
* find_next_best_node - find the next node that should appear in a given node's fallback list
* @node: node whose fallback list we're appending
......@@ -1658,7 +1751,7 @@ static int __meminitdata node_load[MAX_NUMNODES];
* on them otherwise.
* It returns -1 if no node is found.
*/
static int __meminit find_next_best_node(int node, nodemask_t *used_node_mask)
static int find_next_best_node(int node, nodemask_t *used_node_mask)
{
int n, val;
int min_val = INT_MAX;
......@@ -1704,13 +1797,129 @@ static int __meminit find_next_best_node(int node, nodemask_t *used_node_mask)
return best_node;
}
static void __meminit build_zonelists(pg_data_t *pgdat)
/*
* Build zonelists ordered by node and zones within node.
* This results in maximum locality--normal zone overflows into local
* DMA zone, if any--but risks exhausting DMA zone.
*/
static void build_zonelists_in_node_order(pg_data_t *pgdat, int node)
{
int j, node, local_node;
enum zone_type i;
int prev_node, load;
int j;
struct zonelist *zonelist;
for (i = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++) {
zonelist = pgdat->node_zonelists + i;
for (j = 0; zonelist->zones[j] != NULL; j++)
;
j = build_zonelists_node(NODE_DATA(node), zonelist, j, i);
zonelist->zones[j] = NULL;
}
}
/*
* Build zonelists ordered by zone and nodes within zones.
* This results in conserving DMA zone[s] until all Normal memory is
* exhausted, but results in overflowing to remote node while memory
* may still exist in local DMA zone.
*/
static int node_order[MAX_NUMNODES];
static void build_zonelists_in_zone_order(pg_data_t *pgdat, int nr_nodes)
{
enum zone_type i;
int pos, j, node;
int zone_type; /* needs to be signed */
struct zone *z;
struct zonelist *zonelist;
for (i = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++) {
zonelist = pgdat->node_zonelists + i;
pos = 0;
for (zone_type = i; zone_type >= 0; zone_type--) {
for (j = 0; j < nr_nodes; j++) {
node = node_order[j];
z = &NODE_DATA(node)->node_zones[zone_type];
if (populated_zone(z)) {
zonelist->zones[pos++] = z;
check_highest_zone(zone_type);
}
}
}
zonelist->zones[pos] = NULL;
}
}
static int default_zonelist_order(void)
{
int nid, zone_type;
unsigned long low_kmem_size,total_size;
struct zone *z;
int average_size;
/*
* ZONE_DMA and ZONE_DMA32 can be very small area in the sytem.
* If they are really small and used heavily, the system can fall
* into OOM very easily.
* This function detect ZONE_DMA/DMA32 size and confgigures zone order.
*/
/* Is there ZONE_NORMAL ? (ex. ppc has only DMA zone..) */
low_kmem_size = 0;
total_size = 0;
for_each_online_node(nid) {
for (zone_type = 0; zone_type < MAX_NR_ZONES; zone_type++) {
z = &NODE_DATA(nid)->node_zones[zone_type];
if (populated_zone(z)) {
if (zone_type < ZONE_NORMAL)
low_kmem_size += z->present_pages;
total_size += z->present_pages;
}
}
}
if (!low_kmem_size || /* there are no DMA area. */
low_kmem_size > total_size/2) /* DMA/DMA32 is big. */
return ZONELIST_ORDER_NODE;
/*
* look into each node's config.
* If there is a node whose DMA/DMA32 memory is very big area on
* local memory, NODE_ORDER may be suitable.
*/
average_size = total_size / (num_online_nodes() + 1);
for_each_online_node(nid) {
low_kmem_size = 0;
total_size = 0;
for (zone_type = 0; zone_type < MAX_NR_ZONES; zone_type++) {
z = &NODE_DATA(nid)->node_zones[zone_type];
if (populated_zone(z)) {
if (zone_type < ZONE_NORMAL)
low_kmem_size += z->present_pages;
total_size += z->present_pages;
}
}
if (low_kmem_size &&
total_size > average_size && /* ignore small node */
low_kmem_size > total_size * 70/100)
return ZONELIST_ORDER_NODE;
}
return ZONELIST_ORDER_ZONE;
}
static void set_zonelist_order(void)
{
if (user_zonelist_order == ZONELIST_ORDER_DEFAULT)
current_zonelist_order = default_zonelist_order();
else
current_zonelist_order = user_zonelist_order;
}
static void build_zonelists(pg_data_t *pgdat)
{
int j, node, load;
enum zone_type i;
nodemask_t used_mask;
int local_node, prev_node;
struct zonelist *zonelist;
int order = current_zonelist_order;
/* initialize zonelists */
for (i = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++) {
......@@ -1723,6 +1932,11 @@ static void __meminit build_zonelists(pg_data_t *pgdat)
load = num_online_nodes();
prev_node = local_node;
nodes_clear(used_mask);
memset(node_load, 0, sizeof(node_load));
memset(node_order, 0, sizeof(node_order));
j = 0;
while ((node = find_next_best_node(local_node, &used_mask)) >= 0) {
int distance = node_distance(local_node, node);
......@@ -1738,23 +1952,25 @@ static void __meminit build_zonelists(pg_data_t *pgdat)
* So adding penalty to the first node in same
* distance group to make it round-robin.
*/
if (distance != node_distance(local_node, prev_node))
node_load[node] += load;
node_load[node] = load;
prev_node = node;
load--;
for (i = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++) {
zonelist = pgdat->node_zonelists + i;
for (j = 0; zonelist->zones[j] != NULL; j++);
if (order == ZONELIST_ORDER_NODE)
build_zonelists_in_node_order(pgdat, node);
else
node_order[j++] = node; /* remember order */
}
j = build_zonelists_node(NODE_DATA(node), zonelist, j, i);
zonelist->zones[j] = NULL;
}
if (order == ZONELIST_ORDER_ZONE) {
/* calculate node order -- i.e., DMA last! */
build_zonelists_in_zone_order(pgdat, j);
}
}
/* Construct the zonelist performance cache - see further mmzone.h */
static void __meminit build_zonelist_cache(pg_data_t *pgdat)
static void build_zonelist_cache(pg_data_t *pgdat)
{
int i;
......@@ -1771,9 +1987,15 @@ static void __meminit build_zonelist_cache(pg_data_t *pgdat)
}
}
#else /* CONFIG_NUMA */
static void __meminit build_zonelists(pg_data_t *pgdat)
static void set_zonelist_order(void)
{
current_zonelist_order = ZONELIST_ORDER_ZONE;
}
static void build_zonelists(pg_data_t *pgdat)
{
int node, local_node;
enum zone_type i,j;
......@@ -1809,7 +2031,7 @@ static void __meminit build_zonelists(pg_data_t *pgdat)
}
/* non-NUMA variant of zonelist performance cache - just NULL zlcache_ptr */
static void __meminit build_zonelist_cache(pg_data_t *pgdat)
static void build_zonelist_cache(pg_data_t *pgdat)
{
int i;
......@@ -1820,7 +2042,7 @@ static void __meminit build_zonelist_cache(pg_data_t *pgdat)
#endif /* CONFIG_NUMA */
/* return values int ....just for stop_machine_run() */
static int __meminit __build_all_zonelists(void *dummy)
static int __build_all_zonelists(void *dummy)
{
int nid;
......@@ -1831,8 +2053,10 @@ static int __meminit __build_all_zonelists(void *dummy)
return 0;
}
void __meminit build_all_zonelists(void)
void build_all_zonelists(void)
{
set_zonelist_order();
if (system_state == SYSTEM_BOOTING) {
__build_all_zonelists(NULL);
cpuset_init_current_mems_allowed();
......@@ -1843,8 +2067,13 @@ void __meminit build_all_zonelists(void)
/* cpuset refresh routine should be here */
}
vm_total_pages = nr_free_pagecache_pages();
printk("Built %i zonelists. Total pages: %ld\n",
num_online_nodes(), vm_total_pages);
printk("Built %i zonelists in %s order. Total pages: %ld\n",
num_online_nodes(),
zonelist_order_name[current_zonelist_order],
vm_total_pages);
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
printk("Policy zone: %s\n", zone_names[policy_zone]);
#endif
}
/*
......
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