Commit 4f00b901 authored by Linus Torvalds's avatar Linus Torvalds
Browse files

Merge branch 'x86-security-for-linus' of...

Merge branch 'x86-security-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/linux-2.6-tip

* 'x86-security-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/linux-2.6-tip:
  module: Move RO/NX module protection to after ftrace module update
  x86: Resume trampoline must be executable
  x86: Add RO/NX protection for loadable kernel modules
  x86: Add NX protection for kernel data
  x86: Fix improper large page preservation
parents b4c6e2ea 94462ad3
......@@ -117,6 +117,17 @@ config DEBUG_RODATA_TEST
feature as well as for the change_page_attr() infrastructure.
If in doubt, say "N"
config DEBUG_SET_MODULE_RONX
bool "Set loadable kernel module data as NX and text as RO"
depends on MODULES
---help---
This option helps catch unintended modifications to loadable
kernel module's text and read-only data. It also prevents execution
of module data. Such protection may interfere with run-time code
patching and dynamic kernel tracing - and they might also protect
against certain classes of kernel exploits.
If in doubt, say "N".
config DEBUG_NX_TEST
tristate "Testcase for the NX non-executable stack feature"
depends on DEBUG_KERNEL && m
......
......@@ -65,6 +65,7 @@ extern unsigned long pci_mem_start;
#define PCIBIOS_MIN_CARDBUS_IO 0x4000
extern int pcibios_enabled;
void pcibios_config_init(void);
struct pci_bus *pcibios_scan_root(int bus);
......
......@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/list.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <trace/syscall.h>
......@@ -49,6 +50,7 @@ static DEFINE_PER_CPU(int, save_modifying_code);
int ftrace_arch_code_modify_prepare(void)
{
set_kernel_text_rw();
set_all_modules_text_rw();
modifying_code = 1;
return 0;
}
......@@ -56,6 +58,7 @@ int ftrace_arch_code_modify_prepare(void)
int ftrace_arch_code_modify_post_process(void)
{
modifying_code = 0;
set_all_modules_text_ro();
set_kernel_text_ro();
return 0;
}
......
......@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ jiffies_64 = jiffies;
PHDRS {
text PT_LOAD FLAGS(5); /* R_E */
data PT_LOAD FLAGS(7); /* RWE */
data PT_LOAD FLAGS(6); /* RW_ */
#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
user PT_LOAD FLAGS(5); /* R_E */
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
......@@ -116,6 +116,10 @@ SECTIONS
EXCEPTION_TABLE(16) :text = 0x9090
#if defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA)
/* .text should occupy whole number of pages */
. = ALIGN(PAGE_SIZE);
#endif
X64_ALIGN_DEBUG_RODATA_BEGIN
RO_DATA(PAGE_SIZE)
X64_ALIGN_DEBUG_RODATA_END
......@@ -335,7 +339,7 @@ SECTIONS
__bss_start = .;
*(.bss..page_aligned)
*(.bss)
. = ALIGN(4);
. = ALIGN(PAGE_SIZE);
__bss_stop = .;
}
......
......@@ -364,8 +364,9 @@ void free_init_pages(char *what, unsigned long begin, unsigned long end)
/*
* We just marked the kernel text read only above, now that
* we are going to free part of that, we need to make that
* writeable first.
* writeable and non-executable first.
*/
set_memory_nx(begin, (end - begin) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
set_memory_rw(begin, (end - begin) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
printk(KERN_INFO "Freeing %s: %luk freed\n", what, (end - begin) >> 10);
......
......@@ -226,7 +226,7 @@ page_table_range_init(unsigned long start, unsigned long end, pgd_t *pgd_base)
static inline int is_kernel_text(unsigned long addr)
{
if (addr >= PAGE_OFFSET && addr <= (unsigned long)__init_end)
if (addr >= (unsigned long)_text && addr <= (unsigned long)__init_end)
return 1;
return 0;
}
......@@ -912,6 +912,23 @@ void set_kernel_text_ro(void)
set_pages_ro(virt_to_page(start), size >> PAGE_SHIFT);
}
static void mark_nxdata_nx(void)
{
/*
* When this called, init has already been executed and released,
* so everything past _etext sould be NX.
*/
unsigned long start = PFN_ALIGN(_etext);
/*
* This comes from is_kernel_text upper limit. Also HPAGE where used:
*/
unsigned long size = (((unsigned long)__init_end + HPAGE_SIZE) & HPAGE_MASK) - start;
if (__supported_pte_mask & _PAGE_NX)
printk(KERN_INFO "NX-protecting the kernel data: %luk\n", size >> 10);
set_pages_nx(virt_to_page(start), size >> PAGE_SHIFT);
}
void mark_rodata_ro(void)
{
unsigned long start = PFN_ALIGN(_text);
......@@ -946,6 +963,7 @@ void mark_rodata_ro(void)
printk(KERN_INFO "Testing CPA: write protecting again\n");
set_pages_ro(virt_to_page(start), size >> PAGE_SHIFT);
#endif
mark_nxdata_nx();
}
#endif
......@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
#include <linux/pfn.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/gfp.h>
#include <linux/pci.h>
#include <asm/e820.h>
#include <asm/processor.h>
......@@ -255,13 +256,16 @@ static inline pgprot_t static_protections(pgprot_t prot, unsigned long address,
unsigned long pfn)
{
pgprot_t forbidden = __pgprot(0);
pgprot_t required = __pgprot(0);
/*
* The BIOS area between 640k and 1Mb needs to be executable for
* PCI BIOS based config access (CONFIG_PCI_GOBIOS) support.
*/
if (within(pfn, BIOS_BEGIN >> PAGE_SHIFT, BIOS_END >> PAGE_SHIFT))
#ifdef CONFIG_PCI_BIOS
if (pcibios_enabled && within(pfn, BIOS_BEGIN >> PAGE_SHIFT, BIOS_END >> PAGE_SHIFT))
pgprot_val(forbidden) |= _PAGE_NX;
#endif
/*
* The kernel text needs to be executable for obvious reasons
......@@ -278,6 +282,12 @@ static inline pgprot_t static_protections(pgprot_t prot, unsigned long address,
if (within(pfn, __pa((unsigned long)__start_rodata) >> PAGE_SHIFT,
__pa((unsigned long)__end_rodata) >> PAGE_SHIFT))
pgprot_val(forbidden) |= _PAGE_RW;
/*
* .data and .bss should always be writable.
*/
if (within(address, (unsigned long)_sdata, (unsigned long)_edata) ||
within(address, (unsigned long)__bss_start, (unsigned long)__bss_stop))
pgprot_val(required) |= _PAGE_RW;
#if defined(CONFIG_X86_64) && defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA)
/*
......@@ -317,6 +327,7 @@ static inline pgprot_t static_protections(pgprot_t prot, unsigned long address,
#endif
prot = __pgprot(pgprot_val(prot) & ~pgprot_val(forbidden));
prot = __pgprot(pgprot_val(prot) | pgprot_val(required));
return prot;
}
......@@ -393,7 +404,7 @@ try_preserve_large_page(pte_t *kpte, unsigned long address,
{
unsigned long nextpage_addr, numpages, pmask, psize, flags, addr, pfn;
pte_t new_pte, old_pte, *tmp;
pgprot_t old_prot, new_prot;
pgprot_t old_prot, new_prot, req_prot;
int i, do_split = 1;
unsigned int level;
......@@ -438,10 +449,10 @@ try_preserve_large_page(pte_t *kpte, unsigned long address,
* We are safe now. Check whether the new pgprot is the same:
*/
old_pte = *kpte;
old_prot = new_prot = pte_pgprot(old_pte);
old_prot = new_prot = req_prot = pte_pgprot(old_pte);
pgprot_val(new_prot) &= ~pgprot_val(cpa->mask_clr);
pgprot_val(new_prot) |= pgprot_val(cpa->mask_set);
pgprot_val(req_prot) &= ~pgprot_val(cpa->mask_clr);
pgprot_val(req_prot) |= pgprot_val(cpa->mask_set);
/*
* old_pte points to the large page base address. So we need
......@@ -450,17 +461,17 @@ try_preserve_large_page(pte_t *kpte, unsigned long address,
pfn = pte_pfn(old_pte) + ((address & (psize - 1)) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
cpa->pfn = pfn;
new_prot = static_protections(new_prot, address, pfn);
new_prot = static_protections(req_prot, address, pfn);
/*
* We need to check the full range, whether
* static_protection() requires a different pgprot for one of
* the pages in the range we try to preserve:
*/
addr = address + PAGE_SIZE;
pfn++;
for (i = 1; i < cpa->numpages; i++, addr += PAGE_SIZE, pfn++) {
pgprot_t chk_prot = static_protections(new_prot, addr, pfn);
addr = address & pmask;
pfn = pte_pfn(old_pte);
for (i = 0; i < (psize >> PAGE_SHIFT); i++, addr += PAGE_SIZE, pfn++) {
pgprot_t chk_prot = static_protections(req_prot, addr, pfn);
if (pgprot_val(chk_prot) != pgprot_val(new_prot))
goto out_unlock;
......@@ -483,7 +494,7 @@ try_preserve_large_page(pte_t *kpte, unsigned long address,
* that we limited the number of possible pages already to
* the number of pages in the large page.
*/
if (address == (nextpage_addr - psize) && cpa->numpages == numpages) {
if (address == (address & pmask) && cpa->numpages == (psize >> PAGE_SHIFT)) {
/*
* The address is aligned and the number of pages
* covers the full page.
......
......@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/pci_x86.h>
#include <asm/pci-functions.h>
#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
/* BIOS32 signature: "_32_" */
#define BIOS32_SIGNATURE (('_' << 0) + ('3' << 8) + ('2' << 16) + ('_' << 24))
......@@ -25,6 +26,27 @@
#define PCIBIOS_HW_TYPE1_SPEC 0x10
#define PCIBIOS_HW_TYPE2_SPEC 0x20
int pcibios_enabled;
/* According to the BIOS specification at:
* http://members.datafast.net.au/dft0802/specs/bios21.pdf, we could
* restrict the x zone to some pages and make it ro. But this may be
* broken on some bios, complex to handle with static_protections.
* We could make the 0xe0000-0x100000 range rox, but this can break
* some ISA mapping.
*
* So we let's an rw and x hole when pcibios is used. This shouldn't
* happen for modern system with mmconfig, and if you don't want it
* you could disable pcibios...
*/
static inline void set_bios_x(void)
{
pcibios_enabled = 1;
set_memory_x(PAGE_OFFSET + BIOS_BEGIN, (BIOS_END - BIOS_BEGIN) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
if (__supported_pte_mask & _PAGE_NX)
printk(KERN_INFO "PCI : PCI BIOS aera is rw and x. Use pci=nobios if you want it NX.\n");
}
/*
* This is the standard structure used to identify the entry point
* to the BIOS32 Service Directory, as documented in
......@@ -332,6 +354,7 @@ static struct pci_raw_ops * __devinit pci_find_bios(void)
DBG("PCI: BIOS32 Service Directory entry at 0x%lx\n",
bios32_entry);
bios32_indirect.address = bios32_entry + PAGE_OFFSET;
set_bios_x();
if (check_pcibios())
return &pci_bios_access;
}
......
......@@ -308,6 +308,9 @@ struct module
/* The size of the executable code in each section. */
unsigned int init_text_size, core_text_size;
/* Size of RO sections of the module (text+rodata) */
unsigned int init_ro_size, core_ro_size;
/* Arch-specific module values */
struct mod_arch_specific arch;
......@@ -672,7 +675,6 @@ static inline int module_get_iter_tracepoints(struct tracepoint_iter *iter)
{
return 0;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_MODULES */
#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
......@@ -687,6 +689,13 @@ extern int module_sysfs_initialized;
#define __MODULE_STRING(x) __stringify(x)
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SET_MODULE_RONX
extern void set_all_modules_text_rw(void);
extern void set_all_modules_text_ro(void);
#else
static inline void set_all_modules_text_rw(void) { }
static inline void set_all_modules_text_ro(void) { }
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_BUG
void module_bug_finalize(const Elf_Ehdr *, const Elf_Shdr *,
......
......@@ -56,6 +56,7 @@
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/kmemleak.h>
#include <linux/jump_label.h>
#include <linux/pfn.h>
#define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
#include <trace/events/module.h>
......@@ -70,6 +71,26 @@
#define ARCH_SHF_SMALL 0
#endif
/*
* Modules' sections will be aligned on page boundaries
* to ensure complete separation of code and data, but
* only when CONFIG_DEBUG_SET_MODULE_RONX=y
*/
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SET_MODULE_RONX
# define debug_align(X) ALIGN(X, PAGE_SIZE)
#else
# define debug_align(X) (X)
#endif
/*
* Given BASE and SIZE this macro calculates the number of pages the
* memory regions occupies
*/
#define MOD_NUMBER_OF_PAGES(BASE, SIZE) (((SIZE) > 0) ? \
(PFN_DOWN((unsigned long)(BASE) + (SIZE) - 1) - \
PFN_DOWN((unsigned long)BASE) + 1) \
: (0UL))
/* If this is set, the section belongs in the init part of the module */
#define INIT_OFFSET_MASK (1UL << (BITS_PER_LONG-1))
......@@ -1542,6 +1563,115 @@ static int __unlink_module(void *_mod)
return 0;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SET_MODULE_RONX
/*
* LKM RO/NX protection: protect module's text/ro-data
* from modification and any data from execution.
*/
void set_page_attributes(void *start, void *end, int (*set)(unsigned long start, int num_pages))
{
unsigned long begin_pfn = PFN_DOWN((unsigned long)start);
unsigned long end_pfn = PFN_DOWN((unsigned long)end);
if (end_pfn > begin_pfn)
set(begin_pfn << PAGE_SHIFT, end_pfn - begin_pfn);
}
static void set_section_ro_nx(void *base,
unsigned long text_size,
unsigned long ro_size,
unsigned long total_size)
{
/* begin and end PFNs of the current subsection */
unsigned long begin_pfn;
unsigned long end_pfn;
/*
* Set RO for module text and RO-data:
* - Always protect first page.
* - Do not protect last partial page.
*/
if (ro_size > 0)
set_page_attributes(base, base + ro_size, set_memory_ro);
/*
* Set NX permissions for module data:
* - Do not protect first partial page.
* - Always protect last page.
*/
if (total_size > text_size) {
begin_pfn = PFN_UP((unsigned long)base + text_size);
end_pfn = PFN_UP((unsigned long)base + total_size);
if (end_pfn > begin_pfn)
set_memory_nx(begin_pfn << PAGE_SHIFT, end_pfn - begin_pfn);
}
}
/* Setting memory back to RW+NX before releasing it */
void unset_section_ro_nx(struct module *mod, void *module_region)
{
unsigned long total_pages;
if (mod->module_core == module_region) {
/* Set core as NX+RW */
total_pages = MOD_NUMBER_OF_PAGES(mod->module_core, mod->core_size);
set_memory_nx((unsigned long)mod->module_core, total_pages);
set_memory_rw((unsigned long)mod->module_core, total_pages);
} else if (mod->module_init == module_region) {
/* Set init as NX+RW */
total_pages = MOD_NUMBER_OF_PAGES(mod->module_init, mod->init_size);
set_memory_nx((unsigned long)mod->module_init, total_pages);
set_memory_rw((unsigned long)mod->module_init, total_pages);
}
}
/* Iterate through all modules and set each module's text as RW */
void set_all_modules_text_rw()
{
struct module *mod;
mutex_lock(&module_mutex);
list_for_each_entry_rcu(mod, &modules, list) {
if ((mod->module_core) && (mod->core_text_size)) {
set_page_attributes(mod->module_core,
mod->module_core + mod->core_text_size,
set_memory_rw);
}
if ((mod->module_init) && (mod->init_text_size)) {
set_page_attributes(mod->module_init,
mod->module_init + mod->init_text_size,
set_memory_rw);
}
}
mutex_unlock(&module_mutex);
}
/* Iterate through all modules and set each module's text as RO */
void set_all_modules_text_ro()
{
struct module *mod;
mutex_lock(&module_mutex);
list_for_each_entry_rcu(mod, &modules, list) {
if ((mod->module_core) && (mod->core_text_size)) {
set_page_attributes(mod->module_core,
mod->module_core + mod->core_text_size,
set_memory_ro);
}
if ((mod->module_init) && (mod->init_text_size)) {
set_page_attributes(mod->module_init,
mod->module_init + mod->init_text_size,
set_memory_ro);
}
}
mutex_unlock(&module_mutex);
}
#else
static inline void set_section_ro_nx(void *base, unsigned long text_size, unsigned long ro_size, unsigned long total_size) { }
static inline void unset_section_ro_nx(struct module *mod, void *module_region) { }
#endif
/* Free a module, remove from lists, etc. */
static void free_module(struct module *mod)
{
......@@ -1566,6 +1696,7 @@ static void free_module(struct module *mod)
destroy_params(mod->kp, mod->num_kp);
/* This may be NULL, but that's OK */
unset_section_ro_nx(mod, mod->module_init);
module_free(mod, mod->module_init);
kfree(mod->args);
percpu_modfree(mod);
......@@ -1574,6 +1705,7 @@ static void free_module(struct module *mod)
lockdep_free_key_range(mod->module_core, mod->core_size);
/* Finally, free the core (containing the module structure) */
unset_section_ro_nx(mod, mod->module_core);
module_free(mod, mod->module_core);
#ifdef CONFIG_MPU
......@@ -1777,8 +1909,19 @@ static void layout_sections(struct module *mod, struct load_info *info)
s->sh_entsize = get_offset(mod, &mod->core_size, s, i);
DEBUGP("\t%s\n", name);
}
if (m == 0)
switch (m) {
case 0: /* executable */
mod->core_size = debug_align(mod->core_size);
mod->core_text_size = mod->core_size;
break;
case 1: /* RO: text and ro-data */
mod->core_size = debug_align(mod->core_size);
mod->core_ro_size = mod->core_size;
break;
case 3: /* whole core */
mod->core_size = debug_align(mod->core_size);
break;
}
}
DEBUGP("Init section allocation order:\n");
......@@ -1796,8 +1939,19 @@ static void layout_sections(struct module *mod, struct load_info *info)
| INIT_OFFSET_MASK);
DEBUGP("\t%s\n", sname);
}
if (m == 0)
switch (m) {
case 0: /* executable */
mod->init_size = debug_align(mod->init_size);
mod->init_text_size = mod->init_size;
break;
case 1: /* RO: text and ro-data */
mod->init_size = debug_align(mod->init_size);
mod->init_ro_size = mod->init_size;
break;
case 3: /* whole init */
mod->init_size = debug_align(mod->init_size);
break;
}
}
}
......@@ -2722,6 +2876,18 @@ SYSCALL_DEFINE3(init_module, void __user *, umod,
blocking_notifier_call_chain(&module_notify_list,
MODULE_STATE_COMING, mod);
/* Set RO and NX regions for core */
set_section_ro_nx(mod->module_core,
mod->core_text_size,
mod->core_ro_size,
mod->core_size);
/* Set RO and NX regions for init */
set_section_ro_nx(mod->module_init,
mod->init_text_size,
mod->init_ro_size,
mod->init_size);
do_mod_ctors(mod);
/* Start the module */
if (mod->init != NULL)
......@@ -2765,6 +2931,7 @@ SYSCALL_DEFINE3(init_module, void __user *, umod,
mod->symtab = mod->core_symtab;
mod->strtab = mod->core_strtab;
#endif
unset_section_ro_nx(mod, mod->module_init);
module_free(mod, mod->module_init);
mod->module_init = NULL;
mod->init_size = 0;
......
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