Commit e1232323 authored by Maria Kustova's avatar Maria Kustova Committed by Stefan Hajnoczi

image-fuzzer: Generator of fuzzed qcow2 images

The layout submodule of the qcow2 package creates a random valid image,
randomly selects some amount of its fields, fuzzes them and write the fuzzed
image to the file. Fuzzing process can be controlled by an external
configuration.
Reviewed-by: default avatarStefan Hajnoczi <stefanha@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarMaria Kustova <maria.k@catit.be>
Signed-off-by: default avatarStefan Hajnoczi <stefanha@redhat.com>
parent 6d5e9372
# Generator of fuzzed qcow2 images
#
# Copyright (C) 2014 Maria Kustova <maria.k@catit.be>
#
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
#
import random
import struct
import fuzz
MAX_IMAGE_SIZE = 10 * (1 << 20)
# Standard sizes
UINT32_S = 4
UINT64_S = 8
class Field(object):
"""Atomic image element (field).
The class represents an image field as quadruple of a data format
of value necessary for its packing to binary form, an offset from
the beginning of the image, a value and a name.
The field can be iterated as a list [format, offset, value].
"""
__slots__ = ('fmt', 'offset', 'value', 'name')
def __init__(self, fmt, offset, val, name):
self.fmt = fmt
self.offset = offset
self.value = val
self.name = name
def __iter__(self):
return iter([self.fmt, self.offset, self.value])
def __repr__(self):
return "Field(fmt='%s', offset=%d, value=%s, name=%s)" % \
(self.fmt, self.offset, str(self.value), self.name)
class FieldsList(object):
"""List of fields.
The class allows access to a field in the list by its name and joins
several list in one via in-place addition.
"""
def __init__(self, meta_data=None):
if meta_data is None:
self.data = []
else:
self.data = [Field(f[0], f[1], f[2], f[3])
for f in meta_data]
def __getitem__(self, name):
return [x for x in self.data if x.name == name]
def __iter__(self):
return iter(self.data)
def __iadd__(self, other):
self.data += other.data
return self
def __len__(self):
return len(self.data)
class Image(object):
""" Qcow2 image object.
This class allows to create qcow2 images with random valid structures and
values, fuzz them via external qcow2.fuzz module and write the result to
a file.
"""
@staticmethod
def _size_params():
"""Generate a random image size aligned to a random correct
cluster size.
"""
cluster_bits = random.randrange(9, 21)
cluster_size = 1 << cluster_bits
img_size = random.randrange(0, MAX_IMAGE_SIZE + 1, cluster_size)
return (cluster_bits, img_size)
@staticmethod
def _header(cluster_bits, img_size, backing_file_name=None):
"""Generate a random valid header."""
meta_header = [
['>4s', 0, "QFI\xfb", 'magic'],
['>I', 4, random.randint(2, 3), 'version'],
['>Q', 8, 0, 'backing_file_offset'],
['>I', 16, 0, 'backing_file_size'],
['>I', 20, cluster_bits, 'cluster_bits'],
['>Q', 24, img_size, 'size'],
['>I', 32, 0, 'crypt_method'],
['>I', 36, 0, 'l1_size'],
['>Q', 40, 0, 'l1_table_offset'],
['>Q', 48, 0, 'refcount_table_offset'],
['>I', 56, 0, 'refcount_table_clusters'],
['>I', 60, 0, 'nb_snapshots'],
['>Q', 64, 0, 'snapshots_offset'],
['>Q', 72, 0, 'incompatible_features'],
['>Q', 80, 0, 'compatible_features'],
['>Q', 88, 0, 'autoclear_features'],
# Only refcount_order = 4 is supported by current (07.2014)
# implementation of QEMU
['>I', 96, 4, 'refcount_order'],
['>I', 100, 0, 'header_length']
]
v_header = FieldsList(meta_header)
if v_header['version'][0].value == 2:
v_header['header_length'][0].value = 72
else:
v_header['incompatible_features'][0].value = random.getrandbits(2)
v_header['compatible_features'][0].value = random.getrandbits(1)
v_header['header_length'][0].value = 104
max_header_len = struct.calcsize(v_header['header_length'][0].fmt) + \
v_header['header_length'][0].offset
end_of_extension_area_len = 2 * UINT32_S
free_space = (1 << cluster_bits) - (max_header_len +
end_of_extension_area_len)
# If the backing file name specified and there is enough space for it
# in the first cluster, then it's placed in the very end of the first
# cluster.
if (backing_file_name is not None) and \
(free_space >= len(backing_file_name)):
v_header['backing_file_size'][0].value = len(backing_file_name)
v_header['backing_file_offset'][0].value = (1 << cluster_bits) - \
len(backing_file_name)
return v_header
@staticmethod
def _backing_file_name(header, backing_file_name=None):
"""Add the name of the backing file at the offset specified
in the header.
"""
if (backing_file_name is not None) and \
(not header['backing_file_offset'][0].value == 0):
data_len = len(backing_file_name)
data_fmt = '>' + str(data_len) + 's'
data_field = FieldsList([
[data_fmt, header['backing_file_offset'][0].value,
backing_file_name, 'bf_name']
])
else:
data_field = FieldsList()
return data_field
@staticmethod
def _backing_file_format(header, backing_file_fmt=None):
"""Generate the header extension for the backing file
format.
"""
ext = FieldsList()
offset = struct.calcsize(header['header_length'][0].fmt) + \
header['header_length'][0].offset
if backing_file_fmt is not None:
# Calculation of the free space available in the first cluster
end_of_extension_area_len = 2 * UINT32_S
high_border = (header['backing_file_offset'][0].value or
((1 << header['cluster_bits'][0].value) - 1)) - \
end_of_extension_area_len
free_space = high_border - offset
ext_size = 2 * UINT32_S + ((len(backing_file_fmt) + 7) & ~7)
if free_space >= ext_size:
ext_data_len = len(backing_file_fmt)
ext_data_fmt = '>' + str(ext_data_len) + 's'
ext_padding_len = 7 - (ext_data_len - 1) % 8
ext = FieldsList([
['>I', offset, 0xE2792ACA, 'ext_magic'],
['>I', offset + UINT32_S, ext_data_len, 'ext_length'],
[ext_data_fmt, offset + UINT32_S * 2, backing_file_fmt,
'bf_format']
])
offset = ext['bf_format'][0].offset + \
struct.calcsize(ext['bf_format'][0].fmt) + \
ext_padding_len
return (ext, offset)
@staticmethod
def _feature_name_table(header, offset):
"""Generate a random header extension for names of features used in
the image.
"""
def gen_feat_ids():
"""Return random feature type and feature bit."""
return (random.randint(0, 2), random.randint(0, 63))
end_of_extension_area_len = 2 * UINT32_S
high_border = (header['backing_file_offset'][0].value or
(1 << header['cluster_bits'][0].value) - 1) - \
end_of_extension_area_len
free_space = high_border - offset
# Sum of sizes of 'magic' and 'length' header extension fields
ext_header_len = 2 * UINT32_S
fnt_entry_size = 6 * UINT64_S
num_fnt_entries = min(10, (free_space - ext_header_len) /
fnt_entry_size)
if not num_fnt_entries == 0:
feature_tables = []
feature_ids = []
inner_offset = offset + ext_header_len
feat_name = 'some cool feature'
while len(feature_tables) < num_fnt_entries * 3:
feat_type, feat_bit = gen_feat_ids()
# Remove duplicates
while (feat_type, feat_bit) in feature_ids:
feat_type, feat_bit = gen_feat_ids()
feature_ids.append((feat_type, feat_bit))
feat_fmt = '>' + str(len(feat_name)) + 's'
feature_tables += [['B', inner_offset,
feat_type, 'feature_type'],
['B', inner_offset + 1, feat_bit,
'feature_bit_number'],
[feat_fmt, inner_offset + 2,
feat_name, 'feature_name']
]
inner_offset += fnt_entry_size
# No padding for the extension is necessary, because
# the extension length is multiple of 8
ext = FieldsList([
['>I', offset, 0x6803f857, 'ext_magic'],
# One feature table contains 3 fields and takes 48 bytes
['>I', offset + UINT32_S, len(feature_tables) / 3 * 48,
'ext_length']
] + feature_tables)
offset = inner_offset
else:
ext = FieldsList()
return (ext, offset)
@staticmethod
def _end_of_extension_area(offset):
"""Generate a mandatory header extension marking end of header
extensions.
"""
ext = FieldsList([
['>I', offset, 0, 'ext_magic'],
['>I', offset + UINT32_S, 0, 'ext_length']
])
return ext
def __init__(self, backing_file_name=None, backing_file_fmt=None):
"""Create a random valid qcow2 image with the correct inner structure
and allowable values.
"""
# Image size is saved as an attribute for the runner needs
cluster_bits, self.image_size = self._size_params()
# Saved as an attribute, because it's necessary for writing
self.cluster_size = 1 << cluster_bits
self.header = self._header(cluster_bits, self.image_size,
backing_file_name)
self.backing_file_name = self._backing_file_name(self.header,
backing_file_name)
self.backing_file_format, \
offset = self._backing_file_format(self.header,
backing_file_fmt)
self.feature_name_table, \
offset = self._feature_name_table(self.header, offset)
self.end_of_extension_area = self._end_of_extension_area(offset)
# Container for entire image
self.data = FieldsList()
# Percentage of fields will be fuzzed
self.bias = random.uniform(0.2, 0.5)
def __iter__(self):
return iter([self.header,
self.backing_file_format,
self.feature_name_table,
self.end_of_extension_area,
self.backing_file_name])
def _join(self):
"""Join all image structure elements as header, tables, etc in one
list of fields.
"""
if len(self.data) == 0:
for v in self:
self.data += v
def fuzz(self, fields_to_fuzz=None):
"""Fuzz an image by corrupting values of a random subset of its fields.
Without parameters the method fuzzes an entire image.
If 'fields_to_fuzz' is specified then only fields in this list will be
fuzzed. 'fields_to_fuzz' can contain both individual fields and more
general image elements as a header or tables.
In the first case the field will be fuzzed always.
In the second a random subset of fields will be selected and fuzzed.
"""
def coin():
"""Return boolean value proportional to a portion of fields to be
fuzzed.
"""
return random.random() < self.bias
if fields_to_fuzz is None:
self._join()
for field in self.data:
if coin():
field.value = getattr(fuzz, field.name)(field.value)
else:
for item in fields_to_fuzz:
if len(item) == 1:
for field in getattr(self, item[0]):
if coin():
field.value = getattr(fuzz,
field.name)(field.value)
else:
for field in getattr(self, item[0])[item[1]]:
try:
field.value = getattr(fuzz, field.name)(
field.value)
except AttributeError:
# Some fields can be skipped depending on
# references, e.g. FNT header extension is not
# generated for a feature mask header field
# equal to zero
pass
def write(self, filename):
"""Write an entire image to the file."""
image_file = open(filename, 'w')
self._join()
for field in self.data:
image_file.seek(field.offset)
image_file.write(struct.pack(field.fmt, field.value))
image_file.seek(0, 2)
size = image_file.tell()
rounded = (size + self.cluster_size - 1) & ~(self.cluster_size - 1)
if rounded > size:
image_file.seek(rounded - 1)
image_file.write("\0")
image_file.close()
def create_image(test_img_path, backing_file_name=None, backing_file_fmt=None,
fields_to_fuzz=None):
"""Create a fuzzed image and write it to the specified file."""
image = Image(backing_file_name, backing_file_fmt)
image.fuzz(fields_to_fuzz)
image.write(test_img_path)
return image.image_size
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