Commit 3e3d5815 authored by balrog's avatar balrog

NAND Flash memory emulation and ECC calculation helpers for use by NAND controllers.


git-svn-id: svn://svn.savannah.nongnu.org/qemu/trunk@2753 c046a42c-6fe2-441c-8c8c-71466251a162
parent 18c9b560
/*
* Calculate Error-correcting Codes. Used by NAND Flash controllers
* (not by NAND chips).
*
* Copyright (c) 2006 Openedhand Ltd.
* Written by Andrzej Zaborowski <balrog@zabor.org>
*
* This code is licensed under the GNU GPL v2.
*/
struct ecc_state_s {
uint8_t cp; /* Column parity */
uint16_t lp[2]; /* Line parity */
uint16_t count;
};
/*
* Pre-calculated 256-way 1 byte column parity. Table borrowed from Linux.
*/
static const uint8_t nand_ecc_precalc_table[] = {
0x00, 0x55, 0x56, 0x03, 0x59, 0x0c, 0x0f, 0x5a,
0x5a, 0x0f, 0x0c, 0x59, 0x03, 0x56, 0x55, 0x00,
0x65, 0x30, 0x33, 0x66, 0x3c, 0x69, 0x6a, 0x3f,
0x3f, 0x6a, 0x69, 0x3c, 0x66, 0x33, 0x30, 0x65,
0x66, 0x33, 0x30, 0x65, 0x3f, 0x6a, 0x69, 0x3c,
0x3c, 0x69, 0x6a, 0x3f, 0x65, 0x30, 0x33, 0x66,
0x03, 0x56, 0x55, 0x00, 0x5a, 0x0f, 0x0c, 0x59,
0x59, 0x0c, 0x0f, 0x5a, 0x00, 0x55, 0x56, 0x03,
0x69, 0x3c, 0x3f, 0x6a, 0x30, 0x65, 0x66, 0x33,
0x33, 0x66, 0x65, 0x30, 0x6a, 0x3f, 0x3c, 0x69,
0x0c, 0x59, 0x5a, 0x0f, 0x55, 0x00, 0x03, 0x56,
0x56, 0x03, 0x00, 0x55, 0x0f, 0x5a, 0x59, 0x0c,
0x0f, 0x5a, 0x59, 0x0c, 0x56, 0x03, 0x00, 0x55,
0x55, 0x00, 0x03, 0x56, 0x0c, 0x59, 0x5a, 0x0f,
0x6a, 0x3f, 0x3c, 0x69, 0x33, 0x66, 0x65, 0x30,
0x30, 0x65, 0x66, 0x33, 0x69, 0x3c, 0x3f, 0x6a,
0x6a, 0x3f, 0x3c, 0x69, 0x33, 0x66, 0x65, 0x30,
0x30, 0x65, 0x66, 0x33, 0x69, 0x3c, 0x3f, 0x6a,
0x0f, 0x5a, 0x59, 0x0c, 0x56, 0x03, 0x00, 0x55,
0x55, 0x00, 0x03, 0x56, 0x0c, 0x59, 0x5a, 0x0f,
0x0c, 0x59, 0x5a, 0x0f, 0x55, 0x00, 0x03, 0x56,
0x56, 0x03, 0x00, 0x55, 0x0f, 0x5a, 0x59, 0x0c,
0x69, 0x3c, 0x3f, 0x6a, 0x30, 0x65, 0x66, 0x33,
0x33, 0x66, 0x65, 0x30, 0x6a, 0x3f, 0x3c, 0x69,
0x03, 0x56, 0x55, 0x00, 0x5a, 0x0f, 0x0c, 0x59,
0x59, 0x0c, 0x0f, 0x5a, 0x00, 0x55, 0x56, 0x03,
0x66, 0x33, 0x30, 0x65, 0x3f, 0x6a, 0x69, 0x3c,
0x3c, 0x69, 0x6a, 0x3f, 0x65, 0x30, 0x33, 0x66,
0x65, 0x30, 0x33, 0x66, 0x3c, 0x69, 0x6a, 0x3f,
0x3f, 0x6a, 0x69, 0x3c, 0x66, 0x33, 0x30, 0x65,
0x00, 0x55, 0x56, 0x03, 0x59, 0x0c, 0x0f, 0x5a,
0x5a, 0x0f, 0x0c, 0x59, 0x03, 0x56, 0x55, 0x00,
};
/* Update ECC parity count. */
static inline uint8_t ecc_digest(struct ecc_state_s *s, uint8_t sample)
{
uint8_t idx = nand_ecc_precalc_table[sample];
s->cp ^= idx & 0x3f;
if (idx & 0x40) {
s->lp[0] ^= ~s->count;
s->lp[1] ^= s->count;
}
s->count ++;
return sample;
}
/* Reinitialise the counters. */
static inline void ecc_reset(struct ecc_state_s *s)
{
s->lp[0] = 0x0000;
s->lp[1] = 0x0000;
s->cp = 0x00;
s->count = 0;
}
/*
* Flash NAND memory emulation. Based on "16M x 8 Bit NAND Flash
* Memory" datasheet for the KM29U128AT / K9F2808U0A chips from
* Samsung Electronic.
*
* Copyright (c) 2006 Openedhand Ltd.
* Written by Andrzej Zaborowski <balrog@zabor.org>
*
* This code is licensed under the GNU GPL v2.
*/
#ifndef NAND_IO
# include "vl.h"
# define NAND_CMD_READ0 0x00
# define NAND_CMD_READ1 0x01
# define NAND_CMD_READ2 0x50
# define NAND_CMD_LPREAD2 0x30
# define NAND_CMD_NOSERIALREAD2 0x35
# define NAND_CMD_RANDOMREAD1 0x05
# define NAND_CMD_RANDOMREAD2 0xe0
# define NAND_CMD_READID 0x90
# define NAND_CMD_RESET 0xff
# define NAND_CMD_PAGEPROGRAM1 0x80
# define NAND_CMD_PAGEPROGRAM2 0x10
# define NAND_CMD_CACHEPROGRAM2 0x15
# define NAND_CMD_BLOCKERASE1 0x60
# define NAND_CMD_BLOCKERASE2 0xd0
# define NAND_CMD_READSTATUS 0x70
# define NAND_CMD_COPYBACKPRG1 0x85
# define NAND_IOSTATUS_ERROR (1 << 0)
# define NAND_IOSTATUS_PLANE0 (1 << 1)
# define NAND_IOSTATUS_PLANE1 (1 << 2)
# define NAND_IOSTATUS_PLANE2 (1 << 3)
# define NAND_IOSTATUS_PLANE3 (1 << 4)
# define NAND_IOSTATUS_BUSY (1 << 6)
# define NAND_IOSTATUS_UNPROTCT (1 << 7)
# define MAX_PAGE 0x800
# define MAX_OOB 0x40
struct nand_flash_s {
uint8_t manf_id, chip_id;
int size, pages;
int page_shift, oob_shift, erase_shift, addr_shift;
uint8_t *storage;
BlockDriverState *bdrv;
int mem_oob;
int cle, ale, ce, wp, gnd;
uint8_t io[MAX_PAGE + MAX_OOB + 0x400];
uint8_t *ioaddr;
int iolen;
uint32_t cmd, addr;
int addrlen;
int status;
int offset;
void (*blk_write)(struct nand_flash_s *s);
void (*blk_erase)(struct nand_flash_s *s);
void (*blk_load)(struct nand_flash_s *s, uint32_t addr, int offset);
};
# define NAND_NO_AUTOINCR 0x00000001
# define NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 0x00000002
# define NAND_NO_PADDING 0x00000004
# define NAND_CACHEPRG 0x00000008
# define NAND_COPYBACK 0x00000010
# define NAND_IS_AND 0x00000020
# define NAND_4PAGE_ARRAY 0x00000040
# define NAND_NO_READRDY 0x00000100
# define NAND_SAMSUNG_LP (NAND_NO_PADDING | NAND_COPYBACK)
# define NAND_IO
# define PAGE(addr) ((addr) >> ADDR_SHIFT)
# define PAGE_START(page) (PAGE(page) * (PAGE_SIZE + OOB_SIZE))
# define PAGE_MASK ((1 << ADDR_SHIFT) - 1)
# define OOB_SHIFT (PAGE_SHIFT - 5)
# define OOB_SIZE (1 << OOB_SHIFT)
# define SECTOR(addr) ((addr) >> (9 + ADDR_SHIFT - PAGE_SHIFT))
# define SECTOR_OFFSET(addr) ((addr) & ((511 >> PAGE_SHIFT) << 8))
# define PAGE_SIZE 256
# define PAGE_SHIFT 8
# define PAGE_SECTORS 1
# define ADDR_SHIFT 8
# include "nand.c"
# define PAGE_SIZE 512
# define PAGE_SHIFT 9
# define PAGE_SECTORS 1
# define ADDR_SHIFT 8
# include "nand.c"
# define PAGE_SIZE 2048
# define PAGE_SHIFT 11
# define PAGE_SECTORS 4
# define ADDR_SHIFT 16
# include "nand.c"
/* Information based on Linux drivers/mtd/nand/nand_ids.c */
struct nand_info_s {
int size;
int width;
int page_shift;
int erase_shift;
uint32_t options;
} nand_flash_ids[0x100] = {
[0 ... 0xff] = { 0 },
[0x6e] = { 1, 8, 8, 4, 0 },
[0x64] = { 2, 8, 8, 4, 0 },
[0x6b] = { 4, 8, 9, 4, 0 },
[0xe8] = { 1, 8, 8, 4, 0 },
[0xec] = { 1, 8, 8, 4, 0 },
[0xea] = { 2, 8, 8, 4, 0 },
[0xd5] = { 4, 8, 9, 4, 0 },
[0xe3] = { 4, 8, 9, 4, 0 },
[0xe5] = { 4, 8, 9, 4, 0 },
[0xd6] = { 8, 8, 9, 4, 0 },
[0x39] = { 8, 8, 9, 4, 0 },
[0xe6] = { 8, 8, 9, 4, 0 },
[0x49] = { 8, 16, 9, 4, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x59] = { 8, 16, 9, 4, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x33] = { 16, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x73] = { 16, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x43] = { 16, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x53] = { 16, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x35] = { 32, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x75] = { 32, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x45] = { 32, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x55] = { 32, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x36] = { 64, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x76] = { 64, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x46] = { 64, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x56] = { 64, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x78] = { 128, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x39] = { 128, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x79] = { 128, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
[0x72] = { 128, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x49] = { 128, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x74] = { 128, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x59] = { 128, 16, 9, 5, NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 },
[0x71] = { 256, 8, 9, 5, 0 },
/*
* These are the new chips with large page size. The pagesize and the
* erasesize is determined from the extended id bytes
*/
# define LP_OPTIONS (NAND_SAMSUNG_LP | NAND_NO_READRDY | NAND_NO_AUTOINCR)
# define LP_OPTIONS16 (LP_OPTIONS | NAND_BUSWIDTH_16)
/* 512 Megabit */
[0xa2] = { 64, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xf2] = { 64, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xb2] = { 64, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
[0xc2] = { 64, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
/* 1 Gigabit */
[0xa1] = { 128, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xf1] = { 128, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xb1] = { 128, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
[0xc1] = { 128, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
/* 2 Gigabit */
[0xaa] = { 256, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xda] = { 256, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xba] = { 256, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
[0xca] = { 256, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
/* 4 Gigabit */
[0xac] = { 512, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xdc] = { 512, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xbc] = { 512, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
[0xcc] = { 512, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
/* 8 Gigabit */
[0xa3] = { 1024, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xd3] = { 1024, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xb3] = { 1024, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
[0xc3] = { 1024, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
/* 16 Gigabit */
[0xa5] = { 2048, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xd5] = { 2048, 8, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS },
[0xb5] = { 2048, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
[0xc5] = { 2048, 16, 0, 0, LP_OPTIONS16 },
};
static void nand_reset(struct nand_flash_s *s)
{
s->cmd = NAND_CMD_READ0;
s->addr = 0;
s->addrlen = 0;
s->iolen = 0;
s->offset = 0;
s->status &= NAND_IOSTATUS_UNPROTCT;
}
static void nand_command(struct nand_flash_s *s)
{
switch (s->cmd) {
case NAND_CMD_READ0:
s->iolen = 0;
break;
case NAND_CMD_READID:
s->io[0] = s->manf_id;
s->io[1] = s->chip_id;
s->io[2] = 'Q'; /* Don't-care byte (often 0xa5) */
if (nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].options & NAND_SAMSUNG_LP)
s->io[3] = 0x15; /* Page Size, Block Size, Spare Size.. */
else
s->io[3] = 0xc0; /* Multi-plane */
s->ioaddr = s->io;
s->iolen = 4;
break;
case NAND_CMD_RANDOMREAD2:
case NAND_CMD_NOSERIALREAD2:
if (!(nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].options & NAND_SAMSUNG_LP))
break;
s->blk_load(s, s->addr, s->addr & ((1 << s->addr_shift) - 1));
break;
case NAND_CMD_RESET:
nand_reset(s);
break;
case NAND_CMD_PAGEPROGRAM1:
s->ioaddr = s->io;
s->iolen = 0;
break;
case NAND_CMD_PAGEPROGRAM2:
if (s->wp) {
s->blk_write(s);
}
break;
case NAND_CMD_BLOCKERASE1:
break;
case NAND_CMD_BLOCKERASE2:
if (nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].options & NAND_SAMSUNG_LP)
s->addr <<= 16;
else
s->addr <<= 8;
if (s->wp) {
s->blk_erase(s);
}
break;
case NAND_CMD_READSTATUS:
s->io[0] = s->status;
s->ioaddr = s->io;
s->iolen = 1;
break;
default:
printf("%s: Unknown NAND command 0x%02x\n", __FUNCTION__, s->cmd);
}
}
/*
* Chip inputs are CLE, ALE, CE, WP, GND and eight I/O pins. Chip
* outputs are R/B and eight I/O pins.
*
* CE, WP and R/B are active low.
*/
void nand_setpins(struct nand_flash_s *s,
int cle, int ale, int ce, int wp, int gnd)
{
s->cle = cle;
s->ale = ale;
s->ce = ce;
s->wp = wp;
s->gnd = gnd;
if (wp)
s->status |= NAND_IOSTATUS_UNPROTCT;
else
s->status &= ~NAND_IOSTATUS_UNPROTCT;
}
void nand_getpins(struct nand_flash_s *s, int *rb)
{
*rb = 1;
}
void nand_setio(struct nand_flash_s *s, uint8_t value)
{
if (!s->ce && s->cle) {
if (nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].options & NAND_SAMSUNG_LP) {
if (s->cmd == NAND_CMD_READ0 && value == NAND_CMD_LPREAD2)
return;
if (value == NAND_CMD_RANDOMREAD1) {
s->addr &= ~((1 << s->addr_shift) - 1);
s->addrlen = 0;
return;
}
}
if (value == NAND_CMD_READ0)
s->offset = 0;
else if (value == NAND_CMD_READ1) {
s->offset = 0x100;
value = NAND_CMD_READ0;
}
else if (value == NAND_CMD_READ2) {
s->offset = 1 << s->page_shift;
value = NAND_CMD_READ0;
}
s->cmd = value;
if (s->cmd == NAND_CMD_READSTATUS ||
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_PAGEPROGRAM2 ||
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_BLOCKERASE1 ||
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_BLOCKERASE2 ||
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_NOSERIALREAD2 ||
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_RANDOMREAD2 ||
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_RESET)
nand_command(s);
if (s->cmd != NAND_CMD_RANDOMREAD2) {
s->addrlen = 0;
s->addr = 0;
}
}
if (s->ale) {
s->addr |= value << (s->addrlen * 8);
s->addrlen ++;
if (s->addrlen == 1 && s->cmd == NAND_CMD_READID)
nand_command(s);
if (!(nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].options & NAND_SAMSUNG_LP) &&
s->addrlen == 3 && (
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_READ0 ||
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_PAGEPROGRAM1))
nand_command(s);
if ((nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].options & NAND_SAMSUNG_LP) &&
s->addrlen == 4 && (
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_READ0 ||
s->cmd == NAND_CMD_PAGEPROGRAM1))
nand_command(s);
}
if (!s->cle && !s->ale && s->cmd == NAND_CMD_PAGEPROGRAM1) {
if (s->iolen < (1 << s->page_shift) + (1 << s->oob_shift))
s->io[s->iolen ++] = value;
} else if (!s->cle && !s->ale && s->cmd == NAND_CMD_COPYBACKPRG1) {
if ((s->addr & ((1 << s->addr_shift) - 1)) <
(1 << s->page_shift) + (1 << s->oob_shift)) {
s->io[s->iolen + (s->addr & ((1 << s->addr_shift) - 1))] = value;
s->addr ++;
}
}
}
uint8_t nand_getio(struct nand_flash_s *s)
{
int offset;
/* Allow sequential reading */
if (!s->iolen && s->cmd == NAND_CMD_READ0) {
offset = (s->addr & ((1 << s->addr_shift) - 1)) + s->offset;
s->offset = 0;
s->blk_load(s, s->addr, offset);
if (s->gnd)
s->iolen = (1 << s->page_shift) - offset;
else
s->iolen = (1 << s->page_shift) + (1 << s->oob_shift) - offset;
}
if (s->ce || s->iolen <= 0)
return 0;
s->iolen --;
return *(s->ioaddr ++);
}
struct nand_flash_s *nand_init(int manf_id, int chip_id)
{
int pagesize;
struct nand_flash_s *s;
if (nand_flash_ids[chip_id].size == 0) {
cpu_abort(cpu_single_env, "%s: Unsupported NAND chip ID.\n",
__FUNCTION__);
}
s = (struct nand_flash_s *) qemu_mallocz(sizeof(struct nand_flash_s));
s->bdrv = mtd_bdrv;
s->manf_id = manf_id;
s->chip_id = chip_id;
s->size = nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].size << 20;
if (nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].options & NAND_SAMSUNG_LP) {
s->page_shift = 11;
s->erase_shift = 6;
} else {
s->page_shift = nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].page_shift;
s->erase_shift = nand_flash_ids[s->chip_id].erase_shift;
}
switch (1 << s->page_shift) {
case 256:
nand_init_256(s);
break;
case 512:
nand_init_512(s);
break;
case 2048:
nand_init_2048(s);
break;
default:
cpu_abort(cpu_single_env, "%s: Unsupported NAND block size.\n",
__FUNCTION__);
}
pagesize = 1 << s->oob_shift;
s->mem_oob = 1;
if (s->bdrv && bdrv_getlength(s->bdrv) >=
(s->pages << s->page_shift) + (s->pages << s->oob_shift)) {
pagesize = 0;
s->mem_oob = 0;
}
if (!s->bdrv)
pagesize += 1 << s->page_shift;
if (pagesize)
s->storage = (uint8_t *) memset(qemu_malloc(s->pages * pagesize),
0xff, s->pages * pagesize);
return s;
}
void nand_done(struct nand_flash_s *s)
{
if (s->bdrv) {
bdrv_close(s->bdrv);
bdrv_delete(s->bdrv);
}
if (!s->bdrv || s->mem_oob)
free(s->storage);
free(s);
}
#else
/* Program a single page */
static void glue(nand_blk_write_, PAGE_SIZE)(struct nand_flash_s *s)
{
uint32_t off, page, sector, soff;
uint8_t iobuf[(PAGE_SECTORS + 2) * 0x200];
if (PAGE(s->addr) >= s->pages)
return;
if (!s->bdrv) {
memcpy(s->storage + PAGE_START(s->addr) + (s->addr & PAGE_MASK) +
s->offset, s->io, s->iolen);
} else if (s->mem_oob) {
sector = SECTOR(s->addr);
off = (s->addr & PAGE_MASK) + s->offset;
soff = SECTOR_OFFSET(s->addr);
if (bdrv_read(s->bdrv, sector, iobuf, PAGE_SECTORS) == -1) {
printf("%s: read error in sector %i\n", __FUNCTION__, sector);
return;
}
memcpy(iobuf + (soff | off), s->io, MIN(s->iolen, PAGE_SIZE - off));
if (off + s->iolen > PAGE_SIZE) {
page = PAGE(s->addr);
memcpy(s->storage + (page << OOB_SHIFT), s->io + PAGE_SIZE - off,
MIN(OOB_SIZE, off + s->iolen - PAGE_SIZE));
}
if (bdrv_write(s->bdrv, sector, iobuf, PAGE_SECTORS) == -1)
printf("%s: write error in sector %i\n", __FUNCTION__, sector);
} else {
off = PAGE_START(s->addr) + (s->addr & PAGE_MASK) + s->offset;
sector = off >> 9;
soff = off & 0x1ff;
if (bdrv_read(s->bdrv, sector, iobuf, PAGE_SECTORS + 2) == -1) {
printf("%s: read error in sector %i\n", __FUNCTION__, sector);
return;
}
memcpy(iobuf + soff, s->io, s->iolen);
if (bdrv_write(s->bdrv, sector, iobuf, PAGE_SECTORS + 2) == -1)
printf("%s: write error in sector %i\n", __FUNCTION__, sector);
}
s->offset = 0;
}
/* Erase a single block */
static void glue(nand_blk_erase_, PAGE_SIZE)(struct nand_flash_s *s)
{
uint32_t i, page, addr;
uint8_t iobuf[0x200] = { [0 ... 0x1ff] = 0xff, };
addr = s->addr & ~((1 << (ADDR_SHIFT + s->erase_shift)) - 1);
if (PAGE(addr) >= s->pages)
return;
if (!s->bdrv) {
memset(s->storage + PAGE_START(addr),
0xff, (PAGE_SIZE + OOB_SIZE) << s->erase_shift);
} else if (s->mem_oob) {
memset(s->storage + (PAGE(addr) << OOB_SHIFT),
0xff, OOB_SIZE << s->erase_shift);
i = SECTOR(addr);
page = SECTOR(addr + (ADDR_SHIFT + s->erase_shift));
for (; i < page; i ++)
if (bdrv_write(s->bdrv, i, iobuf, 1) == -1)
printf("%s: write error in sector %i\n", __FUNCTION__, i);
} else {
addr = PAGE_START(addr);
page = addr >> 9;
if (bdrv_read(s->bdrv, page, iobuf, 1) == -1)
printf("%s: read error in sector %i\n", __FUNCTION__, page);
memset(iobuf + (addr & 0x1ff), 0xff, (~addr & 0x1ff) + 1);
if (bdrv_write(s->bdrv, page, iobuf, 1) == -1)