Commit 0806e3f6 authored by bellard's avatar bellard
Browse files

updated


git-svn-id: svn://svn.savannah.nongnu.org/qemu/trunk@401 c046a42c-6fe2-441c-8c8c-71466251a162
parent 39b4da28
......@@ -6,13 +6,18 @@ version 0.4.4:
- popw (%esp) fix
- mov to/from segment data width fix
- added real mode support
- added Bochs BIOS and LGPL'ed VGA BIOS loader in vl
- added Bochs BIOS and LGPL'ed VGA BIOS loader in qemu
- m68k host port (Richard Zidlicky)
- partial soft MMU support for memory mapped I/Os
- multi-target build
- fixed: no error code in hardware interrupts
- fixed: pop ss, mov ss, x and sti disable hardware irqs for the next insn
- correct single stepping thru string operations
- preliminary SPARC target support (Thomas M. Ogrisegg)
- tun-fd option (Rusty Russell)
- automatic IDE geometry detection
- renamed 'vl' to qemu and user qemu to qemu-{cpu}.
- added man page
version 0.4.3:
......
\input texinfo @c -*- texinfo -*-
@iftex
@settitle QEMU CPU Emulator Reference Documentation
@titlepage
@sp 7
@center @titlefont{QEMU CPU Emulator Reference Documentation}
@sp 3
@end titlepage
@end iftex
@chapter Introduction
......@@ -16,14 +18,18 @@ achieves a reasonnable speed while being easy to port on new host
CPUs.
QEMU has two operating modes:
@itemize
@item User mode emulation. In this mode, QEMU can launch Linux processes
@itemize @minus
@item
User mode emulation. In this mode, QEMU can launch Linux processes
compiled for one CPU on another CPU. Linux system calls are converted
because of endianness and 32/64 bit mismatches. The Wine Windows API
emulator (@url{http://www.winehq.org}) and the DOSEMU DOS emulator
(@url{www.dosemu.org}) are the main targets for QEMU.
@item Full system emulation. In this mode, QEMU emulates a full
@item
Full system emulation. In this mode, QEMU emulates a full
system, including a processor and various peripherials. Currently, it
is only used to launch an x86 Linux kernel on an x86 Linux system. It
enables easier testing and debugging of system code. It can also be
......@@ -128,6 +134,10 @@ generic dynamic code generation architecture of QEMU.
@end itemize
@section SPARC emulation
The SPARC emulation is currently in development.
@chapter QEMU User space emulator invocation
@section Quick Start
......@@ -144,7 +154,7 @@ itself and all the target (x86) dynamic libraries used by it.
libraries:
@example
qemu -L / /bin/ls
qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
@end example
@code{-L /} tells that the x86 dynamic linker must be searched with a
......@@ -153,7 +163,7 @@ qemu -L / /bin/ls
@item Since QEMU is also a linux process, you can launch qemu with qemu:
@example
qemu -L / qemu -L / /bin/ls
qemu-i386 -L / qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
@end example
@item On non x86 CPUs, you need first to download at least an x86 glibc
......@@ -167,7 +177,7 @@ unset LD_LIBRARY_PATH
Then you can launch the precompiled @file{ls} x86 executable:
@example
qemu /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
@end example
You can look at @file{/usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/qemu-conf.sh} so that
QEMU is automatically launched by the Linux kernel when you try to
......@@ -176,7 +186,7 @@ Linux kernel.
@item The x86 version of QEMU is also included. You can try weird things such as:
@example
qemu /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
@end example
@end itemize
......@@ -190,7 +200,7 @@ distribution (see previous section). In order to verify it, you must be
able to do:
@example
qemu /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
@end example
@item Download the binary x86 Wine install
......@@ -203,7 +213,7 @@ qemu /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
@item Then you can try the example @file{putty.exe}:
@example
qemu /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/bin/wine /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/c/Program\ Files/putty.exe
qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/bin/wine /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/c/Program\ Files/putty.exe
@end example
@end itemize
......@@ -211,7 +221,7 @@ qemu /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/bin/wine /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/c/Program\ Fil
@section Command line options
@example
usage: qemu [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] program [arguments...]
usage: qemu-i386 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] program [arguments...]
@end example
@table @option
......@@ -234,20 +244,81 @@ Act as if the host page size was 'pagesize' bytes
@chapter QEMU System emulator invocation
@section Introduction
@c man begin DESCRIPTION
The QEMU System emulator simulates a complete PC. It can either boot
directly a Linux kernel (without any BIOS or boot loader) or boot like a
real PC with the included BIOS.
In order to meet specific user needs, two versions of QEMU are
available:
@enumerate
@item
@code{qemu} uses the host Memory Management Unit (MMU) to simulate
the x86 MMU. It is @emph{fast} but has limitations because the whole 4 GB
address space cannot be used and some memory mapped peripherials
cannot be emulated accurately yet. Therefore, a specific Linux kernel
must be used (@xref{linux_compile}).
@item
@code{qemu-softmmu} uses a software MMU. It is about @emph{two times
slower} but gives a more accurate emulation. (XXX: Linux cannot be ran
unpatched yet).
@end enumerate
QEMU emulates the following PC peripherials:
@itemize @minus
@item
VGA (hardware level, including all non standard modes)
@item
PS/2 mouse and keyboard
@item
IDE disk interface (port=0x1f0, irq=14)
@item
NE2000 network adapter (port=0x300, irq=9)
@item
Serial port (port=0x3f8, irq=4)
@item
PIC (interrupt controler)
@item
PIT (timers)
@item
CMOS memory
@end itemize
@c man end
@section Quick Start
This section explains how to launch a Linux kernel inside QEMU.
Download the linux image (@file{linux.img}) and type:
@example
qemu-softmmu linux.img
@end example
Linux should boot and give you a prompt.
@section Direct Linux Boot and Network emulation
This section explains how to launch a Linux kernel inside QEMU without
having to make a full bootable image. It is very useful for fast Linux
kernel testing. The QEMU network configuration is also explained.
@enumerate
@item
Download the archive @file{vl-test-xxx.tar.gz} containing a Linux
kernel and a disk image. The archive also contains a precompiled
version of @file{vl}, the QEMU System emulator.
Download the archive @file{linux-test-xxx.tar.gz} containing a Linux
kernel and a disk image.
@item Optional: If you want network support (for example to launch X11 examples), you
must copy the script @file{vl-ifup} in @file{/etc} and configure
must copy the script @file{qemu-ifup} in @file{/etc} and configure
properly @code{sudo} so that the command @code{ifconfig} contained in
@file{vl-ifup} can be executed as root. You must verify that your host
@file{qemu-ifup} can be executed as root. You must verify that your host
kernel supports the TUN/TAP network interfaces: the device
@file{/dev/net/tun} must be present.
......@@ -256,10 +327,10 @@ the host kernel and the emulated kernel. The emulated kernel is seen
from the host kernel at IP address 172.20.0.2 and the host kernel is
seen from the emulated kernel at IP address 172.20.0.1.
@item Launch @code{vl.sh}. You should have the following output:
@item Launch @code{qemu.sh}. You should have the following output:
@example
> ./vl.sh
> ./qemu.sh
connected to host network interface: tun0
Uncompressing Linux... Ok, booting the kernel.
Linux version 2.4.20 (fabrice@localhost.localdomain) (gcc version 2.96 20000731 (Red Hat Linux 7.3 2.96-110)) #22 lun jui 7 13:37:41 CEST 2003
......@@ -349,11 +420,11 @@ a real Virtual Linux system !
NOTES:
@enumerate
@item
A 2.5.74 kernel is also included in the vl-test archive. Just
replace the bzImage in vl.sh to try it.
A 2.5.74 kernel is also included in the archive. Just
replace the bzImage in qemu.sh to try it.
@item
vl creates a temporary file in @var{$VLTMPDIR} (@file{/tmp} is the
vl creates a temporary file in @var{$QEMU_TMPDIR} (@file{/tmp} is the
default) containing all the simulated PC memory. If possible, try to use
a temporary directory using the tmpfs filesystem to avoid too many
unnecessary disk accesses.
......@@ -379,16 +450,19 @@ Lawton for the plex86 Project (@url{www.plex86.org}).
@section Invocation
@example
usage: vl [options] bzImage [kernel parameters...]
@c man begin SYNOPSIS
usage: qemu [options] [disk_image]
@c man end
@end example
@file{bzImage} is a Linux kernel image.
@c man begin OPTIONS
@var{disk_image} is a raw hard image image for IDE hard disk 0.
General options:
@table @option
@item -hda file
@item -hdb file
Use 'file' as hard disk 0 or 1 image (@xref{disk_images}).
Use @var{file} as hard disk 0 or 1 image (@xref{disk_images}).
@item -snapshot
......@@ -405,13 +479,41 @@ launched to configure the host network interface (usually tun0)
corresponding to the virtual NE2000 card.
@item -initrd file
Use 'file' as initial ram disk.
Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
@item -tun-fd fd
Assumes @var{fd} talks to tap/tun and use it. Read
@url{http://bellard.org/qemu/tetrinet.html} to have an example of its
use.
@item -nographic
Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple
command line application. The emulated serial port is redirected on
the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU to debug a Linux kernel
with a serial console.
@end table
Linux boot specific (does not require a full PC boot with a BIOS):
@table @option
@item -kernel bzImage
Use @var{bzImage} as kernel image.
@item -append cmdline
Use @var{cmdline} as kernel command line
@item -initrd file
Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
@end table
Debug options:
@table @option
@item -s
Wait gdb connection to port 1234.
Wait gdb connection to port 1234 (@xref{gdb_usage}).
@item -p port
Change gdb connection port.
@item -d
......@@ -432,7 +534,25 @@ Send break (magic sysrq)
@item C-a C-a
Send C-a
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@setfilename qemu
@settitle QEMU System Emulator
@c man begin SEEALSO
The HTML documentation of QEMU for more precise information and Linux
user mode emulator invocation.
@c man end
@c man begin AUTHOR
Fabrice Bellard
@c man end
@end ignore
@end ignore
@node disk_images
@section Disk Images
......@@ -466,14 +586,14 @@ same disk image template for many users.
To create a COW disk images, use the command:
@example
vlmkcow -f myrawimage.bin mycowimage.cow
qemu-mkcow -f myrawimage.bin mycowimage.cow
@end example
@file{myrawimage.bin} is a raw image you want to use as original disk
image. It will never be written to.
@file{mycowimage.cow} is the COW disk image which is created by
@code{vlmkcow}. You can use it directly with the @option{-hdx}
@code{qemu-mkcow}. You can use it directly with the @option{-hdx}
options. You must not modify the original raw disk image if you use
COW images, as COW images only store the modified sectors from the raw
disk image. QEMU stores the original raw disk image name and its
......@@ -489,7 +609,7 @@ image. It is useful to have a big initial virtual disk image without
using much disk space. Use:
@example
vlmkcow mycowimage.cow 1024
qemu-mkcow mycowimage.cow 1024
@end example
to create a 1 gigabyte empty COW disk image.
......@@ -504,6 +624,7 @@ Since holes are used, the displayed size of the COW disk image is not
the real one. To know it, use the @code{ls -ls} command.
@end enumerate
@node linux_compile
@section Linux Kernel Compilation
You should be able to use any kernel with QEMU provided you make the
......@@ -573,31 +694,11 @@ As you would do to make a real kernel. Then you can use with QEMU
exactly the same kernel as you would boot on your PC (in
@file{arch/i386/boot/bzImage}).
@section PC Emulation
QEMU emulates the following PC peripherials:
@itemize
@item
PIC (interrupt controler)
@item
PIT (timers)
@item
CMOS memory
@item
Dumb VGA (to print the @code{Uncompressing Linux} message)
@item
Serial port (port=0x3f8, irq=4)
@item
NE2000 network adapter (port=0x300, irq=9)
@item
IDE disk interface (port=0x1f0, irq=14)
@end itemize
@node gdb_usage
@section GDB usage
QEMU has a primitive support to work with gdb, so that you can do
'Ctrl-C' while the kernel is running and inspect its state.
'Ctrl-C' while the virtual machine is running and inspect its state.
In order to use gdb, launch vl with the '-s' option. It will wait for a
gdb connection:
......@@ -624,6 +725,18 @@ Then you can use gdb normally. For example, type 'c' to launch the kernel:
WARNING: breakpoints and single stepping are not yet supported.
Here are some useful tips in order to use gdb on system code:
@enumerate
@item
Use @code{info reg} to display all the CPU registers.
@item
Use @code{x/10i $eip} to display the code at the PC position.
@item
Use @code{set architecture i8086} to dump 16 bit code. Then use
@code{x/10i $cs*16+*eip} to dump the code at the PC position.
@end enumerate
@chapter QEMU Internals
@section QEMU compared to other emulators
......
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