vl.c 101 KB
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/*
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 * QEMU PC System Emulator
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 * 
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 * Copyright (c) 2003 Fabrice Bellard
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 * 
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 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
 * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
 * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
 * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 *
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
 * THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
 * THE SOFTWARE.
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 */
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
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#include <stdarg.h>
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#include <string.h>
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#include <ctype.h>
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#include <getopt.h>
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <malloc.h>
#include <termios.h>
#include <sys/poll.h>
#include <errno.h>
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#include <sys/wait.h>

#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <linux/if.h>
#include <linux/if_tun.h>
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#include "cpu.h"
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#include "disas.h"
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#include "thunk.h"

#include "vl.h"
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#define DEFAULT_NETWORK_SCRIPT "/etc/qemu-ifup"
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#define BIOS_FILENAME "bios.bin"
#define VGABIOS_FILENAME "vgabios.bin"
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//#define DEBUG_UNUSED_IOPORT
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//#define DEBUG_IRQ_LATENCY
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/* output Bochs bios info messages */
//#define DEBUG_BIOS

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//#define DEBUG_CMOS

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/* debug PIC */
//#define DEBUG_PIC

/* debug NE2000 card */
//#define DEBUG_NE2000

/* debug PC keyboard */
//#define DEBUG_KBD

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/* debug PC keyboard : only mouse */
//#define DEBUG_MOUSE

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//#define DEBUG_SERIAL

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#define PHYS_RAM_BASE     0xac000000
#define PHYS_RAM_MAX_SIZE (256 * 1024 * 1024)

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#if defined (TARGET_I386)
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#define KERNEL_LOAD_ADDR   0x00100000
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#elif defined (TARGET_PPC)
//#define USE_OPEN_FIRMWARE
#if defined (USE_OPEN_FIRMWARE)
#define KERNEL_LOAD_ADDR    0x01000000
#define KERNEL_STACK_ADDR   0x01200000
#else
#define KERNEL_LOAD_ADDR    0x00000000
#define KERNEL_STACK_ADDR   0x00400000
#endif
#endif
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#define INITRD_LOAD_ADDR   0x00400000
#define KERNEL_PARAMS_ADDR 0x00090000

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#define GUI_REFRESH_INTERVAL 30 

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/* from plex86 (BSD license) */
struct  __attribute__ ((packed)) linux_params {
  // For 0x00..0x3f, see 'struct screen_info' in linux/include/linux/tty.h.
  // I just padded out the VESA parts, rather than define them.

  /* 0x000 */ uint8_t   orig_x;
  /* 0x001 */ uint8_t   orig_y;
  /* 0x002 */ uint16_t  ext_mem_k;
  /* 0x004 */ uint16_t  orig_video_page;
  /* 0x006 */ uint8_t   orig_video_mode;
  /* 0x007 */ uint8_t   orig_video_cols;
  /* 0x008 */ uint16_t  unused1;
  /* 0x00a */ uint16_t  orig_video_ega_bx;
  /* 0x00c */ uint16_t  unused2;
  /* 0x00e */ uint8_t   orig_video_lines;
  /* 0x00f */ uint8_t   orig_video_isVGA;
  /* 0x010 */ uint16_t  orig_video_points;
  /* 0x012 */ uint8_t   pad0[0x20 - 0x12]; // VESA info.
  /* 0x020 */ uint16_t  cl_magic;  // Commandline magic number (0xA33F)
  /* 0x022 */ uint16_t  cl_offset; // Commandline offset.  Address of commandline
                                 // is calculated as 0x90000 + cl_offset, bu
                                 // only if cl_magic == 0xA33F.
  /* 0x024 */ uint8_t   pad1[0x40 - 0x24]; // VESA info.

  /* 0x040 */ uint8_t   apm_bios_info[20]; // struct apm_bios_info
  /* 0x054 */ uint8_t   pad2[0x80 - 0x54];

  // Following 2 from 'struct drive_info_struct' in drivers/block/cciss.h.
  // Might be truncated?
  /* 0x080 */ uint8_t   hd0_info[16]; // hd0-disk-parameter from intvector 0x41
  /* 0x090 */ uint8_t   hd1_info[16]; // hd1-disk-parameter from intvector 0x46

  // System description table truncated to 16 bytes
  // From 'struct sys_desc_table_struct' in linux/arch/i386/kernel/setup.c.
  /* 0x0a0 */ uint16_t  sys_description_len;
  /* 0x0a2 */ uint8_t   sys_description_table[14];
                        // [0] machine id
                        // [1] machine submodel id
                        // [2] BIOS revision
                        // [3] bit1: MCA bus

  /* 0x0b0 */ uint8_t   pad3[0x1e0 - 0xb0];
  /* 0x1e0 */ uint32_t  alt_mem_k;
  /* 0x1e4 */ uint8_t   pad4[4];
  /* 0x1e8 */ uint8_t   e820map_entries;
  /* 0x1e9 */ uint8_t   eddbuf_entries; // EDD_NR
  /* 0x1ea */ uint8_t   pad5[0x1f1 - 0x1ea];
  /* 0x1f1 */ uint8_t   setup_sects; // size of setup.S, number of sectors
  /* 0x1f2 */ uint16_t  mount_root_rdonly; // MOUNT_ROOT_RDONLY (if !=0)
  /* 0x1f4 */ uint16_t  sys_size; // size of compressed kernel-part in the
                                // (b)zImage-file (in 16 byte units, rounded up)
  /* 0x1f6 */ uint16_t  swap_dev; // (unused AFAIK)
  /* 0x1f8 */ uint16_t  ramdisk_flags;
  /* 0x1fa */ uint16_t  vga_mode; // (old one)
  /* 0x1fc */ uint16_t  orig_root_dev; // (high=Major, low=minor)
  /* 0x1fe */ uint8_t   pad6[1];
  /* 0x1ff */ uint8_t   aux_device_info;
  /* 0x200 */ uint16_t  jump_setup; // Jump to start of setup code,
                                  // aka "reserved" field.
  /* 0x202 */ uint8_t   setup_signature[4]; // Signature for SETUP-header, ="HdrS"
  /* 0x206 */ uint16_t  header_format_version; // Version number of header format;
  /* 0x208 */ uint8_t   setup_S_temp0[8]; // Used by setup.S for communication with
                                        // boot loaders, look there.
  /* 0x210 */ uint8_t   loader_type;
                        // 0 for old one.
                        // else 0xTV:
                        //   T=0: LILO
                        //   T=1: Loadlin
                        //   T=2: bootsect-loader
                        //   T=3: SYSLINUX
                        //   T=4: ETHERBOOT
                        //   V=version
  /* 0x211 */ uint8_t   loadflags;
                        // bit0 = 1: kernel is loaded high (bzImage)
                        // bit7 = 1: Heap and pointer (see below) set by boot
                        //   loader.
  /* 0x212 */ uint16_t  setup_S_temp1;
  /* 0x214 */ uint32_t  kernel_start;
  /* 0x218 */ uint32_t  initrd_start;
  /* 0x21c */ uint32_t  initrd_size;
  /* 0x220 */ uint8_t   setup_S_temp2[4];
  /* 0x224 */ uint16_t  setup_S_heap_end_pointer;
  /* 0x226 */ uint8_t   pad7[0x2d0 - 0x226];

  /* 0x2d0 : Int 15, ax=e820 memory map. */
  // (linux/include/asm-i386/e820.h, 'struct e820entry')
#define E820MAX  32
#define E820_RAM  1
#define E820_RESERVED 2
#define E820_ACPI 3 /* usable as RAM once ACPI tables have been read */
#define E820_NVS  4
  struct {
    uint64_t addr;
    uint64_t size;
    uint32_t type;
    } e820map[E820MAX];

  /* 0x550 */ uint8_t   pad8[0x600 - 0x550];

  // BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Services.
  // (From linux/include/asm-i386/edd.h, 'struct edd_info')
  // Each 'struct edd_info is 78 bytes, times a max of 6 structs in array.
  /* 0x600 */ uint8_t   eddbuf[0x7d4 - 0x600];

  /* 0x7d4 */ uint8_t   pad9[0x800 - 0x7d4];
  /* 0x800 */ uint8_t   commandline[0x800];

  /* 0x1000 */
  uint64_t gdt_table[256];
  uint64_t idt_table[48];
};

#define KERNEL_CS     0x10
#define KERNEL_DS     0x18

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/* XXX: use a two level table to limit memory usage */
#define MAX_IOPORTS 65536
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static const char *bios_dir = CONFIG_QEMU_SHAREDIR;
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char phys_ram_file[1024];
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CPUState *global_env;
CPUState *cpu_single_env;
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IOPortReadFunc *ioport_read_table[3][MAX_IOPORTS];
IOPortWriteFunc *ioport_write_table[3][MAX_IOPORTS];
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BlockDriverState *bs_table[MAX_DISKS], *fd_table[MAX_FD];
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int vga_ram_size;
static DisplayState display_state;
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int nographic;
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int term_inited;
int64_t ticks_per_sec;
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int boot_device = 'c';
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/***********************************************************/
/* x86 io ports */

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uint32_t default_ioport_readb(CPUState *env, uint32_t address)
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{
#ifdef DEBUG_UNUSED_IOPORT
    fprintf(stderr, "inb: port=0x%04x\n", address);
#endif
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    return 0xff;
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}

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void default_ioport_writeb(CPUState *env, uint32_t address, uint32_t data)
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{
#ifdef DEBUG_UNUSED_IOPORT
    fprintf(stderr, "outb: port=0x%04x data=0x%02x\n", address, data);
#endif
}

/* default is to make two byte accesses */
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uint32_t default_ioport_readw(CPUState *env, uint32_t address)
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{
    uint32_t data;
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    data = ioport_read_table[0][address & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, address);
    data |= ioport_read_table[0][(address + 1) & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, address + 1) << 8;
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    return data;
}

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void default_ioport_writew(CPUState *env, uint32_t address, uint32_t data)
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{
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    ioport_write_table[0][address & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, address, data & 0xff);
    ioport_write_table[0][(address + 1) & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, address + 1, (data >> 8) & 0xff);
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}

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uint32_t default_ioport_readl(CPUState *env, uint32_t address)
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{
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#ifdef DEBUG_UNUSED_IOPORT
    fprintf(stderr, "inl: port=0x%04x\n", address);
#endif
    return 0xffffffff;
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}

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void default_ioport_writel(CPUState *env, uint32_t address, uint32_t data)
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{
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#ifdef DEBUG_UNUSED_IOPORT
    fprintf(stderr, "outl: port=0x%04x data=0x%02x\n", address, data);
#endif
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}

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void init_ioports(void)
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{
    int i;

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    for(i = 0; i < MAX_IOPORTS; i++) {
        ioport_read_table[0][i] = default_ioport_readb;
        ioport_write_table[0][i] = default_ioport_writeb;
        ioport_read_table[1][i] = default_ioport_readw;
        ioport_write_table[1][i] = default_ioport_writew;
        ioport_read_table[2][i] = default_ioport_readl;
        ioport_write_table[2][i] = default_ioport_writel;
    }
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}

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/* size is the word size in byte */
int register_ioport_read(int start, int length, IOPortReadFunc *func, int size)
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{
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    int i, bsize;
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    if (size == 1)
        bsize = 0;
    else if (size == 2)
        bsize = 1;
    else if (size == 4)
        bsize = 2;
    else
        return -1;
    for(i = start; i < start + length; i += size)
        ioport_read_table[bsize][i] = func;
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    return 0;
}

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/* size is the word size in byte */
int register_ioport_write(int start, int length, IOPortWriteFunc *func, int size)
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{
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    int i, bsize;
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    if (size == 1)
        bsize = 0;
    else if (size == 2)
        bsize = 1;
    else if (size == 4)
        bsize = 2;
    else
        return -1;
    for(i = start; i < start + length; i += size)
        ioport_write_table[bsize][i] = func;
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    return 0;
}

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void pstrcpy(char *buf, int buf_size, const char *str)
{
    int c;
    char *q = buf;

    if (buf_size <= 0)
        return;

    for(;;) {
        c = *str++;
        if (c == 0 || q >= buf + buf_size - 1)
            break;
        *q++ = c;
    }
    *q = '\0';
}

/* strcat and truncate. */
char *pstrcat(char *buf, int buf_size, const char *s)
{
    int len;
    len = strlen(buf);
    if (len < buf_size) 
        pstrcpy(buf + len, buf_size - len, s);
    return buf;
}

int load_kernel(const char *filename, uint8_t *addr)
{
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    int fd, size;
#if defined (TARGET_I386)
    int setup_sects;
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    uint8_t bootsect[512];
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#endif
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    printf("Load kernel at %p (0x%08x)\n", addr,
           (uint32_t)addr - (uint32_t)phys_ram_base);
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    fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
    if (fd < 0)
        return -1;
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#if defined (TARGET_I386)
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    if (read(fd, bootsect, 512) != 512)
        goto fail;
    setup_sects = bootsect[0x1F1];
    if (!setup_sects)
        setup_sects = 4;
    /* skip 16 bit setup code */
    lseek(fd, (setup_sects + 1) * 512, SEEK_SET);
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#endif
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    size = read(fd, addr, 16 * 1024 * 1024);
    if (size < 0)
        goto fail;
    close(fd);
    return size;
 fail:
    close(fd);
    return -1;
}

/* return the size or -1 if error */
int load_image(const char *filename, uint8_t *addr)
{
    int fd, size;
    fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
    if (fd < 0)
        return -1;
    size = lseek(fd, 0, SEEK_END);
    lseek(fd, 0, SEEK_SET);
    if (read(fd, addr, size) != size) {
        close(fd);
        return -1;
    }
    close(fd);
    return size;
}

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void cpu_outb(CPUState *env, int addr, int val)
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{
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    ioport_write_table[0][addr & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, addr, val);
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}

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void cpu_outw(CPUState *env, int addr, int val)
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{
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    ioport_write_table[1][addr & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, addr, val);
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}

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void cpu_outl(CPUState *env, int addr, int val)
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{
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    ioport_write_table[2][addr & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, addr, val);
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}

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int cpu_inb(CPUState *env, int addr)
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{
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    return ioport_read_table[0][addr & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, addr);
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}

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int cpu_inw(CPUState *env, int addr)
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{
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    return ioport_read_table[1][addr & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, addr);
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}

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int cpu_inl(CPUState *env, int addr)
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{
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    return ioport_read_table[2][addr & (MAX_IOPORTS - 1)](env, addr);
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}

/***********************************************************/
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void ioport80_write(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr, uint32_t data)
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{
}

void hw_error(const char *fmt, ...)
{
    va_list ap;

    va_start(ap, fmt);
    fprintf(stderr, "qemu: hardware error: ");
    vfprintf(stderr, fmt, ap);
    fprintf(stderr, "\n");
#ifdef TARGET_I386
    cpu_x86_dump_state(global_env, stderr, X86_DUMP_FPU | X86_DUMP_CCOP);
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#else
    cpu_dump_state(global_env, stderr, 0);
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#endif
    va_end(ap);
    abort();
}

/***********************************************************/
/* cmos emulation */

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#if defined (TARGET_I386)
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#define RTC_SECONDS             0
#define RTC_SECONDS_ALARM       1
#define RTC_MINUTES             2
#define RTC_MINUTES_ALARM       3
#define RTC_HOURS               4
#define RTC_HOURS_ALARM         5
#define RTC_ALARM_DONT_CARE    0xC0

#define RTC_DAY_OF_WEEK         6
#define RTC_DAY_OF_MONTH        7
#define RTC_MONTH               8
#define RTC_YEAR                9

#define RTC_REG_A               10
#define RTC_REG_B               11
#define RTC_REG_C               12
#define RTC_REG_D               13

/* PC cmos mappings */
#define REG_EQUIPMENT_BYTE          0x14
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#define REG_IBM_CENTURY_BYTE        0x32
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uint8_t cmos_data[128];
uint8_t cmos_index;

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void cmos_ioport_write(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr, uint32_t data)
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{
    if (addr == 0x70) {
        cmos_index = data & 0x7f;
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    } else {
#ifdef DEBUG_CMOS
        printf("cmos: write index=0x%02x val=0x%02x\n",
               cmos_index, data);
#endif        
        switch(addr) {
        case RTC_SECONDS_ALARM:
        case RTC_MINUTES_ALARM:
        case RTC_HOURS_ALARM:
            /* XXX: not supported */
            cmos_data[cmos_index] = data;
            break;
        case RTC_SECONDS:
        case RTC_MINUTES:
        case RTC_HOURS:
        case RTC_DAY_OF_WEEK:
        case RTC_DAY_OF_MONTH:
        case RTC_MONTH:
        case RTC_YEAR:
            cmos_data[cmos_index] = data;
            break;
        case RTC_REG_A:
        case RTC_REG_B:
            cmos_data[cmos_index] = data;
            break;
        case RTC_REG_C:
        case RTC_REG_D:
            /* cannot write to them */
            break;
        default:
            cmos_data[cmos_index] = data;
            break;
        }
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    }
}

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uint32_t cmos_ioport_read(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr)
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{
    int ret;

    if (addr == 0x70) {
        return 0xff;
    } else {
        ret = cmos_data[cmos_index];
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        switch(cmos_index) {
        case RTC_REG_A:
            /* toggle update-in-progress bit for Linux (same hack as
               plex86) */
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            cmos_data[RTC_REG_A] ^= 0x80; 
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            break;
        case RTC_REG_C:
            pic_set_irq(8, 0);
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            cmos_data[RTC_REG_C] = 0x00; 
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            break;
        }
#ifdef DEBUG_CMOS
        printf("cmos: read index=0x%02x val=0x%02x\n",
               cmos_index, ret);
#endif
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        return ret;
    }
}


static inline int to_bcd(int a)
{
    return ((a / 10) << 4) | (a % 10);
}

void cmos_init(void)
{
    struct tm *tm;
    time_t ti;
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    int val;
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    ti = time(NULL);
    tm = gmtime(&ti);
    cmos_data[RTC_SECONDS] = to_bcd(tm->tm_sec);
    cmos_data[RTC_MINUTES] = to_bcd(tm->tm_min);
    cmos_data[RTC_HOURS] = to_bcd(tm->tm_hour);
    cmos_data[RTC_DAY_OF_WEEK] = to_bcd(tm->tm_wday);
    cmos_data[RTC_DAY_OF_MONTH] = to_bcd(tm->tm_mday);
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    cmos_data[RTC_MONTH] = to_bcd(tm->tm_mon + 1);
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    cmos_data[RTC_YEAR] = to_bcd(tm->tm_year % 100);

    cmos_data[RTC_REG_A] = 0x26;
    cmos_data[RTC_REG_B] = 0x02;
    cmos_data[RTC_REG_C] = 0x00;
    cmos_data[RTC_REG_D] = 0x80;

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    /* various important CMOS locations needed by PC/Bochs bios */
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    cmos_data[REG_IBM_CENTURY_BYTE] = to_bcd((tm->tm_year / 100) + 19);
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    cmos_data[REG_EQUIPMENT_BYTE] = 0x02; /* FPU is there */
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    cmos_data[REG_EQUIPMENT_BYTE] |= 0x04; /* PS/2 mouse installed */
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    /* memory size */
    val = (phys_ram_size / 1024) - 1024;
    if (val > 65535)
        val = 65535;
    cmos_data[0x17] = val;
    cmos_data[0x18] = val >> 8;
    cmos_data[0x30] = val;
    cmos_data[0x31] = val >> 8;

    val = (phys_ram_size / 65536) - ((16 * 1024 * 1024) / 65536);
    if (val > 65535)
        val = 65535;
    cmos_data[0x34] = val;
    cmos_data[0x35] = val >> 8;
    
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    switch(boot_device) {
    case 'a':
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    case 'b':
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        cmos_data[0x3d] = 0x01; /* floppy boot */
        break;
    default:
    case 'c':
        cmos_data[0x3d] = 0x02; /* hard drive boot */
        break;
    case 'd':
        cmos_data[0x3d] = 0x03; /* CD-ROM boot */
        break;
    }

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    register_ioport_write(0x70, 2, cmos_ioport_write, 1);
    register_ioport_read(0x70, 2, cmos_ioport_read, 1);
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}

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void cmos_register_fd (uint8_t fd0, uint8_t fd1)
{
    int nb = 0;

    cmos_data[0x10] = 0;
    switch (fd0) {
    case 0:
        /* 1.44 Mb 3"5 drive */
        cmos_data[0x10] |= 0x40;
        break;
    case 1:
        /* 2.88 Mb 3"5 drive */
        cmos_data[0x10] |= 0x60;
        break;
    case 2:
        /* 1.2 Mb 5"5 drive */
        cmos_data[0x10] |= 0x20;
        break;
    }
    switch (fd1) {
    case 0:
        /* 1.44 Mb 3"5 drive */
        cmos_data[0x10] |= 0x04;
        break;
    case 1:
        /* 2.88 Mb 3"5 drive */
        cmos_data[0x10] |= 0x06;
        break;
    case 2:
        /* 1.2 Mb 5"5 drive */
        cmos_data[0x10] |= 0x02;
        break;
    }
    if (fd0 < 3)
        nb++;
    if (fd1 < 3)
        nb++;
    switch (nb) {
    case 0:
        break;
    case 1:
        cmos_data[REG_EQUIPMENT_BYTE] |= 0x01; /* 1 drive, ready for boot */
        break;
    case 2:
        cmos_data[REG_EQUIPMENT_BYTE] |= 0x41; /* 2 drives, ready for boot */
        break;
    }
}
#endif /* TARGET_I386 */

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/***********************************************************/
/* 8259 pic emulation */

typedef struct PicState {
    uint8_t last_irr; /* edge detection */
    uint8_t irr; /* interrupt request register */
    uint8_t imr; /* interrupt mask register */
    uint8_t isr; /* interrupt service register */
    uint8_t priority_add; /* used to compute irq priority */
    uint8_t irq_base;
    uint8_t read_reg_select;
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    uint8_t poll;
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    uint8_t special_mask;
    uint8_t init_state;
    uint8_t auto_eoi;
    uint8_t rotate_on_autoeoi;
    uint8_t init4; /* true if 4 byte init */
} PicState;

/* 0 is master pic, 1 is slave pic */
PicState pics[2];
int pic_irq_requested;

/* set irq level. If an edge is detected, then the IRR is set to 1 */
static inline void pic_set_irq1(PicState *s, int irq, int level)
{
    int mask;
    mask = 1 << irq;
    if (level) {
        if ((s->last_irr & mask) == 0)
            s->irr |= mask;
        s->last_irr |= mask;
    } else {
        s->last_irr &= ~mask;
    }
}

static inline int get_priority(PicState *s, int mask)
{
    int priority;
    if (mask == 0)
        return -1;
    priority = 7;
    while ((mask & (1 << ((priority + s->priority_add) & 7))) == 0)
        priority--;
    return priority;
}

/* return the pic wanted interrupt. return -1 if none */
static int pic_get_irq(PicState *s)
{
    int mask, cur_priority, priority;

    mask = s->irr & ~s->imr;
    priority = get_priority(s, mask);
    if (priority < 0)
        return -1;
    /* compute current priority */
    cur_priority = get_priority(s, s->isr);
    if (priority > cur_priority) {
        /* higher priority found: an irq should be generated */
        return priority;
    } else {
        return -1;
    }
}

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/* raise irq to CPU if necessary. must be called every time the active
   irq may change */
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void pic_update_irq(void)
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{
    int irq2, irq;

    /* first look at slave pic */
    irq2 = pic_get_irq(&pics[1]);
    if (irq2 >= 0) {
        /* if irq request by slave pic, signal master PIC */
        pic_set_irq1(&pics[0], 2, 1);
        pic_set_irq1(&pics[0], 2, 0);
    }
    /* look at requested irq */
    irq = pic_get_irq(&pics[0]);
    if (irq >= 0) {
        if (irq == 2) {
            /* from slave pic */
            pic_irq_requested = 8 + irq2;
        } else {
            /* from master pic */
            pic_irq_requested = irq;
        }
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        cpu_interrupt(global_env, CPU_INTERRUPT_HARD);
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    }
}

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#ifdef DEBUG_IRQ_LATENCY
int64_t irq_time[16];
int64_t cpu_get_ticks(void);
#endif
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#if defined(DEBUG_PIC)
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int irq_level[16];
#endif
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void pic_set_irq(int irq, int level)
{
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#if defined(DEBUG_PIC)
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    if (level != irq_level[irq]) {
        printf("pic_set_irq: irq=%d level=%d\n", irq, level);
        irq_level[irq] = level;
    }
#endif
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#ifdef DEBUG_IRQ_LATENCY
    if (level) {
        irq_time[irq] = cpu_get_ticks();
    }
#endif
    pic_set_irq1(&pics[irq >> 3], irq & 7, level);
    pic_update_irq();
}

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int cpu_x86_get_pic_interrupt(CPUState *env)
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{
    int irq, irq2, intno;

    /* signal the pic that the irq was acked by the CPU */
    irq = pic_irq_requested;
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#ifdef DEBUG_IRQ_LATENCY
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    printf("IRQ%d latency=%0.3fus\n", 
           irq, 
           (double)(cpu_get_ticks() - irq_time[irq]) * 1000000.0 / ticks_per_sec);
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#endif
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#if defined(DEBUG_PIC)
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    printf("pic_interrupt: irq=%d\n", irq);
#endif
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    if (irq >= 8) {
        irq2 = irq & 7;
        pics[1].isr |= (1 << irq2);
        pics[1].irr &= ~(1 << irq2);
        irq = 2;
        intno = pics[1].irq_base + irq2;
    } else {
        intno = pics[0].irq_base + irq;
    }
    pics[0].isr |= (1 << irq);
    pics[0].irr &= ~(1 << irq);
    return intno;
}

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void pic_ioport_write(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr, uint32_t val)
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{
    PicState *s;
    int priority;

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#ifdef DEBUG_PIC
    printf("pic_write: addr=0x%02x val=0x%02x\n", addr, val);
#endif
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    s = &pics[addr >> 7];
    addr &= 1;
    if (addr == 0) {
        if (val & 0x10) {
            /* init */
            memset(s, 0, sizeof(PicState));
            s->init_state = 1;
            s->init4 = val & 1;
            if (val & 0x02)
                hw_error("single mode not supported");
            if (val & 0x08)
                hw_error("level sensitive irq not supported");
        } else if (val & 0x08) {
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            if (val & 0x04) {
                s->poll = 1;
            } else {
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            if (val & 0x02)
                s->read_reg_select = val & 1;
            if (val & 0x40)
                s->special_mask = (val >> 5) & 1;
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            }
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        } else {
            switch(val) {
            case 0x00:
            case 0x80:
                s->rotate_on_autoeoi = val >> 7;
                break;
            case 0x20: /* end of interrupt */
            case 0xa0:
                priority = get_priority(s, s->isr);
                if (priority >= 0) {
                    s->isr &= ~(1 << ((priority + s->priority_add) & 7));
                }
                if (val == 0xa0)
                    s->priority_add = (s->priority_add + 1) & 7;
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                pic_update_irq();
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                break;
            case 0x60 ... 0x67:
                priority = val & 7;
                s->isr &= ~(1 << priority);
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                pic_update_irq();
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                break;
            case 0xc0 ... 0xc7:
                s->priority_add = (val + 1) & 7;
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                pic_update_irq();
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                break;
            case 0xe0 ... 0xe7:
                priority = val & 7;
                s->isr &= ~(1 << priority);
                s->priority_add = (priority + 1) & 7;
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                pic_update_irq();
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                break;
            }
        }
    } else {
        switch(s->init_state) {
        case 0:
            /* normal mode */
            s->imr = val;
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            pic_update_irq();
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            break;
        case 1:
            s->irq_base = val & 0xf8;
            s->init_state = 2;
            break;
        case 2:
            if (s->init4) {
                s->init_state = 3;
            } else {
                s->init_state = 0;
            }
            break;
        case 3:
            s->auto_eoi = (val >> 1) & 1;
            s->init_state = 0;
            break;
        }
    }
}

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static uint32_t pic_poll_read (PicState *s, uint32_t addr1)
{
    int ret;

    ret = pic_get_irq(s);
    if (ret >= 0) {
        if (addr1 >> 7) {
            pics[0].isr &= ~(1 << 2);
            pics[0].irr &= ~(1 << 2);
        }
        s->irr &= ~(1 << ret);
        s->isr &= ~(1 << ret);
        if (addr1 >> 7 || ret != 2)
            pic_update_irq();
    } else {
        ret = 0x07;
        pic_update_irq();
    }

    return ret;
}

uint32_t pic_ioport_read(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr1)
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{
    PicState *s;
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    unsigned int addr;
    int ret;

    addr = addr1;
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    s = &pics[addr >> 7];
    addr &= 1;
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    if (s->poll == 1) {
        ret = pic_poll_read(s, addr1);
        s->poll = 0;
    } else {
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    if (addr == 0) {
        if (s->read_reg_select)
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            ret = s->isr;
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        else
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            ret = s->irr;
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    } else {
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        ret = s->imr;
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    }
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    }
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#ifdef DEBUG_PIC
    printf("pic_read: addr=0x%02x val=0x%02x\n", addr1, ret);
#endif
    return ret;
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}

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/* memory mapped interrupt status */
uint32_t pic_intack_read(CPUState *env)
{
    int ret;

    ret = pic_poll_read(&pics[0], 0x00);
    if (ret == 2)
        ret = pic_poll_read(&pics[1], 0x80) + 8;
    /* Prepare for ISR read */
    pics[0].read_reg_select = 1;
    
    return ret;
}

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void pic_init(void)
{
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#if defined (TARGET_I386) || defined (TARGET_PPC)
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    register_ioport_write(0x20, 2, pic_ioport_write, 1);
    register_ioport_read(0x20, 2, pic_ioport_read, 1);
    register_ioport_write(0xa0, 2, pic_ioport_write, 1);
    register_ioport_read(0xa0, 2, pic_ioport_read, 1);
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#endif
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}

/***********************************************************/
/* 8253 PIT emulation */

#define PIT_FREQ 1193182

#define RW_STATE_LSB 0
#define RW_STATE_MSB 1
#define RW_STATE_WORD0 2
#define RW_STATE_WORD1 3
#define RW_STATE_LATCHED_WORD0 4
#define RW_STATE_LATCHED_WORD1 5

typedef struct PITChannelState {
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    int count; /* can be 65536 */
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    uint16_t latched_count;
    uint8_t rw_state;
    uint8_t mode;
    uint8_t bcd; /* not supported */
    uint8_t gate; /* timer start */
    int64_t count_load_time;
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    int64_t count_last_edge_check_time;
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} PITChannelState;

PITChannelState pit_channels[3];
int speaker_data_on;
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int dummy_refresh_clock;
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int pit_min_timer_count = 0;
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#if defined(__powerpc__)

static inline uint32_t get_tbl(void) 
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{
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    uint32_t tbl;
    asm volatile("mftb %0" : "=r" (tbl));
    return tbl;
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}

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static inline uint32_t get_tbu(void) 
{
	uint32_t tbl;
	asm volatile("mftbu %0" : "=r" (tbl));
	return tbl;
}

int64_t cpu_get_real_ticks(void)
{
    uint32_t l, h, h1;
    /* NOTE: we test if wrapping has occurred */
    do {
        h = get_tbu();
        l = get_tbl();
        h1 = get_tbu();
    } while (h != h1);
    return ((int64_t)h << 32) | l;
}

#elif defined(__i386__)

int64_t cpu_get_real_ticks(void)
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{
    int64_t val;
    asm("rdtsc" : "=A" (val));
    return val;
}

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#else
#error unsupported CPU
#endif

static int64_t cpu_ticks_offset;
static int64_t cpu_ticks_last;

int64_t cpu_get_ticks(void)
{
    return cpu_get_real_ticks() + cpu_ticks_offset;
}

/* enable cpu_get_ticks() */
void cpu_enable_ticks(void)
{
    cpu_ticks_offset = cpu_ticks_last - cpu_get_real_ticks();
}

/* disable cpu_get_ticks() : the clock is stopped. You must not call
   cpu_get_ticks() after that.  */
void cpu_disable_ticks(void)
{
    cpu_ticks_last = cpu_get_ticks();
}

int64_t get_clock(void)
{
    struct timeval tv;
    gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
    return tv.tv_sec * 1000000LL + tv.tv_usec;
}

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void cpu_calibrate_ticks(void)
{
    int64_t usec, ticks;

    usec = get_clock();
    ticks = cpu_get_ticks();
    usleep(50 * 1000);
    usec = get_clock() - usec;
    ticks = cpu_get_ticks() - ticks;
    ticks_per_sec = (ticks * 1000000LL + (usec >> 1)) / usec;
}

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/* compute with 96 bit intermediate result: (a*b)/c */
static uint64_t muldiv64(uint64_t a, uint32_t b, uint32_t c)
{
    union {
        uint64_t ll;
        struct {
#ifdef WORDS_BIGENDIAN
            uint32_t high, low;
#else
            uint32_t low, high;
#endif            
        } l;
    } u, res;
    uint64_t rl, rh;

    u.ll = a;
    rl = (uint64_t)u.l.low * (uint64_t)b;
    rh = (uint64_t)u.l.high * (uint64_t)b;
    rh += (rl >> 32);
    res.l.high = rh / c;
    res.l.low = (((rh % c) << 32) + (rl & 0xffffffff)) / c;
    return res.ll;
}

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static int pit_get_count(PITChannelState *s)
{
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    int counter;

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    switch(s->mode) {
    case 0:
    case 1:
    case 4:
    case 5:
        counter = (s->count - d) & 0xffff;
        break;
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    case 3:
        /* XXX: may be incorrect for odd counts */
        counter = s->count - ((2 * d) % s->count);
        break;
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    default:
        counter = s->count - (d % s->count);
        break;
    }
    return counter;
}

/* get pit output bit */
static int pit_get_out(PITChannelState *s)
{
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    int out;

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    d = muldiv64(cpu_get_ticks() - s->count_load_time, PIT_FREQ, ticks_per_sec);
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    switch(s->mode) {
    default:
    case 0:
        out = (d >= s->count);
        break;
    case 1:
        out = (d < s->count);
        break;
    case 2:
        if ((d % s->count) == 0 && d != 0)
            out = 1;
        else
            out = 0;
        break;
    case 3:
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        out = (d % s->count) < ((s->count + 1) >> 1);
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        break;
    case 4:
    case 5:
        out = (d == s->count);
        break;
    }
    return out;
}

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/* get the number of 0 to 1 transitions we had since we call this
   function */
/* XXX: maybe better to use ticks precision to avoid getting edges
   twice if checks are done at very small intervals */
static int pit_get_out_edges(PITChannelState *s)
{
    uint64_t d1, d2;
    int64_t ticks;
    int ret, v;

    ticks = cpu_get_ticks();
    d1 = muldiv64(s->count_last_edge_check_time - s->count_load_time, 
                 PIT_FREQ, ticks_per_sec);
    d2 = muldiv64(ticks - s->count_load_time, 
                  PIT_FREQ, ticks_per_sec);
    s->count_last_edge_check_time = ticks;
    switch(s->mode) {
    default:
    case 0:
        if (d1 < s->count && d2 >= s->count)
            ret = 1;
        else
            ret = 0;
        break;
    case 1:
        ret = 0;
        break;
    case 2:
        d1 /= s->count;
        d2 /= s->count;
        ret = d2 - d1;
        break;
    case 3:
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        v = s->count - ((s->count + 1) >> 1);
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        d1 = (d1 + v) / s->count;
        d2 = (d2 + v) / s->count;
        ret = d2 - d1;
        break;
    case 4:
    case 5:
        if (d1 < s->count && d2 >= s->count)
            ret = 1;
        else
            ret = 0;
        break;
    }
    return ret;
}

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/* val must be 0 or 1 */
static inline void pit_set_gate(PITChannelState *s, int val)
{
    switch(s->mode) {
    default:
    case 0:
    case 4:
        /* XXX: just disable/enable counting */
        break;
    case 1:
    case 5:
        if (s->gate < val) {
            /* restart counting on rising edge */
            s->count_load_time = cpu_get_ticks();
            s->count_last_edge_check_time = s->count_load_time;
        }
        break;
    case 2:
    case 3:
        if (s->gate < val) {
            /* restart counting on rising edge */
            s->count_load_time = cpu_get_ticks();
            s->count_last_edge_check_time = s->count_load_time;
        }
        /* XXX: disable/enable counting */
        break;
    }
    s->gate = val;
}

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static inline void pit_load_count(PITChannelState *s, int val)
{
    if (val == 0)
        val = 0x10000;
    s->count_load_time = cpu_get_ticks();
    s->count_last_edge_check_time = s->count_load_time;
    s->count = val;
    if (s == &pit_channels[0] && val <= pit_min_timer_count) {
        fprintf(stderr, 
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                "\nWARNING: qemu: on your system, accurate timer emulation is impossible if its frequency is more than %d Hz. If using a 2.5.xx Linux kernel, you must patch asm/param.h to change HZ from 1000 to 100.\n\n", 
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                PIT_FREQ / pit_min_timer_count);
    }
}

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void pit_ioport_write(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr, uint32_t val)
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{
    int channel, access;
    PITChannelState *s;
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    addr &= 3;
    if (addr == 3) {
        channel = val >> 6;
        if (channel == 3)
            return;
        s = &pit_channels[channel];
        access = (val >> 4) & 3;
        switch(access) {
        case 0:
            s->latched_count = pit_get_count(s);
            s->rw_state = RW_STATE_LATCHED_WORD0;
            break;
        default:
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            s->mode = (val >> 1) & 7;
            s->bcd = val & 1;
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            s->rw_state = access - 1 +  RW_STATE_LSB;
            break;
        }
    } else {
        s = &pit_channels[addr];
        switch(s->rw_state) {
        case RW_STATE_LSB:
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            pit_load_count(s, val);
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            break;
        case RW_STATE_MSB:
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            pit_load_count(s, val << 8);
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            break;
        case RW_STATE_WORD0:
        case RW_STATE_WORD1:
            if (s->rw_state & 1) {
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                pit_load_count(s, (s->latched_count & 0xff) | (val << 8));
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            } else {
                s->latched_count = val;
            }
            s->rw_state ^= 1;
            break;
        }
    }
}

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uint32_t pit_ioport_read(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr)
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{
    int ret, count;
    PITChannelState *s;
    
    addr &= 3;
    s = &pit_channels[addr];
    switch(s->rw_state) {
    case RW_STATE_LSB:
    case RW_STATE_MSB:
    case RW_STATE_WORD0:
    case RW_STATE_WORD1:
        count = pit_get_count(s);
        if (s->rw_state & 1)
            ret = (count >> 8) & 0xff;
        else
            ret = count & 0xff;
        if (s->rw_state & 2)
            s->rw_state ^= 1;
        break;
    default:
    case RW_STATE_LATCHED_WORD0:
    case RW_STATE_LATCHED_WORD1:
        if (s->rw_state & 1)
            ret = s->latched_count >> 8;
        else
            ret = s->latched_count & 0xff;
        s->rw_state ^= 1;
        break;
    }
    return ret;
}

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#if defined (TARGET_I386)
void speaker_ioport_write(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr, uint32_t val)
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{
    speaker_data_on = (val >> 1) & 1;
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    pit_set_gate(&pit_channels[2], val & 1);
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}

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uint32_t speaker_ioport_read(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr)
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{
    int out;
    out = pit_get_out(&pit_channels[2]);
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    dummy_refresh_clock ^= 1;
    return (speaker_data_on << 1) | pit_channels[2].gate | (out << 5) |
      (dummy_refresh_clock << 4);
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}
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#endif
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void pit_init(void)
{
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    PITChannelState *s;
    int i;

    cpu_calibrate_ticks();

    for(i = 0;i < 3; i++) {
        s = &pit_channels[i];
        s->mode = 3;
        s->gate = (i != 2);
        pit_load_count(s, 0);
    }

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    register_ioport_write(0x40, 4, pit_ioport_write, 1);
    register_ioport_read(0x40, 3, pit_ioport_read, 1);
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#if defined (TARGET_I386)
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    register_ioport_read(0x61, 1, speaker_ioport_read, 1);
    register_ioport_write(0x61, 1, speaker_ioport_write, 1);
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#endif
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}

/***********************************************************/
/* serial port emulation */

#define UART_IRQ        4

#define UART_LCR_DLAB	0x80	/* Divisor latch access bit */

#define UART_IER_MSI	0x08	/* Enable Modem status interrupt */
#define UART_IER_RLSI	0x04	/* Enable receiver line status interrupt */
#define UART_IER_THRI	0x02	/* Enable Transmitter holding register int. */
#define UART_IER_RDI	0x01	/* Enable receiver data interrupt */

#define UART_IIR_NO_INT	0x01	/* No interrupts pending */
#define UART_IIR_ID	0x06	/* Mask for the interrupt ID */

#define UART_IIR_MSI	0x00	/* Modem status interrupt */
#define UART_IIR_THRI	0x02	/* Transmitter holding register empty */
#define UART_IIR_RDI	0x04	/* Receiver data interrupt */
#define UART_IIR_RLSI	0x06	/* Receiver line status interrupt */

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/*
 * These are the definitions for the Modem Control Register
 */
#define UART_MCR_LOOP	0x10	/* Enable loopback test mode */
#define UART_MCR_OUT2	0x08	/* Out2 complement */
#define UART_MCR_OUT1	0x04	/* Out1 complement */
#define UART_MCR_RTS	0x02	/* RTS complement */
#define UART_MCR_DTR	0x01	/* DTR complement */

/*
 * These are the definitions for the Modem Status Register
 */
#define UART_MSR_DCD	0x80	/* Data Carrier Detect */
#define UART_MSR_RI	0x40	/* Ring Indicator */
#define UART_MSR_DSR	0x20	/* Data Set Ready */
#define UART_MSR_CTS	0x10	/* Clear to Send */
#define UART_MSR_DDCD	0x08	/* Delta DCD */
#define UART_MSR_TERI	0x04	/* Trailing edge ring indicator */
#define UART_MSR_DDSR	0x02	/* Delta DSR */
#define UART_MSR_DCTS	0x01	/* Delta CTS */
#define UART_MSR_ANY_DELTA 0x0F	/* Any of the delta bits! */

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#define UART_LSR_TEMT	0x40	/* Transmitter empty */
#define UART_LSR_THRE	0x20	/* Transmit-hold-register empty */
#define UART_LSR_BI	0x10	/* Break interrupt indicator */
#define UART_LSR_FE	0x08	/* Frame error indicator */
#define UART_LSR_PE	0x04	/* Parity error indicator */
#define UART_LSR_OE	0x02	/* Overrun error indicator */
#define UART_LSR_DR	0x01	/* Receiver data ready */

typedef struct SerialState {
    uint8_t divider;
    uint8_t rbr; /* receive register */
    uint8_t ier;
    uint8_t iir; /* read only */
    uint8_t lcr;
    uint8_t mcr;
    uint8_t lsr; /* read only */
    uint8_t msr;
    uint8_t scr;
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    /* NOTE: this hidden state is necessary for tx irq generation as
       it can be reset while reading iir */
    int thr_ipending;
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} SerialState;

SerialState serial_ports[1];

void serial_update_irq(void)
{
    SerialState *s = &serial_ports[0];

    if ((s->lsr & UART_LSR_DR) && (s->ier & UART_IER_RDI)) {
        s->iir = UART_IIR_RDI;
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    } else if (s->thr_ipending && (s->ier & UART_IER_THRI)) {
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        s->iir = UART_IIR_THRI;
    } else {
        s->iir = UART_IIR_NO_INT;
    }
    if (s->iir != UART_IIR_NO_INT) {
        pic_set_irq(UART_IRQ, 1);
    } else {
        pic_set_irq(UART_IRQ, 0);
    }
}

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void serial_ioport_write(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr, uint32_t val)
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{
    SerialState *s = &serial_ports[0];
    unsigned char ch;
    int ret;
    
    addr &= 7;
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#ifdef DEBUG_SERIAL
    printf("serial: write addr=0x%02x val=0x%02x\n", addr, val);
#endif
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    switch(addr) {
    default:
    case 0:
        if (s->lcr & UART_LCR_DLAB) {
            s->divider = (s->divider & 0xff00) | val;
        } else {
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            s->thr_ipending = 0;
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            s->lsr &= ~UART_LSR_THRE;
            serial_update_irq();

            ch = val;
            do {
                ret = write(1, &ch, 1);
            } while (ret != 1);
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            s->thr_ipending = 1;
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            s->lsr |= UART_LSR_THRE;
            s->lsr |= UART_LSR_TEMT;
            serial_update_irq();
        }
        break;
    case 1:
        if (s->lcr & UART_LCR_DLAB) {
            s->divider = (s->divider & 0x00ff) | (val << 8);
        } else {
            s->ier = val;
            serial_update_irq();
        }
        break;
    case 2:
        break;
    case 3:
        s->lcr = val;
        break;
    case 4:
        s->mcr = val;
        break;
    case 5:
        break;
    case 6:
        s->msr = val;
        break;
    case 7:
        s->scr = val;
        break;
    }
}

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uint32_t serial_ioport_read(CPUState *env, uint32_t addr)
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{
    SerialState *s = &serial_ports[0];
    uint32_t ret;

    addr &= 7;
    switch(addr) {
    default:
    case 0:
        if (s->lcr & UART_LCR_DLAB) {
            ret = s->divider & 0xff; 
        } else {
            ret = s->rbr;
            s->lsr &= ~(UART_LSR_DR | UART_LSR_BI);
            serial_update_irq();
        }
        break;
    case 1:
        if (s->lcr & UART_LCR_DLAB) {
            ret = (s->divider >> 8) & 0xff;
        } else {
            ret = s->ier;
        }
        break;
    case 2:
        ret = s->iir;
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        /* reset THR pending bit */
        if ((ret & 0x7) == UART_IIR_THRI)
            s->thr_ipending = 0;
        serial_update_irq();
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        break;
    case 3:
        ret = s->lcr;
        break;
    case 4:
        ret = s->mcr;
        break;
    case 5:
        ret = s->lsr;
        break;
    case 6:
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        if (s->mcr & UART_MCR_LOOP) {
            /* in loopback, the modem output pins are connected to the
               inputs */
            ret = (s->mcr & 0x0c) << 4;
            ret |= (s->mcr & 0x02) << 3;
            ret |= (s->mcr & 0x01) << 5;
        } else {
            ret = s->msr;
        }
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        break;
    case 7:
        ret = s->scr;
        break;
    }
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#ifdef DEBUG_SERIAL
    printf("serial: read addr=0x%02x val=0x%02x\n", addr, ret);
#endif
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    return ret;
}

#define TERM_ESCAPE 0x01 /* ctrl-a is used for escape */
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static int term_got_escape, term_command;
static unsigned char term_cmd_buf[128];

typedef struct term_cmd_t {
    const unsigned char *name;
    void (*handler)(unsigned char *params);
} term_cmd_t;

static void do_change_cdrom (unsigned char *params);
static void do_change_fd0 (unsigned char *params);
static void do_change_fd1 (unsigned char *params);

static term_cmd_t term_cmds[] = {
    { "changecd", &do_change_cdrom, },
    { "changefd0", &do_change_fd0, },
    { "changefd1", &do_change_fd1, },
    { NULL, NULL, },
};
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void term_print_help(void)
{
    printf("\n"
           "C-a h    print this help\n"
           "C-a x    exit emulatior\n"
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