helper.c 66.1 KB
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/*
 *  i386 helpers
 * 
 *  Copyright (c) 2003 Fabrice Bellard
 *
 * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 * version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
 */
#include "exec.h"

const uint8_t parity_table[256] = {
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P, 0, CC_P, CC_P, 0,
    0, CC_P, CC_P, 0, CC_P, 0, 0, CC_P,
};

/* modulo 17 table */
const uint8_t rclw_table[32] = {
    0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
    8, 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,
   16, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
    7, 8, 9,10,11,12,13,14,
};

/* modulo 9 table */
const uint8_t rclb_table[32] = {
    0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
    8, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
    7, 8, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
    6, 7, 8, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
};

const CPU86_LDouble f15rk[7] =
{
    0.00000000000000000000L,
    1.00000000000000000000L,
    3.14159265358979323851L,  /*pi*/
    0.30102999566398119523L,  /*lg2*/
    0.69314718055994530943L,  /*ln2*/
    1.44269504088896340739L,  /*l2e*/
    3.32192809488736234781L,  /*l2t*/
};
    
/* thread support */

spinlock_t global_cpu_lock = SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED;

void cpu_lock(void)
{
    spin_lock(&global_cpu_lock);
}

void cpu_unlock(void)
{
    spin_unlock(&global_cpu_lock);
}

void cpu_loop_exit(void)
{
    /* NOTE: the register at this point must be saved by hand because
       longjmp restore them */
#ifdef reg_EAX
    env->regs[R_EAX] = EAX;
#endif
#ifdef reg_ECX
    env->regs[R_ECX] = ECX;
#endif
#ifdef reg_EDX
    env->regs[R_EDX] = EDX;
#endif
#ifdef reg_EBX
    env->regs[R_EBX] = EBX;
#endif
#ifdef reg_ESP
    env->regs[R_ESP] = ESP;
#endif
#ifdef reg_EBP
    env->regs[R_EBP] = EBP;
#endif
#ifdef reg_ESI
    env->regs[R_ESI] = ESI;
#endif
#ifdef reg_EDI
    env->regs[R_EDI] = EDI;
#endif
    longjmp(env->jmp_env, 1);
}

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/* return non zero if error */
static inline int load_segment(uint32_t *e1_ptr, uint32_t *e2_ptr,
                               int selector)
{
    SegmentCache *dt;
    int index;
    uint8_t *ptr;

    if (selector & 0x4)
        dt = &env->ldt;
    else
        dt = &env->gdt;
    index = selector & ~7;
    if ((index + 7) > dt->limit)
        return -1;
    ptr = dt->base + index;
    *e1_ptr = ldl_kernel(ptr);
    *e2_ptr = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);
    return 0;
}
                                     
static inline unsigned int get_seg_limit(uint32_t e1, uint32_t e2)
{
    unsigned int limit;
    limit = (e1 & 0xffff) | (e2 & 0x000f0000);
    if (e2 & DESC_G_MASK)
        limit = (limit << 12) | 0xfff;
    return limit;
}

static inline uint8_t *get_seg_base(uint32_t e1, uint32_t e2)
{
    return (uint8_t *)((e1 >> 16) | ((e2 & 0xff) << 16) | (e2 & 0xff000000));
}

static inline void load_seg_cache_raw_dt(SegmentCache *sc, uint32_t e1, uint32_t e2)
{
    sc->base = get_seg_base(e1, e2);
    sc->limit = get_seg_limit(e1, e2);
    sc->flags = e2;
}

/* init the segment cache in vm86 mode. */
static inline void load_seg_vm(int seg, int selector)
{
    selector &= 0xffff;
    cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, seg, selector, 
                           (uint8_t *)(selector << 4), 0xffff, 0);
}

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static inline void get_ss_esp_from_tss(uint32_t *ss_ptr, 
                                       uint32_t *esp_ptr, int dpl)
{
    int type, index, shift;
    
#if 0
    {
        int i;
        printf("TR: base=%p limit=%x\n", env->tr.base, env->tr.limit);
        for(i=0;i<env->tr.limit;i++) {
            printf("%02x ", env->tr.base[i]);
            if ((i & 7) == 7) printf("\n");
        }
        printf("\n");
    }
#endif

    if (!(env->tr.flags & DESC_P_MASK))
        cpu_abort(env, "invalid tss");
    type = (env->tr.flags >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf;
    if ((type & 7) != 1)
        cpu_abort(env, "invalid tss type");
    shift = type >> 3;
    index = (dpl * 4 + 2) << shift;
    if (index + (4 << shift) - 1 > env->tr.limit)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, env->tr.selector & 0xfffc);
    if (shift == 0) {
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        *esp_ptr = lduw_kernel(env->tr.base + index);
        *ss_ptr = lduw_kernel(env->tr.base + index + 2);
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    } else {
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        *esp_ptr = ldl_kernel(env->tr.base + index);
        *ss_ptr = lduw_kernel(env->tr.base + index + 4);
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    }
}

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/* XXX: merge with load_seg() */
static void tss_load_seg(int seg_reg, int selector)
{
    uint32_t e1, e2;
    int rpl, dpl, cpl;

    if ((selector & 0xfffc) != 0) {
        if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, selector) != 0)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
        if (!(e2 & DESC_S_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
        rpl = selector & 3;
        dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
        cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
        if (seg_reg == R_CS) {
            if (!(e2 & DESC_CS_MASK))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
            if (dpl != rpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
            if ((e2 & DESC_C_MASK) && dpl > rpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
                
        } else if (seg_reg == R_SS) {
            /* SS must be writable data */
            if ((e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) || !(e2 & DESC_W_MASK))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
            if (dpl != cpl || dpl != rpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
        } else {
            /* not readable code */
            if ((e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) && !(e2 & DESC_R_MASK))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
            /* if data or non conforming code, checks the rights */
            if (((e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf) < 12) {
                if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
                    raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
            }
        }
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, selector & 0xfffc);
        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, seg_reg, selector, 
                       get_seg_base(e1, e2),
                       get_seg_limit(e1, e2),
                       e2);
    } else {
        if (seg_reg == R_SS || seg_reg == R_CS) 
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, selector & 0xfffc);
    }
}

#define SWITCH_TSS_JMP  0
#define SWITCH_TSS_IRET 1
#define SWITCH_TSS_CALL 2

/* XXX: restore CPU state in registers (PowerPC case) */
static void switch_tss(int tss_selector, 
                       uint32_t e1, uint32_t e2, int source)
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{
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    int tss_limit, tss_limit_max, type, old_tss_limit_max, old_type, v1, v2, i;
    uint8_t *tss_base;
    uint32_t new_regs[8], new_segs[6];
    uint32_t new_eflags, new_eip, new_cr3, new_ldt, new_trap;
    uint32_t old_eflags, eflags_mask;
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    SegmentCache *dt;
    int index;
    uint8_t *ptr;

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    type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf;

    /* if task gate, we read the TSS segment and we load it */
    if (type == 5) {
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
        tss_selector = e1 >> 16;
        if (tss_selector & 4)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
        if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, tss_selector) != 0)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
        if (e2 & DESC_S_MASK)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
        type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf;
        if ((type & 7) != 1)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
    }

    if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, tss_selector & 0xfffc);

    if (type & 8)
        tss_limit_max = 103;
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    else
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        tss_limit_max = 43;
    tss_limit = get_seg_limit(e1, e2);
    tss_base = get_seg_base(e1, e2);
    if ((tss_selector & 4) != 0 || 
        tss_limit < tss_limit_max)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
    old_type = (env->tr.flags >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf;
    if (old_type & 8)
        old_tss_limit_max = 103;
    else
        old_tss_limit_max = 43;

    /* read all the registers from the new TSS */
    if (type & 8) {
        /* 32 bit */
        new_cr3 = ldl_kernel(tss_base + 0x1c);
        new_eip = ldl_kernel(tss_base + 0x20);
        new_eflags = ldl_kernel(tss_base + 0x24);
        for(i = 0; i < 8; i++)
            new_regs[i] = ldl_kernel(tss_base + (0x28 + i * 4));
        for(i = 0; i < 6; i++)
            new_segs[i] = lduw_kernel(tss_base + (0x48 + i * 4));
        new_ldt = lduw_kernel(tss_base + 0x60);
        new_trap = ldl_kernel(tss_base + 0x64);
    } else {
        /* 16 bit */
        new_cr3 = 0;
        new_eip = lduw_kernel(tss_base + 0x0e);
        new_eflags = lduw_kernel(tss_base + 0x10);
        for(i = 0; i < 8; i++)
            new_regs[i] = lduw_kernel(tss_base + (0x12 + i * 2)) | 0xffff0000;
        for(i = 0; i < 4; i++)
            new_segs[i] = lduw_kernel(tss_base + (0x22 + i * 4));
        new_ldt = lduw_kernel(tss_base + 0x2a);
        new_segs[R_FS] = 0;
        new_segs[R_GS] = 0;
        new_trap = 0;
    }
    
    /* NOTE: we must avoid memory exceptions during the task switch,
       so we make dummy accesses before */
    /* XXX: it can still fail in some cases, so a bigger hack is
       necessary to valid the TLB after having done the accesses */

    v1 = ldub_kernel(env->tr.base);
    v2 = ldub(env->tr.base + old_tss_limit_max);
    stb_kernel(env->tr.base, v1);
    stb_kernel(env->tr.base + old_tss_limit_max, v2);
    
    /* clear busy bit (it is restartable) */
    if (source == SWITCH_TSS_JMP || source == SWITCH_TSS_IRET) {
        uint8_t *ptr;
        uint32_t e2;
        ptr = env->gdt.base + (env->tr.selector << 3);
        e2 = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);
        e2 &= ~DESC_TSS_BUSY_MASK;
        stl_kernel(ptr + 4, e2);
    }
    old_eflags = compute_eflags();
    if (source == SWITCH_TSS_IRET)
        old_eflags &= ~NT_MASK;
    
    /* save the current state in the old TSS */
    if (type & 8) {
        /* 32 bit */
        stl_kernel(env->tr.base + 0x20, env->eip);
        stl_kernel(env->tr.base + 0x24, old_eflags);
        for(i = 0; i < 8; i++)
            stl_kernel(env->tr.base + (0x28 + i * 4), env->regs[i]);
        for(i = 0; i < 6; i++)
            stw_kernel(env->tr.base + (0x48 + i * 4), env->segs[i].selector);
    } else {
        /* 16 bit */
        stw_kernel(env->tr.base + 0x0e, new_eip);
        stw_kernel(env->tr.base + 0x10, old_eflags);
        for(i = 0; i < 8; i++)
            stw_kernel(env->tr.base + (0x12 + i * 2), env->regs[i]);
        for(i = 0; i < 4; i++)
            stw_kernel(env->tr.base + (0x22 + i * 4), env->segs[i].selector);
    }
    
    /* now if an exception occurs, it will occurs in the next task
       context */

    if (source == SWITCH_TSS_CALL) {
        stw_kernel(tss_base, env->tr.selector);
        new_eflags |= NT_MASK;
    }

    /* set busy bit */
    if (source == SWITCH_TSS_JMP || source == SWITCH_TSS_CALL) {
        uint8_t *ptr;
        uint32_t e2;
        ptr = env->gdt.base + (tss_selector << 3);
        e2 = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);
        e2 |= DESC_TSS_BUSY_MASK;
        stl_kernel(ptr + 4, e2);
    }

    /* set the new CPU state */
    /* from this point, any exception which occurs can give problems */
    env->cr[0] |= CR0_TS_MASK;
    env->tr.selector = tss_selector;
    env->tr.base = tss_base;
    env->tr.limit = tss_limit;
    env->tr.flags = e2 & ~DESC_TSS_BUSY_MASK;
    
    if ((type & 8) && (env->cr[0] & CR0_PG_MASK)) {
        env->cr[3] = new_cr3;
        cpu_x86_update_cr3(env);
    }
    
    /* load all registers without an exception, then reload them with
       possible exception */
    env->eip = new_eip;
    eflags_mask = FL_UPDATE_CPL0_MASK;
    if (!(type & 8))
        eflags_mask &= 0xffff;
    load_eflags(new_eflags, eflags_mask);
    for(i = 0; i < 8; i++)
        env->regs[i] = new_regs[i];
    if (new_eflags & VM_MASK) {
        for(i = 0; i < 6; i++) 
            load_seg_vm(i, new_segs[i]);
        /* in vm86, CPL is always 3 */
        cpu_x86_set_cpl(env, 3);
    } else {
        /* CPL is set the RPL of CS */
        cpu_x86_set_cpl(env, new_segs[R_CS] & 3);
        /* first just selectors as the rest may trigger exceptions */
        for(i = 0; i < 6; i++)
            cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, i, new_segs[i], NULL, 0, 0);
    }
    
    env->ldt.selector = new_ldt & ~4;
    env->ldt.base = NULL;
    env->ldt.limit = 0;
    env->ldt.flags = 0;

    /* load the LDT */
    if (new_ldt & 4)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, new_ldt & 0xfffc);

    dt = &env->gdt;
    index = new_ldt & ~7;
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    if ((index + 7) > dt->limit)
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        raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, new_ldt & 0xfffc);
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    ptr = dt->base + index;
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    e1 = ldl_kernel(ptr);
    e2 = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);
    if ((e2 & DESC_S_MASK) || ((e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf) != 2)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, new_ldt & 0xfffc);
    if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, new_ldt & 0xfffc);
    load_seg_cache_raw_dt(&env->ldt, e1, e2);
    
    /* load the segments */
    if (!(new_eflags & VM_MASK)) {
        tss_load_seg(R_CS, new_segs[R_CS]);
        tss_load_seg(R_SS, new_segs[R_SS]);
        tss_load_seg(R_ES, new_segs[R_ES]);
        tss_load_seg(R_DS, new_segs[R_DS]);
        tss_load_seg(R_FS, new_segs[R_FS]);
        tss_load_seg(R_GS, new_segs[R_GS]);
    }
    
    /* check that EIP is in the CS segment limits */
    if (new_eip > env->segs[R_CS].limit) {
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, 0);
    }
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}
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/* check if Port I/O is allowed in TSS */
static inline void check_io(int addr, int size)
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{
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    int io_offset, val, mask;
    
    /* TSS must be a valid 32 bit one */
    if (!(env->tr.flags & DESC_P_MASK) ||
        ((env->tr.flags >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf) != 9 ||
        env->tr.limit < 103)
        goto fail;
    io_offset = lduw_kernel(env->tr.base + 0x66);
    io_offset += (addr >> 3);
    /* Note: the check needs two bytes */
    if ((io_offset + 1) > env->tr.limit)
        goto fail;
    val = lduw_kernel(env->tr.base + io_offset);
    val >>= (addr & 7);
    mask = (1 << size) - 1;
    /* all bits must be zero to allow the I/O */
    if ((val & mask) != 0) {
    fail:
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, 0);
    }
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}

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void check_iob_T0(void)
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{
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    check_io(T0, 1);
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}

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void check_iow_T0(void)
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{
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    check_io(T0, 2);
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}

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void check_iol_T0(void)
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{
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    check_io(T0, 4);
}

void check_iob_DX(void)
{
    check_io(EDX & 0xffff, 1);
}

void check_iow_DX(void)
{
    check_io(EDX & 0xffff, 2);
}

void check_iol_DX(void)
{
    check_io(EDX & 0xffff, 4);
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}

/* protected mode interrupt */
static void do_interrupt_protected(int intno, int is_int, int error_code,
                                   unsigned int next_eip, int is_hw)
{
    SegmentCache *dt;
    uint8_t *ptr, *ssp;
    int type, dpl, selector, ss_dpl, cpl;
    int has_error_code, new_stack, shift;
    uint32_t e1, e2, offset, ss, esp, ss_e1, ss_e2, push_size;
    uint32_t old_cs, old_ss, old_esp, old_eip;

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    has_error_code = 0;
    if (!is_int && !is_hw) {
        switch(intno) {
        case 8:
        case 10:
        case 11:
        case 12:
        case 13:
        case 14:
        case 17:
            has_error_code = 1;
            break;
        }
    }

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    dt = &env->idt;
    if (intno * 8 + 7 > dt->limit)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, intno * 8 + 2);
    ptr = dt->base + intno * 8;
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    e1 = ldl_kernel(ptr);
    e2 = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);
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    /* check gate type */
    type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0x1f;
    switch(type) {
    case 5: /* task gate */
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        /* must do that check here to return the correct error code */
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, intno * 8 + 2);
        switch_tss(intno * 8, e1, e2, SWITCH_TSS_CALL);
        if (has_error_code) {
            int mask;
            /* push the error code */
            shift = (env->segs[R_CS].flags >> DESC_B_SHIFT) & 1;
            if (env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK)
                mask = 0xffffffff;
            else
                mask = 0xffff;
            esp = (env->regs[R_ESP] - (2 << shift)) & mask;
            ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base + esp;
            if (shift)
                stl_kernel(ssp, error_code);
            else
                stw_kernel(ssp, error_code);
            env->regs[R_ESP] = (esp & mask) | (env->regs[R_ESP] & ~mask);
        }
        return;
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    case 6: /* 286 interrupt gate */
    case 7: /* 286 trap gate */
    case 14: /* 386 interrupt gate */
    case 15: /* 386 trap gate */
        break;
    default:
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, intno * 8 + 2);
        break;
    }
    dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    /* check privledge if software int */
    if (is_int && dpl < cpl)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, intno * 8 + 2);
    /* check valid bit */
    if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, intno * 8 + 2);
    selector = e1 >> 16;
    offset = (e2 & 0xffff0000) | (e1 & 0x0000ffff);
    if ((selector & 0xfffc) == 0)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, 0);

    if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, selector) != 0)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
    if (!(e2 & DESC_S_MASK) || !(e2 & (DESC_CS_MASK)))
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
    dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
    if (dpl > cpl)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
    if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, selector & 0xfffc);
    if (!(e2 & DESC_C_MASK) && dpl < cpl) {
        /* to inner priviledge */
        get_ss_esp_from_tss(&ss, &esp, dpl);
        if ((ss & 0xfffc) == 0)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
        if ((ss & 3) != dpl)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
        if (load_segment(&ss_e1, &ss_e2, ss) != 0)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
        ss_dpl = (ss_e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
        if (ss_dpl != dpl)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
        if (!(ss_e2 & DESC_S_MASK) ||
            (ss_e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) ||
            !(ss_e2 & DESC_W_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
        if (!(ss_e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
        new_stack = 1;
    } else if ((e2 & DESC_C_MASK) || dpl == cpl) {
        /* to same priviledge */
        new_stack = 0;
    } else {
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        new_stack = 0; /* avoid warning */
    }

    shift = type >> 3;
    push_size = 6 + (new_stack << 2) + (has_error_code << 1);
    if (env->eflags & VM_MASK)
        push_size += 8;
    push_size <<= shift;

    /* XXX: check that enough room is available */
    if (new_stack) {
        old_esp = ESP;
        old_ss = env->segs[R_SS].selector;
        ss = (ss & ~3) | dpl;
        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_SS, ss, 
                       get_seg_base(ss_e1, ss_e2),
                       get_seg_limit(ss_e1, ss_e2),
                       ss_e2);
    } else {
        old_esp = 0;
        old_ss = 0;
        esp = ESP;
    }
    if (is_int)
        old_eip = next_eip;
    else
        old_eip = env->eip;
    old_cs = env->segs[R_CS].selector;
    selector = (selector & ~3) | dpl;
    cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_CS, selector, 
                   get_seg_base(e1, e2),
                   get_seg_limit(e1, e2),
                   e2);
    cpu_x86_set_cpl(env, dpl);
    env->eip = offset;
    ESP = esp - push_size;
    ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base + esp;
    if (shift == 1) {
        int old_eflags;
        if (env->eflags & VM_MASK) {
            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, env->segs[R_GS].selector);
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            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, env->segs[R_FS].selector);
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            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, env->segs[R_DS].selector);
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            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, env->segs[R_ES].selector);
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        }
        if (new_stack) {
            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, old_ss);
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            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, old_esp);
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        }
        ssp -= 4;
        old_eflags = compute_eflags();
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        stl_kernel(ssp, old_eflags);
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        ssp -= 4;
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        stl_kernel(ssp, old_cs);
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        ssp -= 4;
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        stl_kernel(ssp, old_eip);
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        if (has_error_code) {
            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, error_code);
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        }
    } else {
        if (new_stack) {
            ssp -= 2;
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            stw_kernel(ssp, old_ss);
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            ssp -= 2;
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            stw_kernel(ssp, old_esp);
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        }
        ssp -= 2;
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        stw_kernel(ssp, compute_eflags());
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        ssp -= 2;
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        stw_kernel(ssp, old_cs);
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        ssp -= 2;
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        stw_kernel(ssp, old_eip);
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        if (has_error_code) {
            ssp -= 2;
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            stw_kernel(ssp, error_code);
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        }
    }
    
    /* interrupt gate clear IF mask */
    if ((type & 1) == 0) {
        env->eflags &= ~IF_MASK;
    }
    env->eflags &= ~(TF_MASK | VM_MASK | RF_MASK | NT_MASK);
}

/* real mode interrupt */
static void do_interrupt_real(int intno, int is_int, int error_code,
                                 unsigned int next_eip)
{
    SegmentCache *dt;
    uint8_t *ptr, *ssp;
    int selector;
    uint32_t offset, esp;
    uint32_t old_cs, old_eip;

    /* real mode (simpler !) */
    dt = &env->idt;
    if (intno * 4 + 3 > dt->limit)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, intno * 8 + 2);
    ptr = dt->base + intno * 4;
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    offset = lduw_kernel(ptr);
    selector = lduw_kernel(ptr + 2);
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    esp = ESP;
    ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base;
    if (is_int)
        old_eip = next_eip;
    else
        old_eip = env->eip;
    old_cs = env->segs[R_CS].selector;
    esp -= 2;
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    stw_kernel(ssp + (esp & 0xffff), compute_eflags());
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    esp -= 2;
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    stw_kernel(ssp + (esp & 0xffff), old_cs);
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    esp -= 2;
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    stw_kernel(ssp + (esp & 0xffff), old_eip);
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    /* update processor state */
    ESP = (ESP & ~0xffff) | (esp & 0xffff);
    env->eip = offset;
    env->segs[R_CS].selector = selector;
    env->segs[R_CS].base = (uint8_t *)(selector << 4);
    env->eflags &= ~(IF_MASK | TF_MASK | AC_MASK | RF_MASK);
}

/* fake user mode interrupt */
void do_interrupt_user(int intno, int is_int, int error_code, 
                       unsigned int next_eip)
{
    SegmentCache *dt;
    uint8_t *ptr;
    int dpl, cpl;
    uint32_t e2;

    dt = &env->idt;
    ptr = dt->base + (intno * 8);
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    e2 = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);
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    dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    /* check privledge if software int */
    if (is_int && dpl < cpl)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, intno * 8 + 2);

    /* Since we emulate only user space, we cannot do more than
       exiting the emulation with the suitable exception and error
       code */
    if (is_int)
        EIP = next_eip;
}

/*
 * Begin excution of an interruption. is_int is TRUE if coming from
 * the int instruction. next_eip is the EIP value AFTER the interrupt
 * instruction. It is only relevant if is_int is TRUE.  
 */
void do_interrupt(int intno, int is_int, int error_code, 
                  unsigned int next_eip, int is_hw)
{
    if (env->cr[0] & CR0_PE_MASK) {
        do_interrupt_protected(intno, is_int, error_code, next_eip, is_hw);
    } else {
        do_interrupt_real(intno, is_int, error_code, next_eip);
    }
}

/*
 * Signal an interruption. It is executed in the main CPU loop.
 * is_int is TRUE if coming from the int instruction. next_eip is the
 * EIP value AFTER the interrupt instruction. It is only relevant if
 * is_int is TRUE.  
 */
void raise_interrupt(int intno, int is_int, int error_code, 
                     unsigned int next_eip)
{
    env->exception_index = intno;
    env->error_code = error_code;
    env->exception_is_int = is_int;
    env->exception_next_eip = next_eip;
    cpu_loop_exit();
}

/* shortcuts to generate exceptions */
void raise_exception_err(int exception_index, int error_code)
{
    raise_interrupt(exception_index, 0, error_code, 0);
}

void raise_exception(int exception_index)
{
    raise_interrupt(exception_index, 0, 0, 0);
}

#ifdef BUGGY_GCC_DIV64
/* gcc 2.95.4 on PowerPC does not seem to like using __udivdi3, so we
   call it from another function */
uint32_t div64(uint32_t *q_ptr, uint64_t num, uint32_t den)
{
    *q_ptr = num / den;
    return num % den;
}

int32_t idiv64(int32_t *q_ptr, int64_t num, int32_t den)
{
    *q_ptr = num / den;
    return num % den;
}
#endif

void helper_divl_EAX_T0(uint32_t eip)
{
    unsigned int den, q, r;
    uint64_t num;
    
    num = EAX | ((uint64_t)EDX << 32);
    den = T0;
    if (den == 0) {
        EIP = eip;
        raise_exception(EXCP00_DIVZ);
    }
#ifdef BUGGY_GCC_DIV64
    r = div64(&q, num, den);
#else
    q = (num / den);
    r = (num % den);
#endif
    EAX = q;
    EDX = r;
}

void helper_idivl_EAX_T0(uint32_t eip)
{
    int den, q, r;
    int64_t num;
    
    num = EAX | ((uint64_t)EDX << 32);
    den = T0;
    if (den == 0) {
        EIP = eip;
        raise_exception(EXCP00_DIVZ);
    }
#ifdef BUGGY_GCC_DIV64
    r = idiv64(&q, num, den);
#else
    q = (num / den);
    r = (num % den);
#endif
    EAX = q;
    EDX = r;
}

void helper_cmpxchg8b(void)
{
    uint64_t d;
    int eflags;

    eflags = cc_table[CC_OP].compute_all();
    d = ldq((uint8_t *)A0);
    if (d == (((uint64_t)EDX << 32) | EAX)) {
        stq((uint8_t *)A0, ((uint64_t)ECX << 32) | EBX);
        eflags |= CC_Z;
    } else {
        EDX = d >> 32;
        EAX = d;
        eflags &= ~CC_Z;
    }
    CC_SRC = eflags;
}

/* We simulate a pre-MMX pentium as in valgrind */
#define CPUID_FP87 (1 << 0)
#define CPUID_VME  (1 << 1)
#define CPUID_DE   (1 << 2)
#define CPUID_PSE  (1 << 3)
#define CPUID_TSC  (1 << 4)
#define CPUID_MSR  (1 << 5)
#define CPUID_PAE  (1 << 6)
#define CPUID_MCE  (1 << 7)
#define CPUID_CX8  (1 << 8)
#define CPUID_APIC (1 << 9)
#define CPUID_SEP  (1 << 11) /* sysenter/sysexit */
#define CPUID_MTRR (1 << 12)
#define CPUID_PGE  (1 << 13)
#define CPUID_MCA  (1 << 14)
#define CPUID_CMOV (1 << 15)
/* ... */
#define CPUID_MMX  (1 << 23)
#define CPUID_FXSR (1 << 24)
#define CPUID_SSE  (1 << 25)
#define CPUID_SSE2 (1 << 26)

void helper_cpuid(void)
{
    if (EAX == 0) {
        EAX = 1; /* max EAX index supported */
        EBX = 0x756e6547;
        ECX = 0x6c65746e;
        EDX = 0x49656e69;
    } else if (EAX == 1) {
        int family, model, stepping;
        /* EAX = 1 info */
#if 0
        /* pentium 75-200 */
        family = 5;
        model = 2;
        stepping = 11;
#else
        /* pentium pro */
        family = 6;
        model = 1;
        stepping = 3;
#endif
        EAX = (family << 8) | (model << 4) | stepping;
        EBX = 0;
        ECX = 0;
        EDX = CPUID_FP87 | CPUID_DE | CPUID_PSE |
            CPUID_TSC | CPUID_MSR | CPUID_MCE |
            CPUID_CX8 | CPUID_PGE | CPUID_CMOV;
    }
}

void helper_lldt_T0(void)
{
    int selector;
    SegmentCache *dt;
    uint32_t e1, e2;
    int index;
    uint8_t *ptr;
    
    selector = T0 & 0xffff;
    if ((selector & 0xfffc) == 0) {
        /* XXX: NULL selector case: invalid LDT */
        env->ldt.base = NULL;
        env->ldt.limit = 0;
    } else {
        if (selector & 0x4)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        dt = &env->gdt;
        index = selector & ~7;
        if ((index + 7) > dt->limit)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        ptr = dt->base + index;
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        e1 = ldl_kernel(ptr);
        e2 = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);
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        if ((e2 & DESC_S_MASK) || ((e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf) != 2)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, selector & 0xfffc);
        load_seg_cache_raw_dt(&env->ldt, e1, e2);
    }
    env->ldt.selector = selector;
}

void helper_ltr_T0(void)
{
    int selector;
    SegmentCache *dt;
    uint32_t e1, e2;
    int index, type;
    uint8_t *ptr;
    
    selector = T0 & 0xffff;
    if ((selector & 0xfffc) == 0) {
        /* NULL selector case: invalid LDT */
        env->tr.base = NULL;
        env->tr.limit = 0;
        env->tr.flags = 0;
    } else {
        if (selector & 0x4)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        dt = &env->gdt;
        index = selector & ~7;
        if ((index + 7) > dt->limit)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        ptr = dt->base + index;
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        e1 = ldl_kernel(ptr);
        e2 = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);
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        type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf;
        if ((e2 & DESC_S_MASK) || 
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            (type != 1 && type != 9))
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            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, selector & 0xfffc);
        load_seg_cache_raw_dt(&env->tr, e1, e2);
        e2 |= 0x00000200; /* set the busy bit */
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        stl_kernel(ptr + 4, e2);
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    }
    env->tr.selector = selector;
}

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/* only works if protected mode and not VM86. seg_reg must be != R_CS */
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void load_seg(int seg_reg, int selector, unsigned int cur_eip)
{
    uint32_t e1, e2;
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    int cpl, dpl, rpl;
    SegmentCache *dt;
    int index;
    uint8_t *ptr;

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    if ((selector & 0xfffc) == 0) {
        /* null selector case */
        if (seg_reg == R_SS) {
            EIP = cur_eip;
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, 0);
        } else {
            cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, seg_reg, selector, NULL, 0, 0);
        }
    } else {
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        if (selector & 0x4)
            dt = &env->ldt;
        else
            dt = &env->gdt;
        index = selector & ~7;
        if ((index + 7) > dt->limit) {
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            EIP = cur_eip;
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        }
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        ptr = dt->base + index;
        e1 = ldl_kernel(ptr);
        e2 = ldl_kernel(ptr + 4);

        if (!(e2 & DESC_S_MASK)) {
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            EIP = cur_eip;
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        }
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        rpl = selector & 3;
        dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
        cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
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        if (seg_reg == R_SS) {
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            /* must be writable segment */
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            if ((e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) || !(e2 & DESC_W_MASK)) {
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                EIP = cur_eip;
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
            }
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            if (rpl != cpl || dpl != cpl) {
                EIP = cur_eip;
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
            }
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        } else {
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            /* must be readable segment */
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            if ((e2 & (DESC_CS_MASK | DESC_R_MASK)) == DESC_CS_MASK) {
                EIP = cur_eip;
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
            }
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            if (!(e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) || !(e2 & DESC_C_MASK)) {
                /* if not conforming code, test rights */
                if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl) {
                    EIP = cur_eip;
                    raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
                }
            }
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        }

        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK)) {
            EIP = cur_eip;
            if (seg_reg == R_SS)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0C_STACK, selector & 0xfffc);
            else
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, selector & 0xfffc);
        }
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        /* set the access bit if not already set */
        if (!(e2 & DESC_A_MASK)) {
            e2 |= DESC_A_MASK;
            stl_kernel(ptr + 4, e2);
        }

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        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, seg_reg, selector, 
                       get_seg_base(e1, e2),
                       get_seg_limit(e1, e2),
                       e2);
#if 0
        fprintf(logfile, "load_seg: sel=0x%04x base=0x%08lx limit=0x%08lx flags=%08x\n", 
                selector, (unsigned long)sc->base, sc->limit, sc->flags);
#endif
    }
}

/* protected mode jump */
void helper_ljmp_protected_T0_T1(void)
{
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    int new_cs, new_eip, gate_cs, type;
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    uint32_t e1, e2, cpl, dpl, rpl, limit;

    new_cs = T0;
    new_eip = T1;
    if ((new_cs & 0xfffc) == 0)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, 0);
    if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, new_cs) != 0)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    if (e2 & DESC_S_MASK) {
        if (!(e2 & DESC_CS_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
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        if (e2 & DESC_C_MASK) {
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            /* conforming code segment */
            if (dpl > cpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        } else {
            /* non conforming code segment */
            rpl = new_cs & 3;
            if (rpl > cpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
            if (dpl != cpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        }
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        limit = get_seg_limit(e1, e2);
        if (new_eip > limit)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_CS, (new_cs & 0xfffc) | cpl,
                       get_seg_base(e1, e2), limit, e2);
        EIP = new_eip;
    } else {
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        /* jump to call or task gate */
        dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
        rpl = new_cs & 3;
        cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
        type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf;
        switch(type) {
        case 1: /* 286 TSS */
        case 9: /* 386 TSS */
        case 5: /* task gate */
            if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
            switch_tss(new_cs, e1, e2, SWITCH_TSS_JMP);
            break;
        case 4: /* 286 call gate */
        case 12: /* 386 call gate */
            if ((dpl < cpl) || (dpl < rpl))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
            if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, new_cs & 0xfffc);
            gate_cs = e1 >> 16;
            if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, gate_cs) != 0)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, gate_cs & 0xfffc);
            dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
            /* must be code segment */
            if (((e2 & (DESC_S_MASK | DESC_CS_MASK)) != 
                 (DESC_S_MASK | DESC_CS_MASK)))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, gate_cs & 0xfffc);
            if (((e2 & DESC_C_MASK) && (dpl > cpl)) ||
                (!(e2 & DESC_C_MASK) && (dpl != cpl)))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, gate_cs & 0xfffc);
            if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, gate_cs & 0xfffc);
            new_eip = (e1 & 0xffff);
            if (type == 12)
                new_eip |= (e2 & 0xffff0000);
            limit = get_seg_limit(e1, e2);
            if (new_eip > limit)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, 0);
            cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_CS, (gate_cs & 0xfffc) | cpl,
                                   get_seg_base(e1, e2), limit, e2);
            EIP = new_eip;
            break;
        default:
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
            break;
        }
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    }
}

/* real mode call */
void helper_lcall_real_T0_T1(int shift, int next_eip)
{
    int new_cs, new_eip;
    uint32_t esp, esp_mask;
    uint8_t *ssp;

    new_cs = T0;
    new_eip = T1;
    esp = ESP;
    esp_mask = 0xffffffff;
    if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
        esp_mask = 0xffff;
    ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base;
    if (shift) {
        esp -= 4;
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        stl_kernel(ssp + (esp & esp_mask), env->segs[R_CS].selector);
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        esp -= 4;
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        stl_kernel(ssp + (esp & esp_mask), next_eip);
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    } else {
        esp -= 2;
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        stw_kernel(ssp + (esp & esp_mask), env->segs[R_CS].selector);
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        esp -= 2;
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        stw_kernel(ssp + (esp & esp_mask), next_eip);
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    }

    if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
        ESP = (ESP & ~0xffff) | (esp & 0xffff);
    else
        ESP = esp;
    env->eip = new_eip;
    env->segs[R_CS].selector = new_cs;
    env->segs[R_CS].base = (uint8_t *)(new_cs << 4);
}

/* protected mode call */
void helper_lcall_protected_T0_T1(int shift, int next_eip)
{
    int new_cs, new_eip;
    uint32_t e1, e2, cpl, dpl, rpl, selector, offset, param_count;
    uint32_t ss, ss_e1, ss_e2, push_size, sp, type, ss_dpl;
    uint32_t old_ss, old_esp, val, i, limit;
    uint8_t *ssp, *old_ssp;
    
    new_cs = T0;
    new_eip = T1;
    if ((new_cs & 0xfffc) == 0)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, 0);
    if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, new_cs) != 0)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    if (e2 & DESC_S_MASK) {
        if (!(e2 & DESC_CS_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
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        if (e2 & DESC_C_MASK) {
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            /* conforming code segment */
            if (dpl > cpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        } else {
            /* non conforming code segment */
            rpl = new_cs & 3;
            if (rpl > cpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
            if (dpl != cpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        }
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, new_cs & 0xfffc);

        sp = ESP;
        if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
            sp &= 0xffff;
        ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base + sp;
        if (shift) {
            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, env->segs[R_CS].selector);
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            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, next_eip);
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        } else {
            ssp -= 2;
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            stw_kernel(ssp, env->segs[R_CS].selector);
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            ssp -= 2;
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            stw_kernel(ssp, next_eip);
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        }
        sp -= (4 << shift);
        
        limit = get_seg_limit(e1, e2);
        if (new_eip > limit)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        /* from this point, not restartable */
        if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
            ESP = (ESP & 0xffff0000) | (sp & 0xffff);
        else
            ESP = sp;
        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_CS, (new_cs & 0xfffc) | cpl,
                       get_seg_base(e1, e2), limit, e2);
        EIP = new_eip;
    } else {
        /* check gate type */
        type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0x1f;
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        dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
        rpl = new_cs & 3;
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        switch(type) {
        case 1: /* available 286 TSS */
        case 9: /* available 386 TSS */
        case 5: /* task gate */
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            if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
            switch_tss(new_cs, e1, e2, SWITCH_TSS_CALL);
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            break;
        case 4: /* 286 call gate */
        case 12: /* 386 call gate */
            break;
        default:
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
            break;
        }
        shift = type >> 3;

        if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
        /* check valid bit */
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG,  new_cs & 0xfffc);
        selector = e1 >> 16;
        offset = (e2 & 0xffff0000) | (e1 & 0x0000ffff);
        if ((selector & 0xfffc) == 0)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, 0);

        if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, selector) != 0)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        if (!(e2 & DESC_S_MASK) || !(e2 & (DESC_CS_MASK)))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
        if (dpl > cpl)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, selector & 0xfffc);
        if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, selector & 0xfffc);

        if (!(e2 & DESC_C_MASK) && dpl < cpl) {
            /* to inner priviledge */
            get_ss_esp_from_tss(&ss, &sp, dpl);
            if ((ss & 0xfffc) == 0)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
            if ((ss & 3) != dpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
            if (load_segment(&ss_e1, &ss_e2, ss) != 0)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
            ss_dpl = (ss_e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
            if (ss_dpl != dpl)
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
            if (!(ss_e2 & DESC_S_MASK) ||
                (ss_e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) ||
                !(ss_e2 & DESC_W_MASK))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
            if (!(ss_e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
                raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, ss & 0xfffc);
            
            param_count = e2 & 0x1f;
            push_size = ((param_count * 2) + 8) << shift;

            old_esp = ESP;
            old_ss = env->segs[R_SS].selector;
            if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
                old_esp &= 0xffff;
            old_ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base + old_esp;
            
            /* XXX: from this point not restartable */
            ss = (ss & ~3) | dpl;
            cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_SS, ss, 
                           get_seg_base(ss_e1, ss_e2),
                           get_seg_limit(ss_e1, ss_e2),
                           ss_e2);

            if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
                sp &= 0xffff;
            ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base + sp;
            if (shift) {
                ssp -= 4;
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                stl_kernel(ssp, old_ss);
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                ssp -= 4;
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                stl_kernel(ssp, old_esp);
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                ssp -= 4 * param_count;
                for(i = 0; i < param_count; i++) {
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                    val = ldl_kernel(old_ssp + i * 4);
                    stl_kernel(ssp + i * 4, val);
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                }
            } else {
                ssp -= 2;
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                stw_kernel(ssp, old_ss);
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                ssp -= 2;
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                stw_kernel(ssp, old_esp);
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                ssp -= 2 * param_count;
                for(i = 0; i < param_count; i++) {
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                    val = lduw_kernel(old_ssp + i * 2);
                    stw_kernel(ssp + i * 2, val);
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                }
            }
        } else {
            /* to same priviledge */
            if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
                sp &= 0xffff;
            ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base + sp;
            push_size = (4 << shift);
        }

        if (shift) {
            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, env->segs[R_CS].selector);
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            ssp -= 4;
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            stl_kernel(ssp, next_eip);
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        } else {
            ssp -= 2;
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            stw_kernel(ssp, env->segs[R_CS].selector);
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            ssp -= 2;
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            stw_kernel(ssp, next_eip);
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        }

        sp -= push_size;
        selector = (selector & ~3) | dpl;
        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_CS, selector, 
                       get_seg_base(e1, e2),
                       get_seg_limit(e1, e2),
                       e2);
        cpu_x86_set_cpl(env, dpl);
        
        /* from this point, not restartable if same priviledge */
        if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
            ESP = (ESP & 0xffff0000) | (sp & 0xffff);
        else
            ESP = sp;
        EIP = offset;
    }
}

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/* real and vm86 mode iret */
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void helper_iret_real(int shift)
{
    uint32_t sp, new_cs, new_eip, new_eflags, new_esp;
    uint8_t *ssp;
    int eflags_mask;
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    sp = ESP & 0xffff;
    ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base + sp;
    if (shift == 1) {
        /* 32 bits */
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        new_eflags = ldl_kernel(ssp + 8);
        new_cs = ldl_kernel(ssp + 4) & 0xffff;
        new_eip = ldl_kernel(ssp) & 0xffff;
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    } else {
        /* 16 bits */
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        new_eflags = lduw_kernel(ssp + 4);
        new_cs = lduw_kernel(ssp + 2);
        new_eip = lduw_kernel(ssp);
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    }
    new_esp = sp + (6 << shift);
    ESP = (ESP & 0xffff0000) | 
        (new_esp & 0xffff);
    load_seg_vm(R_CS, new_cs);
    env->eip = new_eip;
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    if (env->eflags & VM_MASK)
        eflags_mask = FL_UPDATE_MASK32 | IF_MASK | RF_MASK;
    else
        eflags_mask = FL_UPDATE_CPL0_MASK;
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    if (shift == 0)
        eflags_mask &= 0xffff;
    load_eflags(new_eflags, eflags_mask);
}

/* protected mode iret */
static inline void helper_ret_protected(int shift, int is_iret, int addend)
{
    uint32_t sp, new_cs, new_eip, new_eflags, new_esp, new_ss;
    uint32_t new_es, new_ds, new_fs, new_gs;
    uint32_t e1, e2, ss_e1, ss_e2;
    int cpl, dpl, rpl, eflags_mask;
    uint8_t *ssp;
    
    sp = ESP;
    if (!(env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK))
        sp &= 0xffff;
    ssp = env->segs[R_SS].base + sp;
    if (shift == 1) {
        /* 32 bits */
        if (is_iret)
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            new_eflags = ldl_kernel(ssp + 8);
        new_cs = ldl_kernel(ssp + 4) & 0xffff;
        new_eip = ldl_kernel(ssp);
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        if (is_iret && (new_eflags & VM_MASK))
            goto return_to_vm86;
    } else {
        /* 16 bits */
        if (is_iret)
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            new_eflags = lduw_kernel(ssp + 4);
        new_cs = lduw_kernel(ssp + 2);
        new_eip = lduw_kernel(ssp);
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    }
    if ((new_cs & 0xfffc) == 0)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, new_cs) != 0)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    if (!(e2 & DESC_S_MASK) ||
        !(e2 & DESC_CS_MASK))
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    rpl = new_cs & 3; 
    if (rpl < cpl)
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
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    if (e2 & DESC_C_MASK) {
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        if (dpl > rpl)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    } else {
        if (dpl != rpl)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    }
    if (!(e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
        raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, new_cs & 0xfffc);
    
    if (rpl == cpl) {
        /* return to same priledge level */
        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_CS, new_cs, 
                       get_seg_base(e1, e2),
                       get_seg_limit(e1, e2),
                       e2);
        new_esp = sp + (4 << shift) + ((2 * is_iret) << shift) + addend;
    } else {
        /* return to different priviledge level */
        ssp += (4 << shift) + ((2 * is_iret) << shift) + addend;
        if (shift == 1) {
            /* 32 bits */
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            new_esp = ldl_kernel(ssp);
            new_ss = ldl_kernel(ssp + 4) & 0xffff;
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        } else {
            /* 16 bits */
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            new_esp = lduw_kernel(ssp);
            new_ss = lduw_kernel(ssp + 2);
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        }
        
        if ((new_ss & 3) != rpl)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_ss & 0xfffc);
        if (load_segment(&ss_e1, &ss_e2, new_ss) != 0)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_ss & 0xfffc);
        if (!(ss_e2 & DESC_S_MASK) ||
            (ss_e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) ||
            !(ss_e2 & DESC_W_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_ss & 0xfffc);
        dpl = (ss_e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
        if (dpl != rpl)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0D_GPF, new_ss & 0xfffc);
        if (!(ss_e2 & DESC_P_MASK))
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0B_NOSEG, new_ss & 0xfffc);

        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_CS, new_cs, 
                       get_seg_base(e1, e2),
                       get_seg_limit(e1, e2),
                       e2);
        cpu_x86_load_seg_cache(env, R_SS, new_ss, 
                       get_seg_base(ss_e1, ss_e2),
                       get_seg_limit(ss_e1, ss_e2),
                       ss_e2);
        cpu_x86_set_cpl(env, rpl);
    }
    if (env->segs[R_SS].flags & DESC_B_MASK)
        ESP = new_esp;
    else
        ESP = (ESP & 0xffff0000) | 
            (new_esp & 0xffff);
    env->eip = new_eip;
    if (is_iret) {
        /* NOTE: 'cpl' can be different from the current CPL */
        if (cpl == 0)
            eflags_mask = FL_UPDATE_CPL0_MASK;
        else
            eflags_mask = FL_UPDATE_MASK32;
        if (shift == 0)
            eflags_mask &= 0xffff;
        load_eflags(new_eflags, eflags_mask);
    }
    return;

 return_to_vm86:
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    new_esp = ldl_kernel(ssp + 12);
    new_ss = ldl_kernel(ssp + 16);
    new_es = ldl_kernel(ssp + 20);
    new_ds = ldl_kernel(ssp + 24);
    new_fs = ldl_kernel(ssp + 28);
    new_gs = ldl_kernel(ssp + 32);
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    /* modify processor state */
    load_eflags(new_eflags, FL_UPDATE_CPL0_MASK | VM_MASK | VIF_MASK | VIP_MASK);
    load_seg_vm(R_CS, new_cs);
    cpu_x86_set_cpl(env, 3);
    load_seg_vm(R_SS, new_ss);
    load_seg_vm(R_ES, new_es);
    load_seg_vm(R_DS, new_ds);
    load_seg_vm(R_FS, new_fs);
    load_seg_vm(R_GS, new_gs);

    env->eip = new_eip;
    ESP = new_esp;
}

void helper_iret_protected(int shift)
{
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    int tss_selector, type;
    uint32_t e1, e2;
    
    /* specific case for TSS */
    if (env->eflags & NT_MASK) {
        tss_selector = lduw_kernel(env->tr.base + 0);
        if (tss_selector & 4)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
        if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, tss_selector) != 0)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
        type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0x17;
        /* NOTE: we check both segment and busy TSS */
        if (type != 3)
            raise_exception_err(EXCP0A_TSS, tss_selector & 0xfffc);
        switch_tss(tss_selector, e1, e2, SWITCH_TSS_IRET);
    } else {
        helper_ret_protected(shift, 1, 0);
    }
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}

void helper_lret_protected(int shift, int addend)
{
    helper_ret_protected(shift, 0, addend);
}

void helper_movl_crN_T0(int reg)
{
    env->cr[reg] = T0;
    switch(reg) {
    case 0:
        cpu_x86_update_cr0(env);
        break;
    case 3:
        cpu_x86_update_cr3(env);
        break;
    }
}

/* XXX: do more */
void helper_movl_drN_T0(int reg)
{
    env->dr[reg] = T0;
}

void helper_invlpg(unsigned int addr)
{
    cpu_x86_flush_tlb(env, addr);
}

/* rdtsc */
#ifndef __i386__
uint64_t emu_time;
#endif

void helper_rdtsc(void)
{
    uint64_t val;
#ifdef __i386__
    asm("rdtsc" : "=A" (val));
#else
    /* better than nothing: the time increases */
    val = emu_time++;
#endif
    EAX = val;
    EDX = val >> 32;
}

void helper_wrmsr(void)
{
    switch(ECX) {
    case MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_CS:
        env->sysenter_cs = EAX & 0xffff;
        break;
    case MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_ESP:
        env->sysenter_esp = EAX;
        break;
    case MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_EIP:
        env->sysenter_eip = EAX;
        break;
    default:
        /* XXX: exception ? */
        break; 
    }
}

void helper_rdmsr(void)
{
    switch(ECX) {
    case MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_CS:
        EAX = env->sysenter_cs;
        EDX = 0;
        break;
    case MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_ESP:
        EAX = env->sysenter_esp;
        EDX = 0;
        break;
    case MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_EIP:
        EAX = env->sysenter_eip;
        EDX = 0;
        break;
    default:
        /* XXX: exception ? */
        break; 
    }
}

void helper_lsl(void)
{
    unsigned int selector, limit;
    uint32_t e1, e2;
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    int rpl, dpl, cpl, type;
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    CC_SRC = cc_table[CC_OP].compute_all() & ~CC_Z;
    selector = T0 & 0xffff;
    if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, selector) != 0)
        return;
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    rpl = selector & 3;
    dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    if (e2 & DESC_S_MASK) {
        if ((e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) && (e2 & DESC_C_MASK)) {
            /* conforming */
        } else {
            if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
                return;
        }
    } else {
        type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf;
        switch(type) {
        case 1:
        case 2:
        case 3:
        case 9:
        case 11:
            break;
        default:
            return;
        }
        if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
            return;
    }
    limit = get_seg_limit(e1, e2);
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    T1 = limit;
    CC_SRC |= CC_Z;
}

void helper_lar(void)
{
    unsigned int selector;
    uint32_t e1, e2;
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    CC_SRC = cc_table[CC_OP].compute_all() & ~CC_Z;
    selector = T0 & 0xffff;
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    if ((selector & 0xfffc) == 0)
        return;
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    if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, selector) != 0)
        return;
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    rpl = selector & 3;
    dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    if (e2 & DESC_S_MASK) {
        if ((e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) && (e2 & DESC_C_MASK)) {
            /* conforming */
        } else {
            if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
                return;
        }
    } else {
        type = (e2 >> DESC_TYPE_SHIFT) & 0xf;
        switch(type) {
        case 1:
        case 2:
        case 3:
        case 4:
        case 5:
        case 9:
        case 11:
        case 12:
            break;
        default:
            return;
        }
        if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
            return;
    }
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    T1 = e2 & 0x00f0ff00;
    CC_SRC |= CC_Z;
}

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void helper_verr(void)
{
    unsigned int selector;
    uint32_t e1, e2;
    int rpl, dpl, cpl;

    CC_SRC = cc_table[CC_OP].compute_all() & ~CC_Z;
    selector = T0 & 0xffff;
    if ((selector & 0xfffc) == 0)
        return;
    if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, selector) != 0)
        return;
    if (!(e2 & DESC_S_MASK))
        return;
    rpl = selector & 3;
    dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    if (e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) {
        if (!(e2 & DESC_R_MASK))
            return;
        if (!(e2 & DESC_C_MASK)) {
            if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
                return;
        }
    } else {
        if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
            return;
    }
    /* ok */
}

void helper_verw(void)
{
    unsigned int selector;
    uint32_t e1, e2;
    int rpl, dpl, cpl;

    CC_SRC = cc_table[CC_OP].compute_all() & ~CC_Z;
    selector = T0 & 0xffff;
    if ((selector & 0xfffc) == 0)
        return;
    if (load_segment(&e1, &e2, selector) != 0)
        return;
    if (!(e2 & DESC_S_MASK))
        return;
    rpl = selector & 3;
    dpl = (e2 >> DESC_DPL_SHIFT) & 3;
    cpl = env->hflags & HF_CPL_MASK;
    if (e2 & DESC_CS_MASK) {
        return;
    } else {
        if (dpl < cpl || dpl < rpl)
            return;
        if (!(e2 & DESC_W_MASK))
            return;
    }
    /* ok */
}

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