• Linus Torvalds's avatar
    Merge branch 'mm-pkeys-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip · 643ad15d
    Linus Torvalds authored
    Pull x86 protection key support from Ingo Molnar:
     "This tree adds support for a new memory protection hardware feature
      that is available in upcoming Intel CPUs: 'protection keys' (pkeys).
      There's a background article at LWN.net:
      The gist is that protection keys allow the encoding of
      user-controllable permission masks in the pte.  So instead of having a
      fixed protection mask in the pte (which needs a system call to change
      and works on a per page basis), the user can map a (handful of)
      protection mask variants and can change the masks runtime relatively
      cheaply, without having to change every single page in the affected
      virtual memory range.
      This allows the dynamic switching of the protection bits of large
      amounts of virtual memory, via user-space instructions.  It also
      allows more precise control of MMU permission bits: for example the
      executable bit is separate from the read bit (see more about that
      This tree adds the MM infrastructure and low level x86 glue needed for
      that, plus it adds a high level API to make use of protection keys -
      if a user-space application calls:
            mmap(..., PROT_EXEC);
            mprotect(ptr, sz, PROT_EXEC);
      (note PROT_EXEC-only, without PROT_READ/WRITE), the kernel will notice
      this special case, and will set a special protection key on this
      memory range.  It also sets the appropriate bits in the Protection
      Keys User Rights (PKRU) register so that the memory becomes unreadable
      and unwritable.
      So using protection keys the kernel is able to implement 'true'
      PROT_EXEC on x86 CPUs: without protection keys PROT_EXEC implies
      PROT_READ as well.  Unreadable executable mappings have security
      advantages: they cannot be read via information leaks to figure out
      ASLR details, nor can they be scanned for ROP gadgets - and they
      cannot be used by exploits for data purposes either.
      We know about no user-space code that relies on pure PROT_EXEC
      mappings today, but binary loaders could start making use of this new
      feature to map binaries and libraries in a more secure fashion.
      There is other pending pkeys work that offers more high level system
      call APIs to manage protection keys - but those are not part of this
      pull request.
      Right now there's a Kconfig that controls this feature
      (CONFIG_X86_INTEL_MEMORY_PROTECTION_KEYS) that is default enabled
      (like most x86 CPU feature enablement code that has no runtime
      overhead), but it's not user-configurable at the moment.  If there's
      any serious problem with this then we can make it configurable and/or
      flip the default"
    * 'mm-pkeys-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (38 commits)
      x86/mm/pkeys: Fix mismerge of protection keys CPUID bits
      mm/pkeys: Fix siginfo ABI breakage caused by new u64 field
      x86/mm/pkeys: Fix access_error() denial of writes to write-only VMA
      mm/core, x86/mm/pkeys: Add execute-only protection keys support
      x86/mm/pkeys: Create an x86 arch_calc_vm_prot_bits() for VMA flags
      x86/mm/pkeys: Allow kernel to modify user pkey rights register
      x86/fpu: Allow setting of XSAVE state
      x86/mm: Factor out LDT init from context init
      mm/core, x86/mm/pkeys: Add arch_validate_pkey()
      mm/core, arch, powerpc: Pass a protection key in to calc_vm_flag_bits()
      x86/mm/pkeys: Actually enable Memory Protection Keys in the CPU
      x86/mm/pkeys: Add Kconfig prompt to existing config option
      x86/mm/pkeys: Dump pkey from VMA in /proc/pid/smaps
      x86/mm/pkeys: Dump PKRU with other kernel registers
      mm/core, x86/mm/pkeys: Differentiate instruction fetches
      x86/mm/pkeys: Optimize fault handling in access_error()
      mm/core: Do not enforce PKEY permissions on remote mm access
      um, pkeys: Add UML arch_*_access_permitted() methods
      mm/gup, x86/mm/pkeys: Check VMAs and PTEs for protection keys
      x86/mm/gup: Simplify get_user_pages() PTE bit handling
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