1. 26 May, 2010 1 commit
  2. 07 Apr, 2010 1 commit
  3. 30 Mar, 2010 1 commit
    • Tejun Heo's avatar
      include cleanup: Update gfp.h and slab.h includes to prepare for breaking... · 5a0e3ad6
      Tejun Heo authored
      include cleanup: Update gfp.h and slab.h includes to prepare for breaking implicit slab.h inclusion from percpu.h
      percpu.h is included by sched.h and module.h and thus ends up being
      included when building most .c files.  percpu.h includes slab.h which
      in turn includes gfp.h making everything defined by the two files
      universally available and complicating inclusion dependencies.
      percpu.h -> slab.h dependency is about to be removed.  Prepare for
      this change by updating users of gfp and slab facilities include those
      headers directly instead of assuming availability.  As this conversion
      needs to touch large number of source files, the following script is
      used as the basis of conversion.
      The script does the followings.
      * Scan files for gfp and slab usages and update includes such that
        only the necessary includes are there.  ie. if only gfp is used,
        gfp.h, if slab is used, slab.h.
      * When the script inserts a new include, it looks at the include
        blocks and try to put the new include such that its order conforms
        to its surrounding.  It's put in the include block which contains
        core kernel includes, in the same order that the rest are ordered -
        alphabetical, Christmas tree, rev-Xmas-tree or at the end if there
        doesn't seem to be any matching order.
      * If the script can't find a place to put a new include (mostly
        because the file doesn't have fitting include block), it prints out
        an error message indicating which .h file needs to be added to the
      The conversion was done in the following steps.
      1. The initial automatic conversion of all .c files updated slightly
         over 4000 files, deleting around 700 includes and adding ~480 gfp.h
         and ~3000 slab.h inclusions.  The script emitted errors for ~400
      2. Each error was manually checked.  Some didn't need the inclusion,
         some needed manual addition while adding it to implementation .h or
         embedding .c file was more appropriate for others.  This step added
         inclusions to around 150 files.
      3. The script was run again and the output was compared to the edits
         from #2 to make sure no file was left behind.
      4. Several build tests were done and a couple of problems were fixed.
         e.g. lib/decompress_*.c used malloc/free() wrappers around slab
         APIs requiring slab.h to be added manually.
      5. The script was run on all .h files but without automatically
         editing them as sprinkling gfp.h and slab.h inclusions around .h
         files could easily lead to inclusion dependency hell.  Most gfp.h
         inclusion directives were ignored as stuff from gfp.h was usually
         wildly available and often used in preprocessor macros.  Each
         slab.h inclusion directive was examined and added manually as
      6. percpu.h was updated not to include slab.h.
      7. Build test were done on the following configurations and failures
         were fixed.  CONFIG_GCOV_KERNEL was turned off for all tests (as my
         distributed build env didn't work with gcov compiles) and a few
         more options had to be turned off depending on archs to make things
         build (like ipr on powerpc/64 which failed due to missing writeq).
         * x86 and x86_64 UP and SMP allmodconfig and a custom test config.
         * powerpc and powerpc64 SMP allmodconfig
         * sparc and sparc64 SMP allmodconfig
         * ia64 SMP allmodconfig
         * s390 SMP allmodconfig
         * alpha SMP allmodconfig
         * um on x86_64 SMP allmodconfig
      8. percpu.h modifications were reverted so that it could be applied as
         a separate patch and serve as bisection point.
      Given the fact that I had only a couple of failures from tests on step
      6, I'm fairly confident about the coverage of this conversion patch.
      If there is a breakage, it's likely to be something in one of the arch
      headers which should be easily discoverable easily on most builds of
      the specific arch.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Guess-its-ok-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
      Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com>
  4. 29 Mar, 2010 1 commit
  5. 24 Mar, 2010 1 commit
  6. 08 Mar, 2010 1 commit
  7. 16 Dec, 2009 1 commit
  8. 20 Nov, 2009 1 commit
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Provide nop fscache_stat_d() if CONFIG_FSCACHE_STATS=n · 4fa9f4ed
      David Howells authored
      Provide nop fscache_stat_d() macro if CONFIG_FSCACHE_STATS=n lest errors like
      the following occur:
      	fs/fscache/cache.c: In function 'fscache_withdraw_cache':
      	fs/fscache/cache.c:386: error: implicit declaration of function 'fscache_stat_d'
      	fs/fscache/cache.c:386: error: 'fscache_n_cop_sync_cache' undeclared (first use in this function)
      	fs/fscache/cache.c:386: error: (Each undeclared identifier is reported only once
      	fs/fscache/cache.c:386: error: for each function it appears in.)
      	fs/fscache/cache.c:392: error: 'fscache_n_cop_dissociate_pages' undeclared (first use in this function)
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
  9. 19 Nov, 2009 17 commits
    • David Howells's avatar
      CacheFiles: Catch an overly long wait for an old active object · fee096de
      David Howells authored
      Catch an overly long wait for an old, dying active object when we want to
      replace it with a new one.  The probability is that all the slow-work threads
      are hogged, and the delete can't get a look in.
      What we do instead is:
       (1) if there's nothing in the slow work queue, we sleep until either the dying
           object has finished dying or there is something in the slow work queue
           behind which we can queue our object.
       (2) if there is something in the slow work queue, we return ETIMEDOUT to
           fscache_lookup_object(), which then puts us back on the slow work queue,
           presumably behind the deletion that we're blocked by.  We are then
           deferred for a while until we work our way back through the queue -
           without blocking a slow-work thread unnecessarily.
      A backtrace similar to the following may appear in the log without this patch:
      	INFO: task kslowd004:5711 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      	"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
      	kslowd004     D 0000000000000000     0  5711      2 0x00000080
      	 ffff88000340bb80 0000000000000046 ffff88002550d000 0000000000000000
      	 ffff88002550d000 0000000000000007 ffff88000340bfd8 ffff88002550d2a8
      	 000000000000ddf0 00000000000118c0 00000000000118c0 ffff88002550d2a8
      	Call Trace:
      	 [<ffffffff81058e21>] ? trace_hardirqs_on+0xd/0xf
      	 [<ffffffffa011c4d8>] ? cachefiles_wait_bit+0x0/0xd [cachefiles]
      	 [<ffffffffa011c4e1>] cachefiles_wait_bit+0x9/0xd [cachefiles]
      	 [<ffffffff81353153>] __wait_on_bit+0x43/0x76
      	 [<ffffffff8111ae39>] ? ext3_xattr_get+0x1ec/0x270
      	 [<ffffffff813531ef>] out_of_line_wait_on_bit+0x69/0x74
      	 [<ffffffffa011c4d8>] ? cachefiles_wait_bit+0x0/0xd [cachefiles]
      	 [<ffffffff8104c125>] ? wake_bit_function+0x0/0x2e
      	 [<ffffffffa011bc79>] cachefiles_mark_object_active+0x203/0x23b [cachefiles]
      	 [<ffffffffa011c209>] cachefiles_walk_to_object+0x558/0x827 [cachefiles]
      	 [<ffffffffa011a429>] cachefiles_lookup_object+0xac/0x12a [cachefiles]
      	 [<ffffffffa00aa1e9>] fscache_lookup_object+0x1c7/0x214 [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffffa00aafc5>] fscache_object_state_machine+0xa5/0x52d [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffffa00ab4ac>] fscache_object_slow_work_execute+0x5f/0xa0 [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffff81082093>] slow_work_execute+0x18f/0x2d1
      	 [<ffffffff8108239a>] slow_work_thread+0x1c5/0x308
      	 [<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
      	 [<ffffffff810821d5>] ? slow_work_thread+0x0/0x308
      	 [<ffffffff8104be91>] kthread+0x7a/0x82
      	 [<ffffffff8100beda>] child_rip+0xa/0x20
      	 [<ffffffff8100b87c>] ? restore_args+0x0/0x30
      	 [<ffffffff8104be17>] ? kthread+0x0/0x82
      	 [<ffffffff8100bed0>] ? child_rip+0x0/0x20
      	1 lock held by kslowd004/5711:
      	 #0:  (&sb->s_type->i_mutex_key#7/1){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffffa011be64>] cachefiles_walk_to_object+0x1b3/0x827 [cachefiles]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Actually requeue an object when requested · 868411be
      David Howells authored
      FS-Cache objects have an FSCACHE_OBJECT_EV_REQUEUE event that can theoretically
      be raised to ask the state machine to requeue the object for further processing
      before the work function returns to the slow-work facility.
      However, fscache_object_work_execute() was clearing that bit before checking
      the event mask to see whether the object has any pending events that require it
      to be requeued immediately.
      Instead, the bit should be cleared after the check and enqueue.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Start processing an object's operations on that object's death · 60d543ca
      David Howells authored
      Start processing an object's operations when that object moves into the DYING
      state as the object cannot be destroyed until all its outstanding operations
      have completed.
      Furthermore, make sure that read and allocation operations handle being woken
      up on a dead object.  Such events are recorded in the Allocs.abt and
      Retrvls.abt statistics as viewable through /proc/fs/fscache/stats.
      The code for waiting for object activation for the read and allocation
      operations is also extracted into its own function as it is much the same in
      all cases, differing only in the stats incremented.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Make sure FSCACHE_COOKIE_LOOKING_UP cleared on lookup failure · d461d26d
      David Howells authored
      We must make sure that FSCACHE_COOKIE_LOOKING_UP is cleared on lookup failure
      (if an object reaches the LC_DYING state), and we should clear it before
      If this doesn't happen then fscache_wait_for_deferred_lookup() may hold
      allocation and retrieval operations indefinitely until they're interrupted by
      signals - which in turn pins the dying object until they go away.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Add a retirement stat counter · 2175bb06
      David Howells authored
      Add a stat counter to count retirement events rather than ordinary release
      events (the retire argument to fscache_relinquish_cookie()).
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Handle pages pending storage that get evicted under OOM conditions · 201a1542
      David Howells authored
      Handle netfs pages that the vmscan algorithm wants to evict from the pagecache
      under OOM conditions, but that are waiting for write to the cache.  Under these
      conditions, vmscan calls the releasepage() function of the netfs, asking if a
      page can be discarded.
      The problem is typified by the following trace of a stuck process:
      	kslowd005     D 0000000000000000     0  4253      2 0x00000080
      	 ffff88001b14f370 0000000000000046 ffff880020d0d000 0000000000000007
      	 0000000000000006 0000000000000001 ffff88001b14ffd8 ffff880020d0d2a8
      	 000000000000ddf0 00000000000118c0 00000000000118c0 ffff880020d0d2a8
      	Call Trace:
      	 [<ffffffffa00782d8>] __fscache_wait_on_page_write+0x8b/0xa7 [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
      	 [<ffffffffa0078240>] ? __fscache_check_page_write+0x63/0x70 [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffffa00b671d>] nfs_fscache_release_page+0x4e/0xc4 [nfs]
      	 [<ffffffffa00927f0>] nfs_release_page+0x3c/0x41 [nfs]
      	 [<ffffffff810885d3>] try_to_release_page+0x32/0x3b
      	 [<ffffffff81093203>] shrink_page_list+0x316/0x4ac
      	 [<ffffffff8109372b>] shrink_inactive_list+0x392/0x67c
      	 [<ffffffff813532fa>] ? __mutex_unlock_slowpath+0x100/0x10b
      	 [<ffffffff81058df0>] ? trace_hardirqs_on_caller+0x10c/0x130
      	 [<ffffffff8135330e>] ? mutex_unlock+0x9/0xb
      	 [<ffffffff81093aa2>] shrink_list+0x8d/0x8f
      	 [<ffffffff81093d1c>] shrink_zone+0x278/0x33c
      	 [<ffffffff81052d6c>] ? ktime_get_ts+0xad/0xba
      	 [<ffffffff81094b13>] try_to_free_pages+0x22e/0x392
      	 [<ffffffff81091e24>] ? isolate_pages_global+0x0/0x212
      	 [<ffffffff8108e743>] __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x3dc/0x5cf
      	 [<ffffffff81089529>] grab_cache_page_write_begin+0x65/0xaa
      	 [<ffffffff8110f8c0>] ext3_write_begin+0x78/0x1eb
      	 [<ffffffff81089ec5>] generic_file_buffered_write+0x109/0x28c
      	 [<ffffffff8103cb69>] ? current_fs_time+0x22/0x29
      	 [<ffffffff8108a509>] __generic_file_aio_write+0x350/0x385
      	 [<ffffffff8108a588>] ? generic_file_aio_write+0x4a/0xae
      	 [<ffffffff8108a59e>] generic_file_aio_write+0x60/0xae
      	 [<ffffffff810b2e82>] do_sync_write+0xe3/0x120
      	 [<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
      	 [<ffffffff810b18e1>] ? __dentry_open+0x1a5/0x2b8
      	 [<ffffffff810b1a76>] ? dentry_open+0x82/0x89
      	 [<ffffffffa00e693c>] cachefiles_write_page+0x298/0x335 [cachefiles]
      	 [<ffffffffa0077147>] fscache_write_op+0x178/0x2c2 [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffffa0075656>] fscache_op_execute+0x7a/0xd1 [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffff81082093>] slow_work_execute+0x18f/0x2d1
      	 [<ffffffff8108239a>] slow_work_thread+0x1c5/0x308
      	 [<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
      	 [<ffffffff810821d5>] ? slow_work_thread+0x0/0x308
      	 [<ffffffff8104be91>] kthread+0x7a/0x82
      	 [<ffffffff8100beda>] child_rip+0xa/0x20
      	 [<ffffffff8100b87c>] ? restore_args+0x0/0x30
      	 [<ffffffff8102ef83>] ? tg_shares_up+0x171/0x227
      	 [<ffffffff8104be17>] ? kthread+0x0/0x82
      	 [<ffffffff8100bed0>] ? child_rip+0x0/0x20
      In the above backtrace, the following is happening:
       (1) A page storage operation is being executed by a slow-work thread
       (2) FS-Cache farms the operation out to the cache to perform
       (3) CacheFiles is then calling Ext3 to perform the actual write, using Ext3's
           standard write (do_sync_write()) under KERNEL_DS directly from the netfs
       (4) However, for Ext3 to perform the write, it must allocate some memory, in
           particular, it must allocate at least one page cache page into which it
           can copy the data from the netfs page.
       (5) Under OOM conditions, the memory allocator can't immediately come up with
           a page, so it uses vmscan to find something to discard
       (6) vmscan finds a clean netfs page it might be able to discard (possibly the
           one it's trying to write out).
       (7) The netfs is called to throw the page away (nfs_release_page()) - but it's
           called with __GFP_WAIT, so the netfs decides to wait for the store to
           complete (__fscache_wait_on_page_write()).
       (8) This blocks a slow-work processing thread - possibly against itself.
      The system ends up stuck because it can't write out any netfs pages to the
      cache without allocating more memory.
      To avoid this, we make FS-Cache cancel some writes that aren't in the middle of
      actually being performed.  This means that some data won't make it into the
      cache this time.  To support this, a new FS-Cache function is added
      fscache_maybe_release_page() that replaces what the netfs releasepage()
      functions used to do with respect to the cache.
      The decisions fscache_maybe_release_page() makes are counted and displayed
      through /proc/fs/fscache/stats on a line labelled "VmScan".  There are four
      counters provided: "nos=N" - pages that weren't pending storage; "gon=N" -
      pages that were pending storage when we first looked, but weren't by the time
      we got the object lock; "bsy=N" - pages that we ignored as they were actively
      being written when we looked; and "can=N" - pages that we cancelled the storage
      What I'd really like to do is alter the behaviour of the cancellation
      heuristics, depending on how necessary it is to expel pages.  If there are
      plenty of other pages that aren't waiting to be written to the cache that
      could be ejected first, then it would be nice to hold up on immediate
      cancellation of cache writes - but I don't see a way of doing that.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Handle read request vs lookup, creation or other cache failure · e3d4d28b
      David Howells authored
      FS-Cache doesn't correctly handle the netfs requesting a read from the cache
      on an object that failed or was withdrawn by the cache.  A trace similar to
      the following might be seen:
      	CacheFiles: Lookup failed error -105
      	[exe   ] unexpected submission OP165afe [OBJ6cac OBJECT_LC_DYING]
      	[exe   ] objstate=OBJECT_LC_DYING [OBJECT_LC_DYING]
      	[exe   ] objflags=0
      	[exe   ] objevent=9 [fffffffffffffffb]
      	[exe   ] ops=0 inp=0 exc=0
      	Pid: 6970, comm: exe Not tainted 2.6.32-rc6-cachefs #50
      	Call Trace:
      	 [<ffffffffa0076477>] fscache_submit_op+0x3ff/0x45a [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffffa0077997>] __fscache_read_or_alloc_pages+0x187/0x3c4 [fscache]
      	 [<ffffffffa00b6480>] ? nfs_readpage_from_fscache_complete+0x0/0x66 [nfs]
      	 [<ffffffffa00b6388>] __nfs_readpages_from_fscache+0x7e/0x176 [nfs]
      	 [<ffffffff8108e483>] ? __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x11c/0x5cf
      	 [<ffffffffa009d796>] nfs_readpages+0x114/0x1d7 [nfs]
      	 [<ffffffff81090314>] __do_page_cache_readahead+0x15f/0x1ec
      	 [<ffffffff81090228>] ? __do_page_cache_readahead+0x73/0x1ec
      	 [<ffffffff810903bd>] ra_submit+0x1c/0x20
      	 [<ffffffff810906bb>] ondemand_readahead+0x227/0x23a
      	 [<ffffffff81090762>] page_cache_sync_readahead+0x17/0x19
      	 [<ffffffff8108a99e>] generic_file_aio_read+0x236/0x5a0
      	 [<ffffffffa00937bd>] nfs_file_read+0xe4/0xf3 [nfs]
      	 [<ffffffff810b2fa2>] do_sync_read+0xe3/0x120
      	 [<ffffffff81354cc3>] ? _spin_unlock_irq+0x2b/0x31
      	 [<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
      	 [<ffffffff811848e5>] ? selinux_file_permission+0x5d/0x10f
      	 [<ffffffff81352bdb>] ? thread_return+0x3e/0x101
      	 [<ffffffff8117d7b0>] ? security_file_permission+0x11/0x13
      	 [<ffffffff810b3b06>] vfs_read+0xaa/0x16f
      	 [<ffffffff81058df0>] ? trace_hardirqs_on_caller+0x10c/0x130
      	 [<ffffffff810b3c84>] sys_read+0x45/0x6c
      	 [<ffffffff8100ae2b>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b
      The object state might also be OBJECT_DYING or OBJECT_WITHDRAWING.
      This should be handled by simply rejecting the new operation with ENOBUFS.
      There's no need to log an error for it.  Events of this type now appear in the
      stats file under Ops:rej.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Don't delete pending pages from the page-store tracking tree · 285e728b
      David Howells authored
      Don't delete pending pages from the page-store tracking tree, but rather send
      them for another write as they've presumably been updated.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Fix lock misorder in fscache_write_op() · 1bccf513
      David Howells authored
      FS-Cache has two structs internally for keeping track of the internal state of
      a cached file: the fscache_cookie struct, which represents the netfs's state,
      and fscache_object struct, which represents the cache's state.  Each has a
      pointer that points to the other (when both are in existence), and each has a
      spinlock for pointer maintenance.
      Since netfs operations approach these structures from the cookie side, they get
      the cookie lock first, then the object lock.  Cache operations, on the other
      hand, approach from the object side, and get the object lock first.  It is not
      then permitted for a cache operation to get the cookie lock whilst it is
      holding the object lock lest deadlock occur; instead, it must do one of two
       (1) increment the cookie usage counter, drop the object lock and then get both
           locks in order, or
       (2) simply hold the object lock as certain parts of the cookie may not be
           altered whilst the object lock is held.
      It is also not permitted to follow either pointer without holding the lock at
      the end you start with.  To break the pointers between the cookie and the
      object, both locks must be held.
      fscache_write_op(), however, violates the locking rules: It attempts to get the
      cookie lock without (a) checking that the cookie pointer is a valid pointer,
      and (b) holding the object lock to protect the cookie pointer whilst it follows
      it.  This is so that it can access the pending page store tree without
      interference from __fscache_write_page().
      This is fixed by splitting the cookie lock, such that the page store tracking
      tree is protected by its own lock, and checking that the cookie pointer is
      non-NULL before we attempt to follow it whilst holding the object lock.
      The new lock is subordinate to both the cookie lock and the object lock, and so
      should be taken after those.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: The object-available state can't rely on the cookie to be available · 6897e3df
      David Howells authored
      The object-available state in the object processing state machine (as
      processed by fscache_object_available()) can't rely on the cookie to be
      available because the FSCACHE_COOKIE_CREATING bit may have been cleared by
      fscache_obtained_object() prior to the object being put into the
      Clearing the FSCACHE_COOKIE_CREATING bit on a cookie permits
      __fscache_relinquish_cookie() to proceed and detach the cookie from the
      To deal with this, we don't dereference object->cookie in
      fscache_object_available() if the object has already been detached.
      In addition, a couple of assertions are added into fscache_drop_object() to
      make sure the object is unbound from the cookie before it gets there.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Permit cache retrieval ops to be interrupted in the initial wait phase · 5753c441
      David Howells authored
      Permit the operations to retrieve data from the cache or to allocate space in
      the cache for future writes to be interrupted whilst they're waiting for
      permission for the operation to proceed.  Typically this wait occurs whilst the
      cache object is being looked up on disk in the background.
      If an interruption occurs, and the operation has not yet been given the
      go-ahead to run, the operation is dequeued and cancelled, and control returns
      to the read operation of the netfs routine with none of the requested pages
      having been read or in any way marked as known by the cache.
      This means that the initial wait is done interruptibly rather than
      In addition, extra stats values are made available to show the number of ops
      cancelled and the number of cache space allocations interrupted.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Use radix tree preload correctly in tracking of pages to be stored · b34df792
      David Howells authored
      __fscache_write_page() attempts to load the radix tree preallocation pool for
      the CPU it is on before calling radix_tree_insert(), as the insertion must be
      done inside a pair of spinlocks.
      Use of the preallocation pool, however, is contingent on the radix tree being
      initialised without __GFP_WAIT specified.  __fscache_acquire_cookie() was
      passing GFP_NOFS to INIT_RADIX_TREE() - but that includes __GFP_WAIT.
      The solution is to AND out __GFP_WAIT.
      Additionally, the banner comment to radix_tree_preload() is altered to make
      note of this prerequisite.  Possibly there should be a WARN_ON() too.
      Without this fix, I have seen the following recursive deadlock caused by
      radix_tree_insert() attempting to allocate memory inside the spinlocked
      region, which resulted in FS-Cache being called back into to release memory -
      which required the spinlock already held.
      [ INFO: possible recursive locking detected ]
      2.6.32-rc6-cachefs #24
      nfsiod/7916 is trying to acquire lock:
       (&cookie->lock){+.+.-.}, at: [<ffffffffa0076872>] __fscache_uncache_page+0xdb/0x160 [fscache]
      but task is already holding lock:
       (&cookie->lock){+.+.-.}, at: [<ffffffffa0076acc>] __fscache_write_page+0x15c/0x3f3 [fscache]
      other info that might help us debug this:
      5 locks held by nfsiod/7916:
       #0:  (nfsiod){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffff81048290>] worker_thread+0x19a/0x2e2
       #1:  (&task->u.tk_work#2){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffff81048290>] worker_thread+0x19a/0x2e2
       #2:  (&cookie->lock){+.+.-.}, at: [<ffffffffa0076acc>] __fscache_write_page+0x15c/0x3f3 [fscache]
       #3:  (&object->lock#2){+.+.-.}, at: [<ffffffffa0076b07>] __fscache_write_page+0x197/0x3f3 [fscache]
       #4:  (&cookie->stores_lock){+.+...}, at: [<ffffffffa0076b0f>] __fscache_write_page+0x19f/0x3f3 [fscache]
      stack backtrace:
      Pid: 7916, comm: nfsiod Not tainted 2.6.32-rc6-cachefs #24
      Call Trace:
       [<ffffffff8105ac7f>] __lock_acquire+0x1649/0x16e3
       [<ffffffff81059ded>] ? __lock_acquire+0x7b7/0x16e3
       [<ffffffff8100e27d>] ? dump_trace+0x248/0x257
       [<ffffffff8105ad70>] lock_acquire+0x57/0x6d
       [<ffffffffa0076872>] ? __fscache_uncache_page+0xdb/0x160 [fscache]
       [<ffffffff8135467c>] _spin_lock+0x2c/0x3b
       [<ffffffffa0076872>] ? __fscache_uncache_page+0xdb/0x160 [fscache]
       [<ffffffffa0076872>] __fscache_uncache_page+0xdb/0x160 [fscache]
       [<ffffffffa0077eb7>] ? __fscache_check_page_write+0x0/0x71 [fscache]
       [<ffffffffa00b4755>] nfs_fscache_release_page+0x86/0xc4 [nfs]
       [<ffffffffa00907f0>] nfs_release_page+0x3c/0x41 [nfs]
       [<ffffffff81087ffb>] try_to_release_page+0x32/0x3b
       [<ffffffff81092c2b>] shrink_page_list+0x316/0x4ac
       [<ffffffff81058a9b>] ? mark_held_locks+0x52/0x70
       [<ffffffff8135451b>] ? _spin_unlock_irq+0x2b/0x31
       [<ffffffff81093153>] shrink_inactive_list+0x392/0x67c
       [<ffffffff81058a9b>] ? mark_held_locks+0x52/0x70
       [<ffffffff810934ca>] shrink_list+0x8d/0x8f
       [<ffffffff81093744>] shrink_zone+0x278/0x33c
       [<ffffffff81052c70>] ? ktime_get_ts+0xad/0xba
       [<ffffffff8109453b>] try_to_free_pages+0x22e/0x392
       [<ffffffff8109184c>] ? isolate_pages_global+0x0/0x212
       [<ffffffff8108e16b>] __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x3dc/0x5cf
       [<ffffffff810ae24a>] cache_alloc_refill+0x34d/0x6c1
       [<ffffffff811bcf74>] ? radix_tree_node_alloc+0x52/0x5c
       [<ffffffff810ae929>] kmem_cache_alloc+0xb2/0x118
       [<ffffffff811bcf74>] radix_tree_node_alloc+0x52/0x5c
       [<ffffffff811bcfd5>] radix_tree_insert+0x57/0x19c
       [<ffffffffa0076b53>] __fscache_write_page+0x1e3/0x3f3 [fscache]
       [<ffffffffa00b4248>] __nfs_readpage_to_fscache+0x58/0x11e [nfs]
       [<ffffffffa009bb77>] nfs_readpage_release+0x34/0x9b [nfs]
       [<ffffffffa009c0d9>] nfs_readpage_release_full+0x32/0x4b [nfs]
       [<ffffffffa0006cff>] rpc_release_calldata+0x12/0x14 [sunrpc]
       [<ffffffffa0006e2d>] rpc_free_task+0x59/0x61 [sunrpc]
       [<ffffffffa0006f03>] rpc_async_release+0x10/0x12 [sunrpc]
       [<ffffffff810482e5>] worker_thread+0x1ef/0x2e2
       [<ffffffff81048290>] ? worker_thread+0x19a/0x2e2
       [<ffffffff81352433>] ? thread_return+0x3e/0x101
       [<ffffffffa0006ef3>] ? rpc_async_release+0x0/0x12 [sunrpc]
       [<ffffffff8104bff5>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
       [<ffffffff81058d25>] ? trace_hardirqs_on+0xd/0xf
       [<ffffffff810480f6>] ? worker_thread+0x0/0x2e2
       [<ffffffff8104bd21>] kthread+0x7a/0x82
       [<ffffffff8100beda>] child_rip+0xa/0x20
       [<ffffffff8100b87c>] ? restore_args+0x0/0x30
       [<ffffffff8104c2b9>] ? add_wait_queue+0x15/0x44
       [<ffffffff8104bca7>] ? kthread+0x0/0x82
       [<ffffffff8100bed0>] ? child_rip+0x0/0x20
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Clear netfs pointers in cookie after detaching object, not before · 7e311a20
      David Howells authored
      Clear the pointers from the fscache_cookie struct to netfs private data after
      clearing the pointer to the cookie from the fscache_object struct and
      releasing the object lock, rather than before.
      This allows the netfs private data pointers to be relied on simply by holding
      the object lock, rather than having to hold the cookie lock.  This is makes
      things simpler as the cookie lock has to be taken before the object lock, but
      sometimes the object pointer is all that the code has.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Add counters for entry/exit to/from cache operation functions · 52bd75fd
      David Howells authored
      Count entries to and exits from cache operation table functions.  Maintain
      these as a single counter that's added to or removed from as appropriate.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Allow the current state of all objects to be dumped · 4fbf4291
      David Howells authored
      Allow the current state of all fscache objects to be dumped by doing:
      	cat /proc/fs/fscache/objects
      By default, all objects and all fields will be shown.  This can be restricted
      by adding a suitable key to one of the caller's keyrings (such as the session
      	keyctl add user fscache:objlist "<restrictions>" @s
      The <restrictions> are:
      	K	Show hexdump of object key (don't show if not given)
      	A	Show hexdump of object aux data (don't show if not given)
      And paired restrictions:
      	C	Show objects that have a cookie
      	c	Show objects that don't have a cookie
      	B	Show objects that are busy
      	b	Show objects that aren't busy
      	W	Show objects that have pending writes
      	w	Show objects that don't have pending writes
      	R	Show objects that have outstanding reads
      	r	Show objects that don't have outstanding reads
      	S	Show objects that have slow work queued
      	s	Show objects that don't have slow work queued
      If neither side of a restriction pair is given, then both are implied.  For
      	keyctl add user fscache:objlist KB @s
      shows objects that are busy, and lists their object keys, but does not dump
      their auxiliary data.  It also implies "CcWwRrSs", but as 'B' is given, 'b' is
      not implied.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Annotate slow-work runqueue proc lines for FS-Cache work items · 440f0aff
      David Howells authored
      Annotate slow-work runqueue proc lines for FS-Cache work items.  Objects
      include the object ID and the state.  Operations include the object ID, the
      operation ID and the operation type and state.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      SLOW_WORK: Wait for outstanding work items belonging to a module to clear · 3d7a641e
      David Howells authored
      Wait for outstanding slow work items belonging to a module to clear when
      unregistering that module as a user of the facility.  This prevents the put_ref
      code of a work item from being taken away before it returns.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
  10. 27 May, 2009 1 commit
  11. 03 Apr, 2009 12 commits
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Implement data I/O part of netfs API · b5108822
      David Howells authored
      Implement the data I/O part of the FS-Cache netfs API.  The documentation and
      API header file were added in a previous patch.
      This patch implements the following functions for the netfs to call:
       (*) fscache_attr_changed().
           Indicate that the object has changed its attributes.  The only attribute
           currently recorded is the file size.  Only pages within the set file size
           will be stored in the cache.
           This operation is submitted for asynchronous processing, and will return
           immediately.  It will return -ENOMEM if an out of memory error is
           encountered, -ENOBUFS if the object is not actually cached, or 0 if the
           operation is successfully queued.
       (*) fscache_read_or_alloc_page().
       (*) fscache_read_or_alloc_pages().
           Request data be fetched from the disk, and allocate internal metadata to
           track the netfs pages and reserve disk space for unknown pages.
           These operations perform semi-asynchronous data reads.  Upon returning
           they will indicate which pages they think can be retrieved from disk, and
           will have set in progress attempts to retrieve those pages.
           These will return, in order of preference, -ENOMEM on memory allocation
           error, -ERESTARTSYS if a signal interrupted proceedings, -ENODATA if one
           or more requested pages are not yet cached, -ENOBUFS if the object is not
           actually cached or if there isn't space for future pages to be cached on
           this object, or 0 if successful.
           In the case of the multipage function, the pages for which reads are set
           in progress will be removed from the list and the page count decreased
           If any read operations should fail, the completion function will be given
           an error, and will also be passed contextual information to allow the
           netfs to fall back to querying the server for the absent pages.
           For each successful read, the page completion function will also be
           Any pages subsequently tracked by the cache will have PG_fscache set upon
           them on return.  fscache_uncache_page() must be called for such pages.
           If supplied by the netfs, the mark_pages_cached() cookie op will be
           invoked for any pages now tracked.
       (*) fscache_alloc_page().
           Allocate internal metadata to track a netfs page and reserve disk space.
           This will return -ENOMEM on memory allocation error, -ERESTARTSYS on
           signal, -ENOBUFS if the object isn't cached, or there isn't enough space
           in the cache, or 0 if successful.
           Any pages subsequently tracked by the cache will have PG_fscache set upon
           them on return.  fscache_uncache_page() must be called for such pages.
           If supplied by the netfs, the mark_pages_cached() cookie op will be
           invoked for any pages now tracked.
       (*) fscache_write_page().
           Request data be stored to disk.  This may only be called on pages that
           have been read or alloc'd by the above three functions and have not yet
           been uncached.
           This will return -ENOMEM on memory allocation error, -ERESTARTSYS on
           signal, -ENOBUFS if the object isn't cached, or there isn't immediately
           enough space in the cache, or 0 if successful.
           On a successful return, this operation will have queued the page for
           asynchronous writing to the cache.  The page will be returned with
           PG_fscache_write set until the write completes one way or another.  The
           caller will not be notified if the write fails due to an I/O error.  If
           that happens, the object will become available and all pending writes will
           be aborted.
           Note that the cache may batch up page writes, and so it may take a while
           to get around to writing them out.
           The caller must assume that until PG_fscache_write is cleared the page is
           use by the cache.  Any changes made to the page may be reflected on disk.
           The page may even be under DMA.
       (*) fscache_uncache_page().
           Indicate that the cache should stop tracking a page previously read or
           alloc'd from the cache.  If the page was alloc'd only, but unwritten, it
           will not appear on disk.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Add and document asynchronous operation handling · 952efe7b
      David Howells authored
      Add and document asynchronous operation handling for use by FS-Cache's data
      storage and retrieval routines.
      The following documentation is added to:
      FS-Cache has an asynchronous operations handling facility that it uses for its
      data storage and retrieval routines.  Its operations are represented by
      fscache_operation structs, though these are usually embedded into some other
      This facility is available to and expected to be be used by the cache backends,
      and FS-Cache will create operations and pass them off to the appropriate cache
      backend for completion.
      To make use of this facility, <linux/fscache-cache.h> should be #included.
      An operation is recorded in an fscache_operation struct:
      	struct fscache_operation {
      		union {
      			struct work_struct fast_work;
      			struct slow_work slow_work;
      		unsigned long		flags;
      		fscache_operation_processor_t processor;
      Someone wanting to issue an operation should allocate something with this
      struct embedded in it.  They should initialise it by calling:
      	void fscache_operation_init(struct fscache_operation *op,
      				    fscache_operation_release_t release);
      with the operation to be initialised and the release function to use.
      The op->flags parameter should be set to indicate the CPU time provision and
      the exclusivity (see the Parameters section).
      The op->fast_work, op->slow_work and op->processor flags should be set as
      appropriate for the CPU time provision (see the Parameters section).
      FSCACHE_OP_WAITING may be set in op->flags prior to each submission of the
      operation and waited for afterwards.
      There are a number of parameters that can be set in the operation record's flag
      parameter.  There are three options for the provision of CPU time in these
       (1) The operation may be done synchronously (FSCACHE_OP_MYTHREAD).  A thread
           may decide it wants to handle an operation itself without deferring it to
           another thread.
           This is, for example, used in read operations for calling readpages() on
           the backing filesystem in CacheFiles.  Although readpages() does an
           asynchronous data fetch, the determination of whether pages exist is done
           synchronously - and the netfs does not proceed until this has been
           If this option is to be used, FSCACHE_OP_WAITING must be set in op->flags
           before submitting the operation, and the operating thread must wait for it
           to be cleared before proceeding:
      		wait_on_bit(&op->flags, FSCACHE_OP_WAITING,
      			    fscache_wait_bit, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
       (2) The operation may be fast asynchronous (FSCACHE_OP_FAST), in which case it
           will be given to keventd to process.  Such an operation is not permitted
           to sleep on I/O.
           This is, for example, used by CacheFiles to copy data from a backing fs
           page to a netfs page after the backing fs has read the page in.
           If this option is used, op->fast_work and op->processor must be
           initialised before submitting the operation:
      		INIT_WORK(&op->fast_work, do_some_work);
       (3) The operation may be slow asynchronous (FSCACHE_OP_SLOW), in which case it
           will be given to the slow work facility to process.  Such an operation is
           permitted to sleep on I/O.
           This is, for example, used by FS-Cache to handle background writes of
           pages that have just been fetched from a remote server.
           If this option is used, op->slow_work and op->processor must be
           initialised before submitting the operation:
      		fscache_operation_init_slow(op, processor)
      Furthermore, operations may be one of two types:
       (1) Exclusive (FSCACHE_OP_EXCLUSIVE).  Operations of this type may not run in
           conjunction with any other operation on the object being operated upon.
           An example of this is the attribute change operation, in which the file
           being written to may need truncation.
       (2) Shareable.  Operations of this type may be running simultaneously.  It's
           up to the operation implementation to prevent interference between other
           operations running at the same time.
      Operations are used through the following procedure:
       (1) The submitting thread must allocate the operation and initialise it
           itself.  Normally this would be part of a more specific structure with the
           generic op embedded within.
       (2) The submitting thread must then submit the operation for processing using
           one of the following two functions:
      	int fscache_submit_op(struct fscache_object *object,
      			      struct fscache_operation *op);
      	int fscache_submit_exclusive_op(struct fscache_object *object,
      					struct fscache_operation *op);
           The first function should be used to submit non-exclusive ops and the
           second to submit exclusive ones.  The caller must still set the
           FSCACHE_OP_EXCLUSIVE flag.
           If successful, both functions will assign the operation to the specified
           object and return 0.  -ENOBUFS will be returned if the object specified is
           permanently unavailable.
           The operation manager will defer operations on an object that is still
           undergoing lookup or creation.  The operation will also be deferred if an
           operation of conflicting exclusivity is in progress on the object.
           If the operation is asynchronous, the manager will retain a reference to
           it, so the caller should put their reference to it by passing it to:
      	void fscache_put_operation(struct fscache_operation *op);
       (3) If the submitting thread wants to do the work itself, and has marked the
           operation with FSCACHE_OP_MYTHREAD, then it should monitor
           FSCACHE_OP_WAITING as described above and check the state of the object if
           necessary (the object might have died whilst the thread was waiting).
           When it has finished doing its processing, it should call
           fscache_put_operation() on it.
       (4) The operation holds an effective lock upon the object, preventing other
           exclusive ops conflicting until it is released.  The operation can be
           enqueued for further immediate asynchronous processing by adjusting the
           CPU time provisioning option if necessary, eg:
      	op->flags &= ~FSCACHE_OP_TYPE;
      	op->flags |= ~FSCACHE_OP_FAST;
           and calling:
      	void fscache_enqueue_operation(struct fscache_operation *op)
           This can be used to allow other things to have use of the worker thread
      When used in asynchronous mode, the worker thread pool will invoke the
      processor method with a pointer to the operation.  This should then get at the
      container struct by using container_of():
      	static void fscache_write_op(struct fscache_operation *_op)
      		struct fscache_storage *op =
      			container_of(_op, struct fscache_storage, op);
      The caller holds a reference on the operation, and will invoke
      fscache_put_operation() when the processor function returns.  The processor
      function is at liberty to call fscache_enqueue_operation() or to take extra
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Implement the cookie management part of the netfs API · ccc4fc3d
      David Howells authored
      Implement the cookie management part of the FS-Cache netfs client API.  The
      documentation and API header file were added in a previous patch.
      This patch implements the following three functions:
       (1) fscache_acquire_cookie().
           Acquire a cookie to represent an object to the netfs.  If the object in
           question is a non-index object, then that object and its parent indices
           will be created on disk at this point if they don't already exist.  Index
           creation is deferred because an index may reside in multiple caches.
       (2) fscache_relinquish_cookie().
           Retire or release a cookie previously acquired.  At this point, the
           object on disk may be destroyed.
       (3) fscache_update_cookie().
           Update the in-cache representation of a cookie.  This is used to update
           the auxiliary data for coherency management purposes.
      With this patch it is possible to have a netfs instruct a cache backend to
      look up, validate and create metadata on disk and to destroy it again.
      The ability to actually store and retrieve data in the objects so created is
      added in later patches.
      Note that these functions will never return an error.  _All_ errors are
      handled internally to FS-Cache.
      The worst that can happen is that fscache_acquire_cookie() may return a NULL
      pointer - which is considered a negative cookie pointer and can be passed back
      to any function that takes a cookie without harm.  A negative cookie pointer
      merely suppresses caching at that level.
      The stub in linux/fscache.h will detect inline the negative cookie pointer and
      abort the operation as fast as possible.  This means that the compiler doesn't
      have to set up for a call in that case.
      See the documentation in Documentation/filesystems/caching/netfs-api.txt for
      more information.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Object management state machine · 36c95590
      David Howells authored
      Implement the cache object management state machine.
      The following documentation is added to illuminate the working of this state
      machine.  It will also be added as:
      FS-Cache maintains an in-kernel representation of each object that a netfs is
      currently interested in.  Such objects are represented by the fscache_cookie
      struct and are referred to as cookies.
      FS-Cache also maintains a separate in-kernel representation of the objects that
      a cache backend is currently actively caching.  Such objects are represented by
      the fscache_object struct.  The cache backends allocate these upon request, and
      are expected to embed them in their own representations.  These are referred to
      as objects.
      There is a 1:N relationship between cookies and objects.  A cookie may be
      represented by multiple objects - an index may exist in more than one cache -
      or even by no objects (it may not be cached).
      Furthermore, both cookies and objects are hierarchical.  The two hierarchies
      correspond, but the cookies tree is a superset of the union of the object trees
      of multiple caches:
      	    NETFS INDEX TREE               :      CACHE 1     :      CACHE 2
      	                                   :                  :
      	                                   :   +-----------+  :
      	                          +----------->|  IObject  |  :
      	      +-----------+       |        :   +-----------+  :
      	      |  ICookie  |-------+        :         |        :
      	      +-----------+       |        :         |        :   +-----------+
      	            |             +------------------------------>|  IObject  |
      	            |                      :         |        :   +-----------+
      	            |                      :         V        :         |
      	            |                      :   +-----------+  :         |
      	            V             +----------->|  IObject  |  :         |
      	      +-----------+       |        :   +-----------+  :         |
      	      |  ICookie  |-------+        :         |        :         V
      	      +-----------+       |        :         |        :   +-----------+
      	            |             +------------------------------>|  IObject  |
      	      +-----+-----+                :         |        :   +-----------+
      	      |           |                :         |        :         |
      	      V           |                :         V        :         |
      	+-----------+     |                :   +-----------+  :         |
      	|  ICookie  |------------------------->|  IObject  |  :         |
      	+-----------+     |                :   +-----------+  :         |
      	      |           V                :         |        :         V
      	      |     +-----------+          :         |        :   +-----------+
      	      |     |  ICookie  |-------------------------------->|  IObject  |
      	      |     +-----------+          :         |        :   +-----------+
      	      V           |                :         V        :         |
      	+-----------+     |                :   +-----------+  :         |
      	|  DCookie  |------------------------->|  DObject  |  :         |
      	+-----------+     |                :   +-----------+  :         |
      	                  |                :                  :         |
      	          +-------+-------+        :                  :         |
      	          |               |        :                  :         |
      	          V               V        :                  :         V
      	    +-----------+   +-----------+  :                  :   +-----------+
      	    |  DCookie  |   |  DCookie  |------------------------>|  DObject  |
      	    +-----------+   +-----------+  :                  :   +-----------+
      	                                   :                  :
      In the above illustration, ICookie and IObject represent indices and DCookie
      and DObject represent data storage objects.  Indices may have representation in
      multiple caches, but currently, non-index objects may not.  Objects of any type
      may also be entirely unrepresented.
      As far as the netfs API goes, the netfs is only actually permitted to see
      pointers to the cookies.  The cookies themselves and any objects attached to
      those cookies are hidden from it.
      Within FS-Cache, each active object is managed by its own individual state
      machine.  The state for an object is kept in the fscache_object struct, in
      object->state.  A cookie may point to a set of objects that are in different
      Each state has an action associated with it that is invoked when the machine
      wakes up in that state.  There are four logical sets of states:
       (1) Preparation: states that wait for the parent objects to become ready.  The
           representations are hierarchical, and it is expected that an object must
           be created or accessed with respect to its parent object.
       (2) Initialisation: states that perform lookups in the cache and validate
           what's found and that create on disk any missing metadata.
       (3) Normal running: states that allow netfs operations on objects to proceed
           and that update the state of objects.
       (4) Termination: states that detach objects from their netfs cookies, that
           delete objects from disk, that handle disk and system errors and that free
           up in-memory resources.
      In most cases, transitioning between states is in response to signalled events.
      When a state has finished processing, it will usually set the mask of events in
      which it is interested (object->event_mask) and relinquish the worker thread.
      Then when an event is raised (by calling fscache_raise_event()), if the event
      is not masked, the object will be queued for processing (by calling
      The work to be done by the various states is given CPU time by the threads of
      the slow work facility (see Documentation/slow-work.txt).  This is used in
      preference to the workqueue facility because:
       (1) Threads may be completely occupied for very long periods of time by a
           particular work item.  These state actions may be doing sequences of
           synchronous, journalled disk accesses (lookup, mkdir, create, setxattr,
           getxattr, truncate, unlink, rmdir, rename).
       (2) Threads may do little actual work, but may rather spend a lot of time
           sleeping on I/O.  This means that single-threaded and 1-per-CPU-threaded
           workqueues don't necessarily have the right numbers of threads.
      Because only one worker thread may be operating on any particular object's
      state machine at once, this simplifies the locking, particularly with respect
      to disconnecting the netfs's representation of a cache object (fscache_cookie)
      from the cache backend's representation (fscache_object) - which may be
      requested from either end.
      The object state machine has a set of states that it can be in.  There are
      preparation states in which the object sets itself up and waits for its parent
      object to transit to a state that allows access to its children:
       (1) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_INIT.
           Initialise the object and wait for the parent object to become active.  In
           the cache, it is expected that it will not be possible to look an object
           up from the parent object, until that parent object itself has been looked
      There are initialisation states in which the object sets itself up and accesses
      disk for the object metadata:
           Look up the object on disk, using the parent as a starting point.
           FS-Cache expects the cache backend to probe the cache to see whether this
           object is represented there, and if it is, to see if it's valid (coherency
           The cache should call fscache_object_lookup_negative() to indicate lookup
           failure for whatever reason, and should call fscache_obtained_object() to
           indicate success.
           At the completion of lookup, FS-Cache will let the netfs go ahead with
           read operations, no matter whether the file is yet cached.  If not yet
           cached, read operations will be immediately rejected with ENODATA until
           the first known page is uncached - as to that point there can be no data
           to be read out of the cache for that file that isn't currently also held
           in the pagecache.
           Create an object on disk, using the parent as a starting point.  This
           happens if the lookup failed to find the object, or if the object's
           coherency data indicated what's on disk is out of date.  In this state,
           FS-Cache expects the cache to create
           The cache should call fscache_obtained_object() if creation completes
           successfully, fscache_object_lookup_negative() otherwise.
           At the completion of creation, FS-Cache will start processing write
           operations the netfs has queued for an object.  If creation failed, the
           write ops will be transparently discarded, and nothing recorded in the
      There are some normal running states in which the object spends its time
      servicing netfs requests:
           A transient state in which pending operations are started, child objects
           are permitted to advance from FSCACHE_OBJECT_INIT state, and temporary
           lookup data is freed.
           The normal running state.  In this state, requests the netfs makes will be
           passed on to the cache.
           The state machine comes here to update the object in the cache from the
           netfs's records.  This involves updating the auxiliary data that is used
           to maintain coherency.
      And there are terminal states in which an object cleans itself up, deallocates
      memory and potentially deletes stuff from disk:
           The object comes here if it is dying because of a lookup or creation
           error.  This would be due to a disk error or system error of some sort.
           Temporary data is cleaned up, and the parent is released.
       (8) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_DYING.
           The object comes here if it is dying due to an error, because its parent
           cookie has been relinquished by the netfs or because the cache is being
           Any child objects waiting on this one are given CPU time so that they too
           can destroy themselves.  This object waits for all its children to go away
           before advancing to the next state.
           The object comes to this state if it was waiting on its parent in
           FSCACHE_OBJECT_INIT, but its parent died.  The object will destroy itself
           so that the parent may proceed from the FSCACHE_OBJECT_DYING state.
           The object comes to one of these two states when dying once it is rid of
           all its children, if it is dying because the netfs relinquished its
           cookie.  In the first state, the cached data is expected to persist, and
           in the second it will be deleted.
           The object transits to this state if the cache decides it wants to
           withdraw the object from service, perhaps to make space, but also due to
           error or just because the whole cache is being withdrawn.
      (13) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_DEAD.
           The object transits to this state when the in-memory object record is
           ready to be deleted.  The object processor shouldn't ever see an object in
           this state.
      There are a number of events that can be raised to an object state machine:
           The netfs requested that an object be updated.  The state machine will ask
           the cache backend to update the object, and the cache backend will ask the
           netfs for details of the change through its cookie definition ops.
           This is signalled in two circumstances:
           (a) when an object's last child object is dropped and
           (b) when the last operation outstanding on an object is completed.
           This is used to proceed from the dying state.
           This is signalled when an I/O error occurs during the processing of some
           These are signalled when the netfs relinquishes a cookie it was using.
           The event selected depends on whether the netfs asks for the backing
           object to be retired (deleted) or retained.
           This is signalled when the cache backend wants to withdraw an object.
           This means that the object will have to be detached from the netfs's
      Because the withdrawing releasing/retiring events are all handled by the object
      state machine, it doesn't matter if there's a collision with both ends trying
      to sever the connection at the same time.  The state machine can just pick
      which one it wants to honour, and that effects the other.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Bit waiting helpers · 2868cbea
      David Howells authored
      Add helpers for use with wait_on_bit().
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Add netfs registration · 726dd7ff
      David Howells authored
      Add functions to register and unregister a network filesystem or other client
      of the FS-Cache service.  This allocates and releases the cookie representing
      the top-level index for a netfs, and makes it available to the netfs.
      If the FS-Cache facility is disabled, then the calls are optimised away at
      compile time.
      Note that whilst this patch may appear to work with FS-Cache enabled and a
      netfs attempting to use it, it will leak the cookie it allocates for the netfs
      as fscache_relinquish_cookie() is implemented in a later patch.  This will
      cause the slab code to emit a warning when the module is removed.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Provide a slab for cookie allocation · 955d0091
      David Howells authored
      Provide a slab from which can be allocated the FS-Cache cookies that will be
      presented to the netfs.
      Also provide a slab constructor and a function to recursively discard a cookie
      and its ancestor chain.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Add cache management · 4c515dd4
      David Howells authored
      Implement the entry points by which a cache backend may initialise, add,
      declare an error upon and withdraw a cache.
      Further, an object is created in sysfs under which each cache added will get
      an object created:
      All of this is described in Documentation/filesystems/caching/backend-api.txt
      added by a previous patch.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Add cache tag handling · 0e04d4ce
      David Howells authored
      Implement two features of FS-Cache:
       (1) The ability to request and release cache tags - names by which a cache may
           be known to a netfs, and thus selected for use.
       (2) An internal function by which a cache is selected by consulting the netfs,
           if the netfs wishes to be consulted.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Root index definition · a6891645
      David Howells authored
      Add a description of the root index of the cache for later patches to make use
      The root index is owned by FS-Cache itself.  When a netfs requests caching
      facilities, FS-Cache will, if one doesn't already exist, create an entry in
      the root index with the key being the name of the netfs ("AFS" for example),
      and the auxiliary data holding the index structure version supplied by the
      				 |           |
      				NFS         AFS
      			       [v=1]       [v=1]
      If an entry with the appropriate name does already exist, the version is
      compared.  If the version is different, the entire subtree from that entry
      will be discarded and a new entry created.
      The new entry will be an index, and a cookie referring to it will be passed to
      the netfs.  This is then the root handle by which the netfs accesses the
      cache.  It can create whatever objects it likes in that index, including
      further indices.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Add use of /proc and presentation of statistics · 7394daa8
      David Howells authored
      Make FS-Cache create its /proc interface and present various statistical
      information through it.  Also provide the functions for updating this
      These features are enabled by:
      The /proc directory for FS-Cache is also exported so that caching modules can
      add their own statistics there too.
      The FS-Cache module is loadable at this point, and the statistics files can be
      examined by userspace:
      	cat /proc/fs/fscache/stats
      	cat /proc/fs/fscache/histogram
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>
    • David Howells's avatar
      FS-Cache: Add main configuration option, module entry points and debugging · 06b3db1b
      David Howells authored
      Add the main configuration option, allowing FS-Cache to be selected; the
      module entry and exit functions and the debugging stuff used by these patches.
      The two configuration options added are:
      The first enables the facility, and the second makes the debugging statements
      enableable through the "debug" module parameter.  The value of this parameter
      is a bitmask as described in:
      The module can be loaded at this point, but all it will do at this point in
      the patch series is to start up the slow work facility and shut it down again.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarSteve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTrond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Tested-by: default avatarDaire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>