1. 27 May, 2010 1 commit
  2. 21 May, 2010 18 commits
    • Roland Dreier's avatar
      vfs: add lockdep annotation to s_vfs_rename_key for ecryptfs · 51ee049e
      Roland Dreier authored
       >  =============================================
       >  [ INFO: possible recursive locking detected ]
       >  2.6.31-2-generic #14~rbd3
       >  ---------------------------------------------
       >  firefox-3.5/4162 is trying to acquire lock:
       >   (&s->s_vfs_rename_mutex){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffff81139d31>] lock_rename+0x41/0xf0
       >
       >  but task is already holding lock:
       >   (&s->s_vfs_rename_mutex){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffff81139d31>] lock_rename+0x41/0xf0
       >
       >  other info that might help us debug this:
       >  3 locks held by firefox-3.5/4162:
       >   #0:  (&s->s_vfs_rename_mutex){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffff81139d31>] lock_rename+0x41/0xf0
       >   #1:  (&sb->s_type->i_mutex_key#11/1){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffff81139d5a>] lock_rename+0x6a/0xf0
       >   #2:  (&sb->s_type->i_mutex_key#11/2){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffff81139d6f>] lock_rename+0x7f/0xf0
       >
       >  stack backtrace:
       >  Pid: 4162, comm: firefox-3.5 Tainted: G         C 2.6.31-2-generic #14~rbd3
       >  Call Trace:
       >   [<ffffffff8108ae74>] print_deadlock_bug+0xf4/0x100
       >   [<ffffffff8108ce26>] validate_chain+0x4c6/0x750
       >   [<ffffffff8108d2e7>] __lock_acquire+0x237/0x430
       >   [<ffffffff8108d585>] lock_acquire+0xa5/0x150
       >   [<ffffffff81139d31>] ? lock_rename+0x41/0xf0
       >   [<ffffffff815526ad>] __mutex_lock_common+0x4d/0x3d0
       >   [<ffffffff81139d31>] ? lock_rename+0x41/0xf0
       >   [<ffffffff81139d31>] ? lock_rename+0x41/0xf0
       >   [<ffffffff8120eaf9>] ? ecryptfs_rename+0x99/0x170
       >   [<ffffffff81552b36>] mutex_lock_nested+0x46/0x60
       >   [<ffffffff81139d31>] lock_rename+0x41/0xf0
       >   [<ffffffff8120eb2a>] ecryptfs_rename+0xca/0x170
       >   [<ffffffff81139a9e>] vfs_rename_dir+0x13e/0x160
       >   [<ffffffff8113ac7e>] vfs_rename+0xee/0x290
       >   [<ffffffff8113c212>] ? __lookup_hash+0x102/0x160
       >   [<ffffffff8113d512>] sys_renameat+0x252/0x280
       >   [<ffffffff81133eb4>] ? cp_new_stat+0xe4/0x100
       >   [<ffffffff8101316a>] ? sysret_check+0x2e/0x69
       >   [<ffffffff8108c34d>] ? trace_hardirqs_on_caller+0x14d/0x190
       >   [<ffffffff8113d55b>] sys_rename+0x1b/0x20
       >   [<ffffffff81013132>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b
      
      The trace above is totally reproducible by doing a cross-directory
      rename on an ecryptfs directory.
      
      The issue seems to be that sys_renameat() does lock_rename() then calls
      into the filesystem; if the filesystem is ecryptfs, then
      ecryptfs_rename() again does lock_rename() on the lower filesystem, and
      lockdep can't tell that the two s_vfs_rename_mutexes are different.  It
      seems an annotation like the following is sufficient to fix this (it
      does get rid of the lockdep trace in my simple tests); however I would
      like to make sure I'm not misunderstanding the locking, hence the CC
      list...
      Signed-off-by: default avatarRoland Dreier <rdreier@cisco.com>
      Cc: Tyler Hicks <tyhicks@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Dustin Kirkland <kirkland@canonical.com>
      Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      51ee049e
    • Josef Bacik's avatar
      Introduce freeze_super and thaw_super for the fsfreeze ioctl · 18e9e510
      Josef Bacik authored
      Currently the way we do freezing is by passing sb>s_bdev to freeze_bdev and then
      letting it do all the work.  But freezing is more of an fs thing, and doesn't
      really have much to do with the bdev at all, all the work gets done with the
      super.  In btrfs we do not populate s_bdev, since we can have multiple bdev's
      for one fs and setting s_bdev makes removing devices from a pool kind of tricky.
      This means that freezing a btrfs filesystem fails, which causes us to corrupt
      with things like tux-on-ice which use the fsfreeze mechanism.  So instead of
      populating sb->s_bdev with a random bdev in our pool, I've broken the actual fs
      freezing stuff into freeze_super and thaw_super.  These just take the
      super_block that we're freezing and does the appropriate work.  It's basically
      just copy and pasted from freeze_bdev.  I've then converted freeze_bdev over to
      use the new super helpers.  I've tested this with ext4 and btrfs and verified
      everything continues to work the same as before.
      
      The only new gotcha is multiple calls to the fsfreeze ioctl will return EBUSY if
      the fs is already frozen.  I thought this was a better solution than adding a
      freeze counter to the super_block, but if everybody hates this idea I'm open to
      suggestions.  Thanks,
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJosef Bacik <josef@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      18e9e510
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Trim includes in fs/super.c · e1e46bf1
      Al Viro authored
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      e1e46bf1
    • Al Viro's avatar
      d3f21473
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Take statfs variants to fs/statfs.c · 7ed1ee61
      Al Viro authored
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      7ed1ee61
    • Al Viro's avatar
      new helper: iterate_supers() · 01a05b33
      Al Viro authored
      ... and switch the simple "loop over superblocks and do something"
      loops to it.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      01a05b33
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Bury __put_super_and_need_restart() · 35cf7ba0
      Al Viro authored
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      35cf7ba0
    • Al Viro's avatar
      In get_super() and user_get_super() restarts are unconditional · df40c01a
      Al Viro authored
      If superblock had been still alive, we would've returned it...
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      df40c01a
    • Al Viro's avatar
      fix get_active_super()/umount() race · 1494583d
      Al Viro authored
      This one needs restarts...
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      1494583d
    • Al Viro's avatar
      fix do_emergency_remount()/umount() races · e7fe0585
      Al Viro authored
      need list_for_each_entry_safe() here.  Original didn't even
      have restart logics, so if you race with umount() it blew up.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      e7fe0585
    • Al Viro's avatar
    • Al Viro's avatar
      get rid of restarts in sync_filesystems() · 8edd64bd
      Al Viro authored
      At the same time we can kill s_need_restart and local mutex in there.
      __put_super() made public for a while; will be gone later.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      8edd64bd
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Leave superblocks on s_list until the end · 551de6f3
      Al Viro authored
      We used to remove from s_list and s_instances at the same
      time.  So let's *not* do the former and skip superblocks
      that have empty s_instances in the loops over s_list.
      
      The next step, of course, will be to get rid of rescan logics
      in those loops.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      551de6f3
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Saner locking around deactivate_super() · 1712ac8f
      Al Viro authored
      Make sure that s_umount is acquired *before* we drop the final
      active reference; we still have the fast path (atomic_dec_unless)
      and we have gotten rid of the window between the moment when
      s_active hits zero and s_umount is acquired.  Which simplifies
      the living hell out of grab_super() and inotify pin_to_kill()
      stuff.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      1712ac8f
    • Al Viro's avatar
      get rid of S_BIAS · b20bd1a5
      Al Viro authored
      use atomic_inc_not_zero(&sb->s_active) instead of playing games with
      checking ->s_count > S_BIAS
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      b20bd1a5
    • Al Viro's avatar
      389b8be6
    • Christoph Hellwig's avatar
      a135aa2c
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      writeback: fix problem with !CONFIG_BLOCK compilation · c2c4986e
      Jens Axboe authored
      When CONFIG_BLOCK isn't enabled:
      
      mm/page-writeback.c: In function 'laptop_mode_timer_fn':
      mm/page-writeback.c:708: error: dereferencing pointer to incomplete type
      mm/page-writeback.c:709: error: dereferencing pointer to incomplete type
      
      Fix this by essentially eliminating the laptop sync handlers when
      CONFIG_BLOCK isn't set, as most are only used from the block layer code.
      The exception is laptop_sync_completion() which is used from sys_sync(),
      make that an empty declaration in that case.
      Reported-by: default avatarRandy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
      c2c4986e
  3. 29 Apr, 2010 1 commit
  4. 25 Apr, 2010 1 commit
    • Jörn Engel's avatar
      Catch filesystems lacking s_bdi · 5129a469
      Jörn Engel authored
      noop_backing_dev_info is used only as a flag to mark filesystems that
      don't have any backing store, like tmpfs, procfs, spufs, etc.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJoern Engel <joern@logfs.org>
      
      Changed the BUG_ON() to a WARN_ON(). Note that adding dirty inodes
      to the noop_backing_dev_info is not legal and will not result in
      them being flushed, but we already catch this condition in
      __mark_inode_dirty() when checking for a registered bdi.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
      5129a469
  5. 03 Mar, 2010 2 commits
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Mirror MS_KERNMOUNT in ->mnt_flags · 8089352a
      Al Viro authored
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      8089352a
    • Nick Piggin's avatar
      fs: improve remount,ro vs buffercache coherency · d208bbdd
      Nick Piggin authored
      Invalidate sb->s_bdev on remount,ro.
      
      Fixes a problem reported by Jorge Boncompte who is seeing corruption
      trying to snapshot a minix filesystem image.  Some filesystems modify
      their metadata via a path other than the bdev buffer cache (eg.  they may
      use a private linear mapping for their metadata, or implement directories
      in pagecache, etc).  Also, file data modifications usually go to the bdev
      via their own mappings.
      
      These updates are not coherent with buffercache IO (eg.  via /dev/bdev)
      and never have been.  However there could be a reasonable expectation that
      after a mount -oremount,ro operation then the buffercache should
      subsequently be coherent with previous filesystem modifications.
      
      So invalidate the bdev mappings on a remount,ro operation to provide a
      coherency point.
      
      The problem was exposed when we switched the old rd to brd because old rd
      didn't really function like a normal block device and updates to rd via
      mappings other than the buffercache would still end up going into its
      buffercache.  But the same problem has always affected other "normal"
      block devices, including loop.
      
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: repair comment layout]
      Reported-by: default avatar"Jorge Boncompte [DTI2]" <jorge@dti2.net>
      Tested-by: default avatar"Jorge Boncompte [DTI2]" <jorge@dti2.net>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarNick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de>
      Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      d208bbdd
  6. 23 Dec, 2009 1 commit
  7. 24 Sep, 2009 3 commits
    • Christoph Hellwig's avatar
      freeze_bdev: grab active reference to frozen superblocks · 4504230a
      Christoph Hellwig authored
      Currently we held s_umount while a filesystem is frozen, despite that we
      might return to userspace and unlock it from a different process.  Instead
      grab an active reference to keep the file system busy and add an explicit
      check for frozen filesystems in remount and reject the remount instead
      of blocking on s_umount.
      
      Add a new get_active_super helper to super.c for use by freeze_bdev that
      grabs an active reference to a superblock from a given block device.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      4504230a
    • Christoph Hellwig's avatar
      freeze_bdev: kill bd_mount_sem · 4fadd7bb
      Christoph Hellwig authored
      Now that we have the freeze count there is not much reason for bd_mount_sem
      anymore.  The actual freeze/thaw operations are serialized using the
      bd_fsfreeze_mutex, and the only other place we take bd_mount_sem is
      get_sb_bdev which tries to prevent mounting a filesystem while the block
      device is frozen.  Instead of add a check for bd_fsfreeze_count and
      return -EBUSY if a filesystem is frozen.  While that is a change in user
      visible behaviour a failing mount is much better for this case rather
      than having the mount process stuck uninterruptible for a long time.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      4fadd7bb
    • Jeff Layton's avatar
      vfs: change sb->s_maxbytes to a loff_t · 42cb56ae
      Jeff Layton authored
      sb->s_maxbytes is supposed to indicate the maximum size of a file that can
      exist on the filesystem.  It's declared as an unsigned long long.
      
      Even if a filesystem has no inherent limit that prevents it from using
      every bit in that unsigned long long, it's still problematic to set it to
      anything larger than MAX_LFS_FILESIZE.  There are places in the kernel
      that cast s_maxbytes to a signed value.  If it's set too large then this
      cast makes it a negative number and generally breaks the comparison.
      
      Change s_maxbytes to be loff_t instead.  That should help eliminate the
      temptation to set it too large by making it a signed value.
      
      Also, add a warning for couple of releases to help catch filesystems that
      set s_maxbytes too large.  Eventually we can either convert this to a
      BUG() or just remove it and in the hope that no one will get it wrong now
      that it's a signed value.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Cc: Robert Love <rlove@google.com>
      Cc: Mandeep Singh Baines <msb@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      42cb56ae
  8. 22 Sep, 2009 1 commit
  9. 16 Sep, 2009 1 commit
  10. 11 Sep, 2009 2 commits
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      writeback: switch to per-bdi threads for flushing data · 03ba3782
      Jens Axboe authored
      This gets rid of pdflush for bdi writeout and kupdated style cleaning.
      pdflush writeout suffers from lack of locality and also requires more
      threads to handle the same workload, since it has to work in a
      non-blocking fashion against each queue. This also introduces lumpy
      behaviour and potential request starvation, since pdflush can be starved
      for queue access if others are accessing it. A sample ffsb workload that
      does random writes to files is about 8% faster here on a simple SATA drive
      during the benchmark phase. File layout also seems a LOT more smooth in
      vmstat:
      
       r  b   swpd   free   buff  cache   si   so    bi    bo   in    cs us sy id wa
       0  1      0 608848   2652 375372    0    0     0 71024  604    24  1 10 48 42
       0  1      0 549644   2712 433736    0    0     0 60692  505    27  1  8 48 44
       1  0      0 476928   2784 505192    0    0     4 29540  553    24  0  9 53 37
       0  1      0 457972   2808 524008    0    0     0 54876  331    16  0  4 38 58
       0  1      0 366128   2928 614284    0    0     4 92168  710    58  0 13 53 34
       0  1      0 295092   3000 684140    0    0     0 62924  572    23  0  9 53 37
       0  1      0 236592   3064 741704    0    0     4 58256  523    17  0  8 48 44
       0  1      0 165608   3132 811464    0    0     0 57460  560    21  0  8 54 38
       0  1      0 102952   3200 873164    0    0     4 74748  540    29  1 10 48 41
       0  1      0  48604   3252 926472    0    0     0 53248  469    29  0  7 47 45
      
      where vanilla tends to fluctuate a lot in the creation phase:
      
       r  b   swpd   free   buff  cache   si   so    bi    bo   in    cs us sy id wa
       1  1      0 678716   5792 303380    0    0     0 74064  565    50  1 11 52 36
       1  0      0 662488   5864 319396    0    0     4   352  302   329  0  2 47 51
       0  1      0 599312   5924 381468    0    0     0 78164  516    55  0  9 51 40
       0  1      0 519952   6008 459516    0    0     4 78156  622    56  1 11 52 37
       1  1      0 436640   6092 541632    0    0     0 82244  622    54  0 11 48 41
       0  1      0 436640   6092 541660    0    0     0     8  152    39  0  0 51 49
       0  1      0 332224   6200 644252    0    0     4 102800  728    46  1 13 49 36
       1  0      0 274492   6260 701056    0    0     4 12328  459    49  0  7 50 43
       0  1      0 211220   6324 763356    0    0     0 106940  515    37  1 10 51 39
       1  0      0 160412   6376 813468    0    0     0  8224  415    43  0  6 49 45
       1  1      0  85980   6452 886556    0    0     4 113516  575    39  1 11 54 34
       0  2      0  85968   6452 886620    0    0     0  1640  158   211  0  0 46 54
      
      A 10 disk test with btrfs performs 26% faster with per-bdi flushing. A
      SSD based writeback test on XFS performs over 20% better as well, with
      the throughput being very stable around 1GB/sec, where pdflush only
      manages 750MB/sec and fluctuates wildly while doing so. Random buffered
      writes to many files behave a lot better as well, as does random mmap'ed
      writes.
      
      A separate thread is added to sync the super blocks. In the long term,
      adding sync_supers_bdi() functionality could get rid of this thread again.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
      03ba3782
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      writeback: move dirty inodes from super_block to backing_dev_info · 66f3b8e2
      Jens Axboe authored
      This is a first step at introducing per-bdi flusher threads. We should
      have no change in behaviour, although sb_has_dirty_inodes() is now
      ridiculously expensive, as there's no easy way to answer that question.
      Not a huge problem, since it'll be deleted in subsequent patches.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
      66f3b8e2
  11. 24 Jun, 2009 2 commits
    • Al Viro's avatar
      ... and the same for vfsmount id/mount group id · f21f6220
      Al Viro authored
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      f21f6220
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Make allocation of anon devices cheaper · c63e09ec
      Al Viro authored
      Standard trick - add a new variable (start) such that
      for each n < start n is known to be busy.  Allocation can
      skip checking everything in [0..start) and if it returns
      n, we can set start to n + 1.  Freeing below start sets
      start to what we'd just freed.
      
      Of course, it still sucks if we do something like
      	free 0
      	allocate
      	allocate
      in a loop - still O(n^2) time.  However, on saner loads it
      improves the things a lot and the entire thing is not worth
      the trouble of switching to something with better worst-case
      behaviour.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      c63e09ec
  12. 16 Jun, 2009 1 commit
  13. 11 Jun, 2009 6 commits
    • Alessio Igor Bogani's avatar
      Push BKL down into ->remount_fs() · 337eb00a
      Alessio Igor Bogani authored
      [xfs, btrfs, capifs, shmem don't need BKL, exempt]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlessio Igor Bogani <abogani@texware.it>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      337eb00a
    • Christoph Hellwig's avatar
      ->write_super lock_super pushdown · ebc1ac16
      Christoph Hellwig authored
      Push down lock_super into ->write_super instances and remove it from the
      caller.
      
      Following filesystem don't need ->s_lock in ->write_super and are skipped:
      
       * bfs, nilfs2 - no other uses of s_lock and have internal locks in
      	->write_super
       * ext2 - uses BKL in ext2_write_super and has internal calls without s_lock
       * reiserfs - no other uses of s_lock as has reiserfs_write_lock (BKL) in
       	->write_super
       * xfs - no other uses of s_lock and uses internal lock (buffer lock on
      	superblock buffer) to serialize ->write_super.  Also xfs_fs_write_super
      	is superflous and will go away in the next merge window
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      ebc1ac16
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Push BKL down into do_remount_sb() · 4aa98cf7
      Al Viro authored
      [folded fix from Jiri Slaby]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      4aa98cf7
    • Al Viro's avatar
      Push lock_super() into the ->remount_fs() of filesystems that care about it · bbd6851a
      Al Viro authored
      Note that since we can't run into contention between remount_fs and write_super
      (due to exclusion on s_umount), we have to care only about filesystems that
      touch lock_super() on their own.  Out of those ext3, ext4, hpfs, sysv and ufs
      do need it; fat doesn't since its ->remount_fs() only accesses assign-once
      data (basically, it's "we have no atime on directories and only have atime on
      files for vfat; force nodiratime and possibly noatime into *flags").
      
      [folded a build fix from hch]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      bbd6851a
    • Christoph Hellwig's avatar
      push BKL down into ->put_super · 6cfd0148
      Christoph Hellwig authored
      Move BKL into ->put_super from the only caller.  A couple of
      filesystems had trivial enough ->put_super (only kfree and NULLing of
      s_fs_info + stuff in there) to not get any locking: coda, cramfs, efs,
      hugetlbfs, omfs, qnx4, shmem, all others got the full treatment.  Most
      of them probably don't need it, but I'd rather sort that out individually.
      Preferably after all the other BKL pushdowns in that area.
      
      [AV: original used to move lock_super() down as well; these changes are
      removed since we don't do lock_super() at all in generic_shutdown_super()
      now]
      [AV: fuse, btrfs and xfs are known to need no damn BKL, exempt]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      6cfd0148
    • Al Viro's avatar
      No need to do lock_super() for exclusion in generic_shutdown_super() · a9e220f8
      Al Viro authored
      We can't run into contention on it.  All other callers of lock_super()
      either hold s_umount (and we have it exclusive) or hold an active
      reference to superblock in question, which prevents the call of
      generic_shutdown_super() while the reference is held.  So we can
      replace lock_super(s) with get_fs_excl() in generic_shutdown_super()
      (and corresponding change for unlock_super(), of course).
      
      Since ext4 expects s_lock held for its put_super, take lock_super()
      into it.  The rest of filesystems do not care at all.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAl Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      a9e220f8