1. 21 Sep, 2013 1 commit
  2. 20 Sep, 2013 13 commits
  3. 19 Sep, 2013 1 commit
    • Ansis Atteka's avatar
      ip: generate unique IP identificator if local fragmentation is allowed · 703133de
      Ansis Atteka authored
      If local fragmentation is allowed, then ip_select_ident() and
      ip_select_ident_more() need to generate unique IDs to ensure
      correct defragmentation on the peer.
      
      For example, if IPsec (tunnel mode) has to encrypt large skbs
      that have local_df bit set, then all IP fragments that belonged
      to different ESP datagrams would have used the same identificator.
      If one of these IP fragments would get lost or reordered, then
      peer could possibly stitch together wrong IP fragments that did
      not belong to the same datagram. This would lead to a packet loss
      or data corruption.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAnsis Atteka <aatteka@nicira.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
      703133de
  4. 18 Sep, 2013 1 commit
  5. 17 Sep, 2013 1 commit
  6. 16 Sep, 2013 1 commit
    • Jozsef Kadlecsik's avatar
      netfilter: ipset: Consistent userspace testing with nomatch flag · 0f1799ba
      Jozsef Kadlecsik authored
      The "nomatch" commandline flag should invert the matching at testing,
      similarly to the --return-nomatch flag of the "set" match of iptables.
      Until now it worked with the elements with "nomatch" flag only. From
      now on it works with elements without the flag too, i.e:
      
       # ipset n test hash:net
       # ipset a test 10.0.0.0/24 nomatch
       # ipset t test 10.0.0.1
       10.0.0.1 is NOT in set test.
       # ipset t test 10.0.0.1 nomatch
       10.0.0.1 is in set test.
      
       # ipset a test 192.168.0.0/24
       # ipset t test 192.168.0.1
       192.168.0.1 is in set test.
       # ipset t test 192.168.0.1 nomatch
       192.168.0.1 is NOT in set test.
      
       Before the patch the results were
      
       ...
       # ipset t test 192.168.0.1
       192.168.0.1 is in set test.
       # ipset t test 192.168.0.1 nomatch
       192.168.0.1 is in set test.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJozsef Kadlecsik <kadlec@blackhole.kfki.hu>
      0f1799ba
  7. 15 Sep, 2013 1 commit
  8. 13 Sep, 2013 3 commits
  9. 12 Sep, 2013 15 commits
    • Kirill A. Shutemov's avatar
      thp: consolidate code between handle_mm_fault() and do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page() · c0292554
      Kirill A. Shutemov authored
      do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page() has copy-pasted piece of handle_mm_fault()
      to handle fallback path.
      
      Let's consolidate code back by introducing VM_FAULT_FALLBACK return
      code.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarHillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com>
      Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
      Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com>
      Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
      Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
      Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
      Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Matthew Wilcox <willy@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      c0292554
    • Kirill A. Shutemov's avatar
      truncate: drop 'oldsize' truncate_pagecache() parameter · 7caef267
      Kirill A. Shutemov authored
      truncate_pagecache() doesn't care about old size since commit
      cedabed4 ("vfs: Fix vmtruncate() regression").  Let's drop it.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: OGAWA Hirofumi <hirofumi@mail.parknet.co.jp>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      7caef267
    • Chris Metcalf's avatar
      mm: make lru_add_drain_all() selective · 5fbc4616
      Chris Metcalf authored
      make lru_add_drain_all() only selectively interrupt the cpus that have
      per-cpu free pages that can be drained.
      
      This is important in nohz mode where calling mlockall(), for example,
      otherwise will interrupt every core unnecessarily.
      
      This is important on workloads where nohz cores are handling 10 Gb traffic
      in userspace.  Those CPUs do not enter the kernel and place pages into LRU
      pagevecs and they really, really don't want to be interrupted, or they
      drop packets on the floor.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      5fbc4616
    • Sha Zhengju's avatar
      memcg: add per cgroup writeback pages accounting · 3ea67d06
      Sha Zhengju authored
      Add memcg routines to count writeback pages, later dirty pages will also
      be accounted.
      
      After Kame's commit 89c06bd5 ("memcg: use new logic for page stat
      accounting"), we can use 'struct page' flag to test page state instead
      of per page_cgroup flag.  But memcg has a feature to move a page from a
      cgroup to another one and may have race between "move" and "page stat
      accounting".  So in order to avoid the race we have designed a new lock:
      
               mem_cgroup_begin_update_page_stat()
               modify page information        -->(a)
               mem_cgroup_update_page_stat()  -->(b)
               mem_cgroup_end_update_page_stat()
      
      It requires both (a) and (b)(writeback pages accounting) to be pretected
      in mem_cgroup_{begin/end}_update_page_stat().  It's full no-op for
      !CONFIG_MEMCG, almost no-op if memcg is disabled (but compiled in), rcu
      read lock in the most cases (no task is moving), and spin_lock_irqsave
      on top in the slow path.
      
      There're two writeback interfaces to modify: test_{clear/set}_page_writeback().
      And the lock order is:
      	--> memcg->move_lock
      	  --> mapping->tree_lock
      Signed-off-by: default avatarSha Zhengju <handai.szj@taobao.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarGreg Thelen <gthelen@google.com>
      Cc: Fengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
      Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      3ea67d06
    • Sha Zhengju's avatar
      memcg: remove MEMCG_NR_FILE_MAPPED · 68b4876d
      Sha Zhengju authored
      While accounting memcg page stat, it's not worth to use
      MEMCG_NR_FILE_MAPPED as an extra layer of indirection because of the
      complexity and presumed performance overhead.  We can use
      MEM_CGROUP_STAT_FILE_MAPPED directly.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarSha Zhengju <handai.szj@taobao.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Acked-by: default avatarFengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarGreg Thelen <gthelen@google.com>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      68b4876d
    • Sha Zhengju's avatar
      memcg: rename RESOURCE_MAX to RES_COUNTER_MAX · 6de5a8bf
      Sha Zhengju authored
      RESOURCE_MAX is far too general name, change it to RES_COUNTER_MAX.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarSha Zhengju <handai.szj@taobao.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarQiang Huang <h.huangqiang@huawei.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Cc: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp>
      Cc: Jeff Liu <jeff.liu@oracle.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      6de5a8bf
    • Sha Zhengju's avatar
      memcg: correct RESOURCE_MAX to ULLONG_MAX · 34ff8dc0
      Sha Zhengju authored
      Current RESOURCE_MAX is ULONG_MAX, but the value we used to set resource
      limit is unsigned long long, so we can set bigger value than that which is
      strange.  The XXX_MAX should be reasonable max value, bigger than that
      should be overflow.
      
      Notice that this change will affect user output of default *.limit_in_bytes:
      before change:
      
        $ cat /cgroup/memory/memory.limit_in_bytes
        9223372036854775807
      
      after change:
      
        $ cat /cgroup/memory/memory.limit_in_bytes
        18446744073709551615
      
      But it doesn't alter the API in term of input - we can still use "echo -1
      > *.limit_in_bytes" to reset the numbers to "unlimited".
      Signed-off-by: default avatarSha Zhengju <handai.szj@taobao.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarQiang Huang <h.huangqiang@huawei.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Cc: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp>
      Cc: Jeff Liu <jeff.liu@oracle.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      34ff8dc0
    • Johannes Weiner's avatar
      mm: memcg: do not trap chargers with full callstack on OOM · 3812c8c8
      Johannes Weiner authored
      The memcg OOM handling is incredibly fragile and can deadlock.  When a
      task fails to charge memory, it invokes the OOM killer and loops right
      there in the charge code until it succeeds.  Comparably, any other task
      that enters the charge path at this point will go to a waitqueue right
      then and there and sleep until the OOM situation is resolved.  The problem
      is that these tasks may hold filesystem locks and the mmap_sem; locks that
      the selected OOM victim may need to exit.
      
      For example, in one reported case, the task invoking the OOM killer was
      about to charge a page cache page during a write(), which holds the
      i_mutex.  The OOM killer selected a task that was just entering truncate()
      and trying to acquire the i_mutex:
      
      OOM invoking task:
        mem_cgroup_handle_oom+0x241/0x3b0
        mem_cgroup_cache_charge+0xbe/0xe0
        add_to_page_cache_locked+0x4c/0x140
        add_to_page_cache_lru+0x22/0x50
        grab_cache_page_write_begin+0x8b/0xe0
        ext3_write_begin+0x88/0x270
        generic_file_buffered_write+0x116/0x290
        __generic_file_aio_write+0x27c/0x480
        generic_file_aio_write+0x76/0xf0           # takes ->i_mutex
        do_sync_write+0xea/0x130
        vfs_write+0xf3/0x1f0
        sys_write+0x51/0x90
        system_call_fastpath+0x18/0x1d
      
      OOM kill victim:
        do_truncate+0x58/0xa0              # takes i_mutex
        do_last+0x250/0xa30
        path_openat+0xd7/0x440
        do_filp_open+0x49/0xa0
        do_sys_open+0x106/0x240
        sys_open+0x20/0x30
        system_call_fastpath+0x18/0x1d
      
      The OOM handling task will retry the charge indefinitely while the OOM
      killed task is not releasing any resources.
      
      A similar scenario can happen when the kernel OOM killer for a memcg is
      disabled and a userspace task is in charge of resolving OOM situations.
      In this case, ALL tasks that enter the OOM path will be made to sleep on
      the OOM waitqueue and wait for userspace to free resources or increase
      the group's limit.  But a userspace OOM handler is prone to deadlock
      itself on the locks held by the waiting tasks.  For example one of the
      sleeping tasks may be stuck in a brk() call with the mmap_sem held for
      writing but the userspace handler, in order to pick an optimal victim,
      may need to read files from /proc/<pid>, which tries to acquire the same
      mmap_sem for reading and deadlocks.
      
      This patch changes the way tasks behave after detecting a memcg OOM and
      makes sure nobody loops or sleeps with locks held:
      
      1. When OOMing in a user fault, invoke the OOM killer and restart the
         fault instead of looping on the charge attempt.  This way, the OOM
         victim can not get stuck on locks the looping task may hold.
      
      2. When OOMing in a user fault but somebody else is handling it
         (either the kernel OOM killer or a userspace handler), don't go to
         sleep in the charge context.  Instead, remember the OOMing memcg in
         the task struct and then fully unwind the page fault stack with
         -ENOMEM.  pagefault_out_of_memory() will then call back into the
         memcg code to check if the -ENOMEM came from the memcg, and then
         either put the task to sleep on the memcg's OOM waitqueue or just
         restart the fault.  The OOM victim can no longer get stuck on any
         lock a sleeping task may hold.
      
      Debugged by Michal Hocko.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Reported-by: default avatarazurIt <azurit@pobox.sk>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      3812c8c8
    • Johannes Weiner's avatar
      mm: memcg: enable memcg OOM killer only for user faults · 519e5247
      Johannes Weiner authored
      System calls and kernel faults (uaccess, gup) can handle an out of memory
      situation gracefully and just return -ENOMEM.
      
      Enable the memcg OOM killer only for user faults, where it's really the
      only option available.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: azurIt <azurit@pobox.sk>
      Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      519e5247
    • Johannes Weiner's avatar
      arch: mm: pass userspace fault flag to generic fault handler · 759496ba
      Johannes Weiner authored
      Unlike global OOM handling, memory cgroup code will invoke the OOM killer
      in any OOM situation because it has no way of telling faults occuring in
      kernel context - which could be handled more gracefully - from
      user-triggered faults.
      
      Pass a flag that identifies faults originating in user space from the
      architecture-specific fault handlers to generic code so that memcg OOM
      handling can be improved.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: azurIt <azurit@pobox.sk>
      Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      759496ba
    • Michal Hocko's avatar
      memcg: enhance memcg iterator to support predicates · de57780d
      Michal Hocko authored
      The caller of the iterator might know that some nodes or even subtrees
      should be skipped but there is no way to tell iterators about that so the
      only choice left is to let iterators to visit each node and do the
      selection outside of the iterating code.  This, however, doesn't scale
      well with hierarchies with many groups where only few groups are
      interesting.
      
      This patch adds mem_cgroup_iter_cond variant of the iterator with a
      callback which gets called for every visited node.  There are three
      possible ways how the callback can influence the walk.  Either the node is
      visited, it is skipped but the tree walk continues down the tree or the
      whole subtree of the current group is skipped.
      
      [hughd@google.com: fix memcg-less page reclaim]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Cc: Balbir Singh <bsingharora@gmail.com>
      Cc: Glauber Costa <glommer@openvz.org>
      Cc: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
      Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarHugh Dickins <hughd@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      de57780d
    • Michal Hocko's avatar
      vmscan, memcg: do softlimit reclaim also for targeted reclaim · a5b7c87f
      Michal Hocko authored
      Soft reclaim has been done only for the global reclaim (both background
      and direct).  Since "memcg: integrate soft reclaim tighter with zone
      shrinking code" there is no reason for this limitation anymore as the soft
      limit reclaim doesn't use any special code paths and it is a part of the
      zone shrinking code which is used by both global and targeted reclaims.
      
      From the semantic point of view it is natural to consider soft limit
      before touching all groups in the hierarchy tree which is touching the
      hard limit because soft limit tells us where to push back when there is a
      memory pressure.  It is not important whether the pressure comes from the
      limit or imbalanced zones.
      
      This patch simply enables soft reclaim unconditionally in
      mem_cgroup_should_soft_reclaim so it is enabled for both global and
      targeted reclaim paths.  mem_cgroup_soft_reclaim_eligible needs to learn
      about the root of the reclaim to know where to stop checking soft limit
      state of parents up the hierarchy.  Say we have
      
      A (over soft limit)
       \
        B (below s.l., hit the hard limit)
       / \
      C   D (below s.l.)
      
      B is the source of the outside memory pressure now for D but we shouldn't
      soft reclaim it because it is behaving well under B subtree and we can
      still reclaim from C (pressumably it is over the limit).
      mem_cgroup_soft_reclaim_eligible should therefore stop climbing up the
      hierarchy at B (root of the memory pressure).
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarGlauber Costa <glommer@openvz.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: Balbir Singh <bsingharora@gmail.com>
      Cc: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com>
      Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
      Cc: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      a5b7c87f
    • Michal Hocko's avatar
      memcg, vmscan: integrate soft reclaim tighter with zone shrinking code · 3b38722e
      Michal Hocko authored
      This patchset is sitting out of tree for quite some time without any
      objections.  I would be really happy if it made it into 3.12.  I do not
      want to push it too hard but I think this work is basically ready and
      waiting more doesn't help.
      
      The basic idea is quite simple.  Pull soft reclaim into shrink_zone in the
      first step and get rid of the previous soft reclaim infrastructure.
      shrink_zone is done in two passes now.  First it tries to do the soft
      limit reclaim and it falls back to reclaim-all mode if no group is over
      the limit or no pages have been scanned.  The second pass happens at the
      same priority so the only time we waste is the memcg tree walk which has
      been updated in the third step to have only negligible overhead.
      
      As a bonus we will get rid of a _lot_ of code by this and soft reclaim
      will not stand out like before when it wasn't integrated into the zone
      shrinking code and it reclaimed at priority 0 (the testing results show
      that some workloads suffers from such an aggressive reclaim).  The clean
      up is in a separate patch because I felt it would be easier to review that
      way.
      
      The second step is soft limit reclaim integration into targeted reclaim.
      It should be rather straight forward.  Soft limit has been used only for
      the global reclaim so far but it makes sense for any kind of pressure
      coming from up-the-hierarchy, including targeted reclaim.
      
      The third step (patches 4-8) addresses the tree walk overhead by enhancing
      memcg iterators to enable skipping whole subtrees and tracking number of
      over soft limit children at each level of the hierarchy.  This information
      is updated same way the old soft limit tree was updated (from
      memcg_check_events) so we shouldn't see an additional overhead.  In fact
      mem_cgroup_update_soft_limit is much simpler than tree manipulation done
      previously.
      
      __shrink_zone uses mem_cgroup_soft_reclaim_eligible as a predicate for
      mem_cgroup_iter so the decision whether a particular group should be
      visited is done at the iterator level which allows us to decide to skip
      the whole subtree as well (if there is no child in excess).  This reduces
      the tree walk overhead considerably.
      
      * TEST 1
      ========
      
      My primary test case was a parallel kernel build with 2 groups (make is
      running with -j8 with a distribution .config in a separate cgroup without
      any hard limit) on a 32 CPU machine booted with 1GB memory and both builds
      run taskset to Node 0 cpus.
      
      I was mostly interested in 2 setups.  Default - no soft limit set and -
      and 0 soft limit set to both groups.  The first one should tell us whether
      the rework regresses the default behavior while the second one should show
      us improvements in an extreme case where both workloads are always over
      the soft limit.
      
      /usr/bin/time -v has been used to collect the statistics and each
      configuration had 3 runs after fresh boot without any other load on the
      system.
      
      base is mmotm-2013-07-18-16-40
      rework all 8 patches applied on top of base
      
      * No-limit
      User
      no-limit/base: min: 651.92 max: 672.65 avg: 664.33 std: 8.01 runs: 6
      no-limit/rework: min: 657.34 [100.8%] max: 668.39 [99.4%] avg: 663.13 [99.8%] std: 3.61 runs: 6
      System
      no-limit/base: min: 69.33 max: 71.39 avg: 70.32 std: 0.79 runs: 6
      no-limit/rework: min: 69.12 [99.7%] max: 71.05 [99.5%] avg: 70.04 [99.6%] std: 0.59 runs: 6
      Elapsed
      no-limit/base: min: 398.27 max: 422.36 avg: 408.85 std: 7.74 runs: 6
      no-limit/rework: min: 386.36 [97.0%] max: 438.40 [103.8%] avg: 416.34 [101.8%] std: 18.85 runs: 6
      
      The results are within noise. Elapsed time has a bigger variance but the
      average looks good.
      
      * 0-limit
      User
      0-limit/base: min: 573.76 max: 605.63 avg: 585.73 std: 12.21 runs: 6
      0-limit/rework: min: 645.77 [112.6%] max: 666.25 [110.0%] avg: 656.97 [112.2%] std: 7.77 runs: 6
      System
      0-limit/base: min: 69.57 max: 71.13 avg: 70.29 std: 0.54 runs: 6
      0-limit/rework: min: 68.68 [98.7%] max: 71.40 [100.4%] avg: 69.91 [99.5%] std: 0.87 runs: 6
      Elapsed
      0-limit/base: min: 1306.14 max: 1550.17 avg: 1430.35 std: 90.86 runs: 6
      0-limit/rework: min: 404.06 [30.9%] max: 465.94 [30.1%] avg: 434.81 [30.4%] std: 22.68 runs: 6
      
      The improvement is really huge here (even bigger than with my previous
      testing and I suspect that this highly depends on the storage).  Page
      fault statistics tell us at least part of the story:
      
      Minor
      0-limit/base: min: 37180461.00 max: 37319986.00 avg: 37247470.00 std: 54772.71 runs: 6
      0-limit/rework: min: 36751685.00 [98.8%] max: 36805379.00 [98.6%] avg: 36774506.33 [98.7%] std: 17109.03 runs: 6
      Major
      0-limit/base: min: 170604.00 max: 221141.00 avg: 196081.83 std: 18217.01 runs: 6
      0-limit/rework: min: 2864.00 [1.7%] max: 10029.00 [4.5%] avg: 5627.33 [2.9%] std: 2252.71 runs: 6
      
      Same as with my previous testing Minor faults are more or less within
      noise but Major fault count is way bellow the base kernel.
      
      While this looks as a nice win it is fair to say that 0-limit
      configuration is quite artificial. So I was playing with 0-no-limit
      loads as well.
      
      * TEST 2
      ========
      
      The following results are from 2 groups configuration on a 16GB machine
      (single NUMA node).
      
      - A running stream IO (dd if=/dev/zero of=local.file bs=1024) with
        2*TotalMem with 0 soft limit.
      - B running a mem_eater which consumes TotalMem-1G without any limit. The
        mem_eater consumes the memory in 100 chunks with 1s nap after each
        mmap+poppulate so that both loads have chance to fight for the memory.
      
      The expected result is that B shouldn't be reclaimed and A shouldn't see
      a big dropdown in elapsed time.
      
      User
      base: min: 2.68 max: 2.89 avg: 2.76 std: 0.09 runs: 3
      rework: min: 3.27 [122.0%] max: 3.74 [129.4%] avg: 3.44 [124.6%] std: 0.21 runs: 3
      System
      base: min: 86.26 max: 88.29 avg: 87.28 std: 0.83 runs: 3
      rework: min: 81.05 [94.0%] max: 84.96 [96.2%] avg: 83.14 [95.3%] std: 1.61 runs: 3
      Elapsed
      base: min: 317.28 max: 332.39 avg: 325.84 std: 6.33 runs: 3
      rework: min: 281.53 [88.7%] max: 298.16 [89.7%] avg: 290.99 [89.3%] std: 6.98 runs: 3
      
      System time improved slightly as well as Elapsed. My previous testing
      has shown worse numbers but this again seem to depend on the storage
      speed.
      
      My theory is that the writeback doesn't catch up and prio-0 soft reclaim
      falls into wait on writeback page too often in the base kernel. The
      patched kernel doesn't do that because the soft reclaim is done from the
      kswapd/direct reclaim context. This can be seen on the following graph
      nicely. The A's group usage_in_bytes regurarly drops really low very often.
      
      All 3 runs
      http://labs.suse.cz/mhocko/soft_limit_rework/stream_io-vs-mem_eater/stream.png
      resp. a detail of the single run
      http://labs.suse.cz/mhocko/soft_limit_rework/stream_io-vs-mem_eater/stream-one-run.png
      
      mem_eater seems to be doing better as well. It gets to the full
      allocation size faster as can be seen on the following graph:
      http://labs.suse.cz/mhocko/soft_limit_rework/stream_io-vs-mem_eater/mem_eater-one-run.png
      
      /proc/meminfo collected during the test also shows that rework kernel
      hasn't swapped that much (well almost not at all):
      base: max: 123900 K avg: 56388.29 K
      rework: max: 300 K avg: 128.68 K
      
      kswapd and direct reclaim statistics are of no use unfortunatelly because
      soft reclaim is not accounted properly as the counters are hidden by
      global_reclaim() checks in the base kernel.
      
      * TEST 3
      ========
      
      Another test was the same configuration as TEST2 except the stream IO was
      replaced by a single kbuild (16 parallel jobs bound to Node0 cpus same as
      in TEST1) and mem_eater allocated TotalMem-200M so kbuild had only 200MB
      left.
      
      Kbuild did better with the rework kernel here as well:
      User
      base: min: 860.28 max: 872.86 avg: 868.03 std: 5.54 runs: 3
      rework: min: 880.81 [102.4%] max: 887.45 [101.7%] avg: 883.56 [101.8%] std: 2.83 runs: 3
      System
      base: min: 84.35 max: 85.06 avg: 84.79 std: 0.31 runs: 3
      rework: min: 85.62 [101.5%] max: 86.09 [101.2%] avg: 85.79 [101.2%] std: 0.21 runs: 3
      Elapsed
      base: min: 135.36 max: 243.30 avg: 182.47 std: 45.12 runs: 3
      rework: min: 110.46 [81.6%] max: 116.20 [47.8%] avg: 114.15 [62.6%] std: 2.61 runs: 3
      Minor
      base: min: 36635476.00 max: 36673365.00 avg: 36654812.00 std: 15478.03 runs: 3
      rework: min: 36639301.00 [100.0%] max: 36695541.00 [100.1%] avg: 36665511.00 [100.0%] std: 23118.23 runs: 3
      Major
      base: min: 14708.00 max: 53328.00 avg: 31379.00 std: 16202.24 runs: 3
      rework: min: 302.00 [2.1%] max: 414.00 [0.8%] avg: 366.33 [1.2%] std: 47.22 runs: 3
      
      Again we can see a significant improvement in Elapsed (it also seems to
      be more stable), there is a huge dropdown for the Major page faults and
      much more swapping:
      base: max: 583736 K avg: 112547.43 K
      rework: max: 4012 K avg: 124.36 K
      
      Graphs from all three runs show the variability of the kbuild quite
      nicely.  It even seems that it took longer after every run with the base
      kernel which would be quite surprising as the source tree for the build is
      removed and caches are dropped after each run so the build operates on a
      freshly extracted sources everytime.
      http://labs.suse.cz/mhocko/soft_limit_rework/stream_io-vs-mem_eater/kbuild-mem_eater.png
      
      My other testing shows that this is just a matter of timing and other runs
      behave differently the std for Elapsed time is similar ~50.  Example of
      other three runs:
      http://labs.suse.cz/mhocko/soft_limit_rework/stream_io-vs-mem_eater/kbuild-mem_eater2.png
      
      So to wrap this up.  The series is still doing good and improves the soft
      limit.
      
      The testing results for bunch of cgroups with both stream IO and kbuild
      loads can be found in "memcg: track children in soft limit excess to
      improve soft limit".
      
      This patch:
      
      Memcg soft reclaim has been traditionally triggered from the global
      reclaim paths before calling shrink_zone.  mem_cgroup_soft_limit_reclaim
      then picked up a group which exceeds the soft limit the most and reclaimed
      it with 0 priority to reclaim at least SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX pages.
      
      The infrastructure requires per-node-zone trees which hold over-limit
      groups and keep them up-to-date (via memcg_check_events) which is not cost
      free.  Although this overhead hasn't turned out to be a bottle neck the
      implementation is suboptimal because mem_cgroup_update_tree has no idea
      which zones consumed memory over the limit so we could easily end up
      having a group on a node-zone tree having only few pages from that
      node-zone.
      
      This patch doesn't try to fix node-zone trees management because it seems
      that integrating soft reclaim into zone shrinking sounds much easier and
      more appropriate for several reasons.  First of all 0 priority reclaim was
      a crude hack which might lead to big stalls if the group's LRUs are big
      and hard to reclaim (e.g.  a lot of dirty/writeback pages).  Soft reclaim
      should be applicable also to the targeted reclaim which is awkward right
      now without additional hacks.  Last but not least the whole infrastructure
      eats quite some code.
      
      After this patch shrink_zone is done in 2 passes.  First it tries to do
      the soft reclaim if appropriate (only for global reclaim for now to keep
      compatible with the original state) and fall back to ignoring soft limit
      if no group is eligible to soft reclaim or nothing has been scanned during
      the first pass.  Only groups which are over their soft limit or any of
      their parents up the hierarchy is over the limit are considered eligible
      during the first pass.
      
      Soft limit tree which is not necessary anymore will be removed in the
      follow up patch to make this patch smaller and easier to review.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarGlauber Costa <glommer@openvz.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com>
      Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com>
      Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
      Cc: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com>
      Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Balbir Singh <bsingharora@gmail.com>
      Cc: Glauber Costa <glommer@gmail.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      3b38722e
    • Linus Torvalds's avatar
      vfs: move get_fs_root_and_pwd() to single caller · 5762482f
      Linus Torvalds authored
      Let's not pollute the include files with inline functions that are only
      used in a single place.  Especially not if we decide we might want to
      change the semantics of said function to make it more efficient..
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      5762482f
    • Waiman Long's avatar
      seqlock: Add a new locking reader type · 1370e97b
      Waiman Long authored
      The sequence lock (seqlock) was originally designed for the cases where
      the readers do not need to block the writers by making the readers retry
      the read operation when the data change.
      
      Since then, the use cases have been expanded to include situations where
      a thread does not need to change the data (effectively a reader) at all
      but have to take the writer lock because it can't tolerate changes to
      the protected structure.  Some examples are the d_path() function and
      the getcwd() syscall in fs/dcache.c where the functions take the writer
      lock on rename_lock even though they don't need to change anything in
      the protected data structure at all.  This is inefficient as a reader is
      now blocking other sequence number reading readers from moving forward
      by pretending to be a writer.
      
      This patch tries to eliminate this inefficiency by introducing a new
      type of locking reader to the seqlock locking mechanism.  This new
      locking reader will try to take an exclusive lock preventing other
      writers and locking readers from going forward.  However, it won't
      affect the progress of the other sequence number reading readers as the
      sequence number won't be changed.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarWaiman Long <Waiman.Long@hp.com>
      Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      1370e97b
  10. 11 Sep, 2013 3 commits