Commit f9310b2f authored by Jessica Yu's avatar Jessica Yu Committed by Linus Torvalds
Browse files

sscanf: implement basic character sets

Implement basic character sets for the '%[' conversion specifier.

The '%[' conversion specifier matches a nonempty sequence of characters
from the specified set of accepted (or with '^', rejected) characters
between the brackets.  The substring matched is to be made up of
characters in (or not in) the set.  This is useful for matching
substrings that are delimited by something other than spaces.

This implementation differs from its glibc counterpart in the following ways:
 (1) No support for character ranges (e.g., 'a-z' or '0-9')
 (2) The hyphen '-' is not a special character
 (3) The closing bracket ']' cannot be matched
 (4) No support (yet) for discarding matching input ('%*[')

The bitmap code is largely based upon sample code which was provided by

The motivation for adding character set support to sscanf originally
stemmed from the kernel livepatching project.  An ongoing patchset
utilizes new livepatch Elf symbol and section names to store important
metadata livepatch needs to properly apply its patches.  Such metadata
is stored in these section and symbol names as substrings delimited by
periods '.' and commas ','.  For example, a livepatch symbol name might
look like this:


However, sscanf currently can only extract "substrings" delimited by
whitespace using the "%s" specifier.  Thus for the above symbol name,
one cannot not use sscanf() to extract substrings "vmlinux" or
"printk", for example.  A number of discussions on the livepatch
mailing list dealing with string parsing code for extracting these '.'
and ',' delimited substrings eventually led to the conclusion that such
code would be completely unnecessary if the kernel sscanf() supported
character sets.  Thus only a single sscanf() call would be necessary to
extract these substrings.  In addition, such an addition to sscanf()
could benefit other areas of the kernel that might have a similar need
in the future.

[ 80-col tweaks]
Signed-off-by: default avatarJessica Yu <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarRasmus Villemoes <>
Cc: Andy Shevchenko <>
Cc: Kees Cook <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <>
parent 2553b67a
......@@ -2640,8 +2640,12 @@ int vsscanf(const char *buf, const char *fmt, va_list args)
if (*fmt == '*') {
if (!*str)
while (!isspace(*fmt) && *fmt != '%' && *fmt)
while (!isspace(*fmt) && *fmt != '%' && *fmt) {
/* '%*[' not yet supported, invalid format */
if (*fmt == '[')
return num;
while (!isspace(*str) && *str)
......@@ -2714,6 +2718,59 @@ int vsscanf(const char *buf, const char *fmt, va_list args)
* Warning: This implementation of the '[' conversion specifier
* deviates from its glibc counterpart in the following ways:
* (1) It does NOT support ranges i.e. '-' is NOT a special
* character
* (2) It cannot match the closing bracket ']' itself
* (3) A field width is required
* (4) '%*[' (discard matching input) is currently not supported
* Example usage:
* ret = sscanf("00:0a:95","%2[^:]:%2[^:]:%2[^:]",
* buf1, buf2, buf3);
* if (ret < 3)
* // etc..
case '[':
char *s = (char *)va_arg(args, char *);
DECLARE_BITMAP(set, 256) = {0};
unsigned int len = 0;
bool negate = (*fmt == '^');
/* field width is required */
if (field_width == -1)
return num;
if (negate)
for ( ; *fmt && *fmt != ']'; ++fmt, ++len)
set_bit((u8)*fmt, set);
/* no ']' or no character set found */
if (!*fmt || !len)
return num;
if (negate) {
bitmap_complement(set, set, 256);
/* exclude null '\0' byte */
clear_bit(0, set);
/* match must be non-empty */
if (!test_bit((u8)*str, set))
return num;
while (test_bit((u8)*str, set) && field_width--)
*s++ = *str++;
*s = '\0';
case 'o':
base = 8;
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