Commit 9703d9d7 authored by Catalin Marinas's avatar Catalin Marinas

arm64: Kernel booting and initialisation

The patch adds the kernel booting and the initial setup code.
Documentation/arm64/booting.txt describes the booting protocol on the
AArch64 Linux kernel. This is subject to change following the work on
boot standardisation, ACPI.
Signed-off-by: default avatarWill Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarCatalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Acked-by: default avatarNicolas Pitre <nico@linaro.org>
Acked-by: default avatarTony Lindgren <tony@atomide.com>
Acked-by: default avatarOlof Johansson <olof@lixom.net>
Acked-by: default avatarSantosh Shilimkar <santosh.shilimkar@ti.com>
Acked-by: default avatarArnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
parent 0be7320a
Booting AArch64 Linux
=====================
Author: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Date : 07 September 2012
This document is based on the ARM booting document by Russell King and
is relevant to all public releases of the AArch64 Linux kernel.
The AArch64 exception model is made up of a number of exception levels
(EL0 - EL3), with EL0 and EL1 having a secure and a non-secure
counterpart. EL2 is the hypervisor level and exists only in non-secure
mode. EL3 is the highest priority level and exists only in secure mode.
For the purposes of this document, we will use the term `boot loader'
simply to define all software that executes on the CPU(s) before control
is passed to the Linux kernel. This may include secure monitor and
hypervisor code, or it may just be a handful of instructions for
preparing a minimal boot environment.
Essentially, the boot loader should provide (as a minimum) the
following:
1. Setup and initialise the RAM
2. Setup the device tree
3. Decompress the kernel image
4. Call the kernel image
1. Setup and initialise RAM
---------------------------
Requirement: MANDATORY
The boot loader is expected to find and initialise all RAM that the
kernel will use for volatile data storage in the system. It performs
this in a machine dependent manner. (It may use internal algorithms
to automatically locate and size all RAM, or it may use knowledge of
the RAM in the machine, or any other method the boot loader designer
sees fit.)
2. Setup the device tree
-------------------------
Requirement: MANDATORY
The device tree blob (dtb) must be no bigger than 2 megabytes in size
and placed at a 2-megabyte boundary within the first 512 megabytes from
the start of the kernel image. This is to allow the kernel to map the
blob using a single section mapping in the initial page tables.
3. Decompress the kernel image
------------------------------
Requirement: OPTIONAL
The AArch64 kernel does not currently provide a decompressor and
therefore requires decompression (gzip etc.) to be performed by the boot
loader if a compressed Image target (e.g. Image.gz) is used. For
bootloaders that do not implement this requirement, the uncompressed
Image target is available instead.
4. Call the kernel image
------------------------
Requirement: MANDATORY
The decompressed kernel image contains a 32-byte header as follows:
u32 magic = 0x14000008; /* branch to stext, little-endian */
u32 res0 = 0; /* reserved */
u64 text_offset; /* Image load offset */
u64 res1 = 0; /* reserved */
u64 res2 = 0; /* reserved */
The image must be placed at the specified offset (currently 0x80000)
from the start of the system RAM and called there. The start of the
system RAM must be aligned to 2MB.
Before jumping into the kernel, the following conditions must be met:
- Quiesce all DMA capable devices so that memory does not get
corrupted by bogus network packets or disk data. This will save
you many hours of debug.
- Primary CPU general-purpose register settings
x0 = physical address of device tree blob (dtb) in system RAM.
x1 = 0 (reserved for future use)
x2 = 0 (reserved for future use)
x3 = 0 (reserved for future use)
- CPU mode
All forms of interrupts must be masked in PSTATE.DAIF (Debug, SError,
IRQ and FIQ).
The CPU must be in either EL2 (RECOMMENDED in order to have access to
the virtualisation extensions) or non-secure EL1.
- Caches, MMUs
The MMU must be off.
Instruction cache may be on or off.
Data cache must be off and invalidated.
External caches (if present) must be configured and disabled.
- Architected timers
CNTFRQ must be programmed with the timer frequency.
If entering the kernel at EL1, CNTHCTL_EL2 must have EL1PCTEN (bit 0)
set where available.
- Coherency
All CPUs to be booted by the kernel must be part of the same coherency
domain on entry to the kernel. This may require IMPLEMENTATION DEFINED
initialisation to enable the receiving of maintenance operations on
each CPU.
- System registers
All writable architected system registers at the exception level where
the kernel image will be entered must be initialised by software at a
higher exception level to prevent execution in an UNKNOWN state.
The boot loader is expected to enter the kernel on each CPU in the
following manner:
- The primary CPU must jump directly to the first instruction of the
kernel image. The device tree blob passed by this CPU must contain
for each CPU node:
1. An 'enable-method' property. Currently, the only supported value
for this field is the string "spin-table".
2. A 'cpu-release-addr' property identifying a 64-bit,
zero-initialised memory location.
It is expected that the bootloader will generate these device tree
properties and insert them into the blob prior to kernel entry.
- Any secondary CPUs must spin outside of the kernel in a reserved area
of memory (communicated to the kernel by a /memreserve/ region in the
device tree) polling their cpu-release-addr location, which must be
contained in the reserved region. A wfe instruction may be inserted
to reduce the overhead of the busy-loop and a sev will be issued by
the primary CPU. When a read of the location pointed to by the
cpu-release-addr returns a non-zero value, the CPU must jump directly
to this value.
- Secondary CPU general-purpose register settings
x0 = 0 (reserved for future use)
x1 = 0 (reserved for future use)
x2 = 0 (reserved for future use)
x3 = 0 (reserved for future use)
/*
* Based on arch/arm/include/asm/setup.h
*
* Copyright (C) 1997-1999 Russell King
* Copyright (C) 2012 ARM Ltd.
*
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
* published by the Free Software Foundation.
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
* GNU General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
* along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
*/
#ifndef __ASM_SETUP_H
#define __ASM_SETUP_H
#include <linux/types.h>
#define COMMAND_LINE_SIZE 2048
#endif
/*
* Low-level CPU initialisation
* Based on arch/arm/kernel/head.S
*
* Copyright (C) 1994-2002 Russell King
* Copyright (C) 2003-2012 ARM Ltd.
* Authors: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
* Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
*
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
* published by the Free Software Foundation.
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
* GNU General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
* along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
*/
#include <linux/linkage.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <asm/assembler.h>
#include <asm/ptrace.h>
#include <asm/asm-offsets.h>
#include <asm/memory.h>
#include <asm/thread_info.h>
#include <asm/pgtable-hwdef.h>
#include <asm/pgtable.h>
#include <asm/page.h>
/*
* swapper_pg_dir is the virtual address of the initial page table. We place
* the page tables 3 * PAGE_SIZE below KERNEL_RAM_VADDR. The idmap_pg_dir has
* 2 pages and is placed below swapper_pg_dir.
*/
#define KERNEL_RAM_VADDR (PAGE_OFFSET + TEXT_OFFSET)
#if (KERNEL_RAM_VADDR & 0xfffff) != 0x80000
#error KERNEL_RAM_VADDR must start at 0xXXX80000
#endif
#define SWAPPER_DIR_SIZE (3 * PAGE_SIZE)
#define IDMAP_DIR_SIZE (2 * PAGE_SIZE)
.globl swapper_pg_dir
.equ swapper_pg_dir, KERNEL_RAM_VADDR - SWAPPER_DIR_SIZE
.globl idmap_pg_dir
.equ idmap_pg_dir, swapper_pg_dir - IDMAP_DIR_SIZE
.macro pgtbl, ttb0, ttb1, phys
add \ttb1, \phys, #TEXT_OFFSET - SWAPPER_DIR_SIZE
sub \ttb0, \ttb1, #IDMAP_DIR_SIZE
.endm
#ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_64K_PAGES
#define BLOCK_SHIFT PAGE_SHIFT
#define BLOCK_SIZE PAGE_SIZE
#else
#define BLOCK_SHIFT SECTION_SHIFT
#define BLOCK_SIZE SECTION_SIZE
#endif
#define KERNEL_START KERNEL_RAM_VADDR
#define KERNEL_END _end
/*
* Initial memory map attributes.
*/
#ifndef CONFIG_SMP
#define PTE_FLAGS PTE_TYPE_PAGE | PTE_AF
#define PMD_FLAGS PMD_TYPE_SECT | PMD_SECT_AF
#else
#define PTE_FLAGS PTE_TYPE_PAGE | PTE_AF | PTE_SHARED
#define PMD_FLAGS PMD_TYPE_SECT | PMD_SECT_AF | PMD_SECT_S
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_64K_PAGES
#define MM_MMUFLAGS PTE_ATTRINDX(MT_NORMAL) | PTE_FLAGS
#define IO_MMUFLAGS PTE_ATTRINDX(MT_DEVICE_nGnRE) | PTE_XN | PTE_FLAGS
#else
#define MM_MMUFLAGS PMD_ATTRINDX(MT_NORMAL) | PMD_FLAGS
#define IO_MMUFLAGS PMD_ATTRINDX(MT_DEVICE_nGnRE) | PMD_SECT_XN | PMD_FLAGS
#endif
/*
* Kernel startup entry point.
* ---------------------------
*
* The requirements are:
* MMU = off, D-cache = off, I-cache = on or off,
* x0 = physical address to the FDT blob.
*
* This code is mostly position independent so you call this at
* __pa(PAGE_OFFSET + TEXT_OFFSET).
*
* Note that the callee-saved registers are used for storing variables
* that are useful before the MMU is enabled. The allocations are described
* in the entry routines.
*/
__HEAD
/*
* DO NOT MODIFY. Image header expected by Linux boot-loaders.
*/
b stext // branch to kernel start, magic
.long 0 // reserved
.quad TEXT_OFFSET // Image load offset from start of RAM
.quad 0 // reserved
.quad 0 // reserved
ENTRY(stext)
mov x21, x0 // x21=FDT
bl el2_setup // Drop to EL1
mrs x22, midr_el1 // x22=cpuid
mov x0, x22
bl lookup_processor_type
mov x23, x0 // x23=current cpu_table
cbz x23, __error_p // invalid processor (x23=0)?
bl __calc_phys_offset // x24=PHYS_OFFSET, x28=PHYS_OFFSET-PAGE_OFFSET
bl __vet_fdt
bl __create_page_tables // x25=TTBR0, x26=TTBR1
/*
* The following calls CPU specific code in a position independent
* manner. See arch/arm64/mm/proc.S for details. x23 = base of
* cpu_info structure selected by lookup_processor_type above.
* On return, the CPU will be ready for the MMU to be turned on and
* the TCR will have been set.
*/
ldr x27, __switch_data // address to jump to after
// MMU has been enabled
adr lr, __enable_mmu // return (PIC) address
ldr x12, [x23, #CPU_INFO_SETUP]
add x12, x12, x28 // __virt_to_phys
br x12 // initialise processor
ENDPROC(stext)
/*
* If we're fortunate enough to boot at EL2, ensure that the world is
* sane before dropping to EL1.
*/
ENTRY(el2_setup)
mrs x0, CurrentEL
cmp x0, #PSR_MODE_EL2t
ccmp x0, #PSR_MODE_EL2h, #0x4, ne
b.eq 1f
ret
/* Hyp configuration. */
1: mov x0, #(1 << 31) // 64-bit EL1
msr hcr_el2, x0
/* Generic timers. */
mrs x0, cnthctl_el2
orr x0, x0, #3 // Enable EL1 physical timers
msr cnthctl_el2, x0
/* Populate ID registers. */
mrs x0, midr_el1
mrs x1, mpidr_el1
msr vpidr_el2, x0
msr vmpidr_el2, x1
/* sctlr_el1 */
mov x0, #0x0800 // Set/clear RES{1,0} bits
movk x0, #0x30d0, lsl #16
msr sctlr_el1, x0
/* Coprocessor traps. */
mov x0, #0x33ff
msr cptr_el2, x0 // Disable copro. traps to EL2
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
msr hstr_el2, xzr // Disable CP15 traps to EL2
#endif
/* spsr */
mov x0, #(PSR_F_BIT | PSR_I_BIT | PSR_A_BIT | PSR_D_BIT |\
PSR_MODE_EL1h)
msr spsr_el2, x0
msr elr_el2, lr
eret
ENDPROC(el2_setup)
.align 3
2: .quad .
.quad PAGE_OFFSET
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
.pushsection .smp.pen.text, "ax"
.align 3
1: .quad .
.quad secondary_holding_pen_release
/*
* This provides a "holding pen" for platforms to hold all secondary
* cores are held until we're ready for them to initialise.
*/
ENTRY(secondary_holding_pen)
bl el2_setup // Drop to EL1
mrs x0, mpidr_el1
and x0, x0, #15 // CPU number
adr x1, 1b
ldp x2, x3, [x1]
sub x1, x1, x2
add x3, x3, x1
pen: ldr x4, [x3]
cmp x4, x0
b.eq secondary_startup
wfe
b pen
ENDPROC(secondary_holding_pen)
.popsection
ENTRY(secondary_startup)
/*
* Common entry point for secondary CPUs.
*/
mrs x22, midr_el1 // x22=cpuid
mov x0, x22
bl lookup_processor_type
mov x23, x0 // x23=current cpu_table
cbz x23, __error_p // invalid processor (x23=0)?
bl __calc_phys_offset // x24=phys offset
pgtbl x25, x26, x24 // x25=TTBR0, x26=TTBR1
ldr x12, [x23, #CPU_INFO_SETUP]
add x12, x12, x28 // __virt_to_phys
blr x12 // initialise processor
ldr x21, =secondary_data
ldr x27, =__secondary_switched // address to jump to after enabling the MMU
b __enable_mmu
ENDPROC(secondary_startup)
ENTRY(__secondary_switched)
ldr x0, [x21] // get secondary_data.stack
mov sp, x0
mov x29, #0
b secondary_start_kernel
ENDPROC(__secondary_switched)
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
/*
* Setup common bits before finally enabling the MMU. Essentially this is just
* loading the page table pointer and vector base registers.
*
* On entry to this code, x0 must contain the SCTLR_EL1 value for turning on
* the MMU.
*/
__enable_mmu:
ldr x5, =vectors
msr vbar_el1, x5
msr ttbr0_el1, x25 // load TTBR0
msr ttbr1_el1, x26 // load TTBR1
isb
b __turn_mmu_on
ENDPROC(__enable_mmu)
/*
* Enable the MMU. This completely changes the structure of the visible memory
* space. You will not be able to trace execution through this.
*
* x0 = system control register
* x27 = *virtual* address to jump to upon completion
*
* other registers depend on the function called upon completion
*/
.align 6
__turn_mmu_on:
msr sctlr_el1, x0
isb
br x27
ENDPROC(__turn_mmu_on)
/*
* Calculate the start of physical memory.
*/
__calc_phys_offset:
adr x0, 1f
ldp x1, x2, [x0]
sub x28, x0, x1 // x28 = PHYS_OFFSET - PAGE_OFFSET
add x24, x2, x28 // x24 = PHYS_OFFSET
ret
ENDPROC(__calc_phys_offset)
.align 3
1: .quad .
.quad PAGE_OFFSET
/*
* Macro to populate the PGD for the corresponding block entry in the next
* level (tbl) for the given virtual address.
*
* Preserves: pgd, tbl, virt
* Corrupts: tmp1, tmp2
*/
.macro create_pgd_entry, pgd, tbl, virt, tmp1, tmp2
lsr \tmp1, \virt, #PGDIR_SHIFT
and \tmp1, \tmp1, #PTRS_PER_PGD - 1 // PGD index
orr \tmp2, \tbl, #3 // PGD entry table type
str \tmp2, [\pgd, \tmp1, lsl #3]
.endm
/*
* Macro to populate block entries in the page table for the start..end
* virtual range (inclusive).
*
* Preserves: tbl, flags
* Corrupts: phys, start, end, pstate
*/
.macro create_block_map, tbl, flags, phys, start, end, idmap=0
lsr \phys, \phys, #BLOCK_SHIFT
.if \idmap
and \start, \phys, #PTRS_PER_PTE - 1 // table index
.else
lsr \start, \start, #BLOCK_SHIFT
and \start, \start, #PTRS_PER_PTE - 1 // table index
.endif
orr \phys, \flags, \phys, lsl #BLOCK_SHIFT // table entry
.ifnc \start,\end
lsr \end, \end, #BLOCK_SHIFT
and \end, \end, #PTRS_PER_PTE - 1 // table end index
.endif
9999: str \phys, [\tbl, \start, lsl #3] // store the entry
.ifnc \start,\end
add \start, \start, #1 // next entry
add \phys, \phys, #BLOCK_SIZE // next block
cmp \start, \end
b.ls 9999b
.endif
.endm
/*
* Setup the initial page tables. We only setup the barest amount which is
* required to get the kernel running. The following sections are required:
* - identity mapping to enable the MMU (low address, TTBR0)
* - first few MB of the kernel linear mapping to jump to once the MMU has
* been enabled, including the FDT blob (TTBR1)
*/
__create_page_tables:
pgtbl x25, x26, x24 // idmap_pg_dir and swapper_pg_dir addresses
/*
* Clear the idmap and swapper page tables.
*/
mov x0, x25
add x6, x26, #SWAPPER_DIR_SIZE
1: stp xzr, xzr, [x0], #16
stp xzr, xzr, [x0], #16
stp xzr, xzr, [x0], #16
stp xzr, xzr, [x0], #16
cmp x0, x6
b.lo 1b
ldr x7, =MM_MMUFLAGS
/*
* Create the identity mapping.
*/
add x0, x25, #PAGE_SIZE // section table address
adr x3, __turn_mmu_on // virtual/physical address
create_pgd_entry x25, x0, x3, x5, x6
create_block_map x0, x7, x3, x5, x5, idmap=1
/*
* Map the kernel image (starting with PHYS_OFFSET).
*/
add x0, x26, #PAGE_SIZE // section table address
mov x5, #PAGE_OFFSET
create_pgd_entry x26, x0, x5, x3, x6
ldr x6, =KERNEL_END - 1
mov x3, x24 // phys offset
create_block_map x0, x7, x3, x5, x6
/*
* Map the FDT blob (maximum 2MB; must be within 512MB of
* PHYS_OFFSET).
*/
mov x3, x21 // FDT phys address
and x3, x3, #~((1 << 21) - 1) // 2MB aligned
mov x6, #PAGE_OFFSET
sub x5, x3, x24 // subtract PHYS_OFFSET
tst x5, #~((1 << 29) - 1) // within 512MB?
csel x21, xzr, x21, ne // zero the FDT pointer
b.ne 1f
add x5, x5, x6 // __va(FDT blob)
add x6, x5, #1 << 21 // 2MB for the FDT blob
sub x6, x6, #1 // inclusive range
create_block_map x0, x7, x3, x5, x6
1:
ret
ENDPROC(__create_page_tables)
.ltorg
.align 3
.type __switch_data, %object
__switch_data:
.quad __mmap_switched
.quad __data_loc // x4
.quad _data // x5
.quad __bss_start // x6
.quad _end // x7
.quad processor_id // x4
.quad __fdt_pointer // x5
.quad memstart_addr // x6
.quad init_thread_union + THREAD_START_SP // sp
/*
* The following fragment of code is executed with the MMU on in MMU mode, and
* uses absolute addresses; this is not position independent.
*/
__mmap_switched:
adr x3, __switch_data + 8
ldp x4, x5, [x3], #16
ldp x6, x7, [x3], #16
cmp x4, x5 // Copy data segment if needed
1: ccmp x5, x6, #4, ne
b.eq 2f
ldr x16, [x4], #8
str x16, [x5], #8
b 1b
2:
1: cmp x6, x7
b.hs 2f
str xzr, [x6], #8 // Clear BSS
b 1b
2:
ldp x4, x5, [x3], #16
ldr x6, [x3], #8
ldr x16, [x3]
mov sp, x16
str x22, [x4] // Save processor ID
str x21, [x5] // Save FDT pointer
str x24, [x6] // Save PHYS_OFFSET
mov x29, #0
b start_kernel
ENDPROC(__mmap_switched)
/*
* Exception handling. Something went wrong and we can't proceed. We ought to
* tell the user, but since we don't have any guarantee that we're even
* running on the right architecture, we do virtually nothing.
*/
__error_p:
ENDPROC(__error_p)
__error:
1: nop
b 1b
ENDPROC(__error)
/*
* This function gets the processor ID in w0 and searches the cpu_table[] for
* a match. It returns a pointer to the struct cpu_info it found. The
* cpu_table[] must end with an empty (all zeros) structure.