Commit 624f6ec8 authored by Rafael J. Wysocki's avatar Rafael J. Wysocki

PM: Update device power management document

The device PM document, Documentation/power/devices.txt, is badly
outdated and requires total rework to fit the current design of the
PM framework.  Make it more up to date.
Signed-off-by: default avatarRafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>
Reviewed-by: default avatarRandy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
parent 240c7337
Device Power Management
(C) 2010 Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>, Novell Inc.
Most of the code in Linux is device drivers, so most of the Linux power
management code is also driver-specific. Most drivers will do very little;
others, especially for platforms with small batteries (like cell phones),
......@@ -25,31 +29,39 @@ states:
them without loss of data.
Some drivers can manage hardware wakeup events, which make the system
leave that low-power state. This feature may be disabled using the
relevant /sys/devices/.../power/wakeup file; enabling it may cost some
power usage, but let the whole system enter low power states more often.
leave that low-power state. This feature may be enabled or disabled
using the relevant /sys/devices/.../power/wakeup file (for Ethernet
drivers the ioctl interface used by ethtool may also be used for this
purpose); enabling it may cost some power usage, but let the whole
system enter low power states more often.
Runtime Power Management model:
Drivers may also enter low power states while the system is running,
independently of other power management activity. Upstream drivers
will normally not know (or care) if the device is in some low power
state when issuing requests; the driver will auto-resume anything
that's needed when it gets a request.
This doesn't have, or need much infrastructure; it's just something you
should do when writing your drivers. For example, clk_disable() unused
clocks as part of minimizing power drain for currently-unused hardware.
Of course, sometimes clusters of drivers will collaborate with each
other, which could involve task-specific power management.
Devices may also be put into low power states while the system is
running, independently of other power management activity in principle.
However, devices are not generally independent of each other (for
example, parent device cannot be suspended unless all of its child
devices have been suspended). Moreover, depending on the bus type the
device is on, it may be necessary to carry out some bus-specific
operations on the device for this purpose. Also, devices put into low
power states at run time may require special handling during system-wide
power transitions, like suspend to RAM.
For these reasons not only the device driver itself, but also the
appropriate subsystem (bus type, device type or device class) driver
and the PM core are involved in the runtime power management of devices.
Like in the system sleep power management case, they need to collaborate
by implementing various role-specific suspend and resume methods, so
that the hardware is cleanly powered down and reactivated without data
or service loss.
There's not a lot to be said about those low power states except that they
are very system-specific, and often device-specific. Also, that if enough
drivers put themselves into low power states (at "runtime"), the effect may be
the same as entering some system-wide low-power state (system sleep) ... and
that synergies exist, so that several drivers using runtime pm might put the
devices have been put into low power states (at "run time"), the effect may be
very similar to entering some system-wide low-power state (system sleep) ... and
that synergies exist, so that several drivers using runtime PM might put the
system into a state where even deeper power saving options are available.
Most suspended devices will have quiesced all I/O: no more DMA or irqs, no
Most suspended devices will have quiesced all I/O: no more DMA or IRQs, no
more data read or written, and requests from upstream drivers are no longer
accepted. A given bus or platform may have different requirements though.
......@@ -60,34 +72,67 @@ or removal (for PCMCIA, MMC/SD, USB, and so on).
Interfaces for Entering System Sleep States
===========================================
Most of the programming interfaces a device driver needs to know about
relate to that first model: entering a system-wide low power state,
rather than just minimizing power consumption by one device.
There are programming interfaces provided for subsystem (bus type, device type,
device class) and device drivers in order to allow them to participate in the
power management of devices they are concerned with. They cover the system
sleep power management as well as the runtime power management of devices.
Device Power Management Operations
----------------------------------
Device power management operations, at the subsystem level as well as at the
device driver level, are implemented by defining and populating objects of type
struct dev_pm_ops:
struct dev_pm_ops {
int (*prepare)(struct device *dev);
void (*complete)(struct device *dev);
int (*suspend)(struct device *dev);
int (*resume)(struct device *dev);
int (*freeze)(struct device *dev);
int (*thaw)(struct device *dev);
int (*poweroff)(struct device *dev);
int (*restore)(struct device *dev);
int (*suspend_noirq)(struct device *dev);
int (*resume_noirq)(struct device *dev);
int (*freeze_noirq)(struct device *dev);
int (*thaw_noirq)(struct device *dev);
int (*poweroff_noirq)(struct device *dev);
int (*restore_noirq)(struct device *dev);
int (*runtime_suspend)(struct device *dev);
int (*runtime_resume)(struct device *dev);
int (*runtime_idle)(struct device *dev);
};
This structure is defined in include/linux/pm.h and the methods included in it
are also described in that file. Their roles will be explained in what follows.
For now, it should be sufficient to remember that the last three of them are
specific to runtime power management, while the remaining ones are used during
system-wide power transitions.
Bus Driver Methods
------------------
The core methods to suspend and resume devices reside in struct bus_type.
These are mostly of interest to people writing infrastructure for busses
like PCI or USB, or because they define the primitives that device drivers
may need to apply in domain-specific ways to their devices:
struct bus_type {
...
int (*suspend)(struct device *dev, pm_message_t state);
int (*resume)(struct device *dev);
};
There also is an "old" or "legacy", deprecated way of implementing power
management operations available at least for some subsystems. This approach
does not use struct dev_pm_ops objects and it only is suitable for implementing
system sleep power management methods. Therefore it is not described in this
document, so please refer directly to the source code for more information about
it.
Subsystem-Level Methods
-----------------------
The core methods to suspend and resume devices reside in struct dev_pm_ops
pointed to by the pm member of struct bus_type, struct device_type and
struct class. They are mostly of interest to the people writing infrastructure
for buses, like PCI or USB, or device type and device class drivers.
Bus drivers implement those methods as appropriate for the hardware and
Bus drivers implement these methods as appropriate for the hardware and
the drivers using it; PCI works differently from USB, and so on. Not many
people write bus drivers; most driver code is a "device driver" that
people write subsystem-level drivers; most driver code is a "device driver" that
builds on top of bus-specific framework code.
For more information on these driver calls, see the description later;
they are called in phases for every device, respecting the parent-child
sequencing in the driver model tree. Note that as this is being written,
only the suspend() and resume() are widely available; not many bus drivers
leverage all of those phases, or pass them down to lower driver levels.
sequencing in the driver model tree.
/sys/devices/.../power/wakeup files
......@@ -95,7 +140,7 @@ leverage all of those phases, or pass them down to lower driver levels.
All devices in the driver model have two flags to control handling of
wakeup events, which are hardware signals that can force the device and/or
system out of a low power state. These are initialized by bus or device
driver code using device_init_wakeup(dev,can_wakeup).
driver code using device_init_wakeup().
The "can_wakeup" flag just records whether the device (and its driver) can
physically support wakeup events. When that flag is clear, the sysfs
......@@ -103,64 +148,44 @@ physically support wakeup events. When that flag is clear, the sysfs
For devices that can issue wakeup events, a separate flag controls whether
that device should try to use its wakeup mechanism. The initial value of
device_may_wakeup() will be true, so that the device's "wakeup" file holds
the value "enabled". Userspace can change that to "disabled" so that
device_may_wakeup() returns false; or change it back to "enabled" (so that
it returns true again).
EXAMPLE: PCI Device Driver Methods
-----------------------------------
PCI framework software calls these methods when the PCI device driver bound
to a device device has provided them:
struct pci_driver {
...
int (*suspend)(struct pci_device *pdev, pm_message_t state);
int (*suspend_late)(struct pci_device *pdev, pm_message_t state);
int (*resume_early)(struct pci_device *pdev);
int (*resume)(struct pci_device *pdev);
};
Drivers will implement those methods, and call PCI-specific procedures
like pci_set_power_state(), pci_enable_wake(), pci_save_state(), and
pci_restore_state() to manage PCI-specific mechanisms. (PCI config space
could be saved during driver probe, if it weren't for the fact that some
systems rely on userspace tweaking using setpci.) Devices are suspended
before their bridges enter low power states, and likewise bridges resume
before their devices.
Upper Layers of Driver Stacks
-----------------------------
Device drivers generally have at least two interfaces, and the methods
sketched above are the ones which apply to the lower level (nearer PCI, USB,
or other bus hardware). The network and block layers are examples of upper
level interfaces, as is a character device talking to userspace.
Power management requests normally need to flow through those upper levels,
which often use domain-oriented requests like "blank that screen". In
some cases those upper levels will have power management intelligence that
relates to end-user activity, or other devices that work in cooperation.
When those interfaces are structured using class interfaces, there is a
standard way to have the upper layer stop issuing requests to a given
class device (and restart later):
struct class {
...
int (*suspend)(struct device *dev, pm_message_t state);
int (*resume)(struct device *dev);
};
Those calls are issued in specific phases of the process by which the
system enters a low power "suspend" state, or resumes from it.
device_may_wakeup() will be false for the majority of devices, except for
power buttons, keyboards, and Ethernet adapters whose WoL (wake-on-LAN) feature
has been set up with ethtool. Thus in the majority of cases the device's
"wakeup" file will initially hold the value "disabled". Userspace can change
that to "enabled", so that device_may_wakeup() returns true, or change it back
to "disabled", so that it returns false again.
/sys/devices/.../power/control files
------------------------------------
All devices in the driver model have a flag to control the desired behavior of
its driver with respect to runtime power management. This flag, called
runtime_auto, is initialized by the bus type (or generally subsystem) code using
pm_runtime_allow() or pm_runtime_forbid(), depending on whether or not the
driver is supposed to power manage the device at run time by default,
respectively.
This setting may be adjusted by user space by writing either "on" or "auto" to
the device's "control" file. If "auto" is written, the device's runtime_auto
flag will be set and the driver will be allowed to power manage the device if
capable of doing that. If "on" is written, the driver is not allowed to power
manage the device which in turn is supposed to remain in the full power state at
run time. User space can check the current value of the runtime_auto flag by
reading from the device's "control" file.
The device's runtime_auto flag has no effect on the handling of system-wide
power transitions by its driver. In particular, the device can (and in the
majority of cases should and will) be put into a low power state during a
system-wide transition to a sleep state (like "suspend-to-RAM") even though its
runtime_auto flag is unset (in which case its "control" file contains "on").
For more information about the runtime power management framework for devices
refer to Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt.
Calling Drivers to Enter System Sleep States
============================================
When the system enters a low power state, each device's driver is asked
When the system goes into a sleep state, each device's driver is asked
to suspend the device by putting it into state compatible with the target
system state. That's usually some version of "off", but the details are
system-specific. Also, wakeup-enabled devices will usually stay partly
......@@ -175,14 +200,13 @@ and then turn its hardware as "off" as possible with late_suspend. The
matching resume calls would then completely reinitialize the hardware
before reactivating its class I/O queues.
More power-aware drivers drivers will use more than one device low power
state, either at runtime or during system sleep states, and might trigger
system wakeup events.
More power-aware drivers might prepare the devices for triggering system wakeup
events.
Call Sequence Guarantees
------------------------
To ensure that bridges and similar links needed to talk to a device are
To ensure that bridges and similar links needing to talk to a device are
available when the device is suspended or resumed, the device tree is
walked in a bottom-up order to suspend devices. A top-down order is
used to resume those devices.
......@@ -194,7 +218,7 @@ its parent; and can't be removed or suspended after that parent.
The policy is that the device tree should match hardware bus topology.
(Or at least the control bus, for devices which use multiple busses.)
In particular, this means that a device registration may fail if the parent of
the device is suspending (ie. has been chosen by the PM core as the next
the device is suspending (i.e. has been chosen by the PM core as the next
device to suspend) or has already suspended, as well as after all of the other
devices have been suspended. Device drivers must be prepared to cope with such
situations.
......@@ -207,54 +231,166 @@ system always includes every phase, executing calls for every device
before the next phase begins. Not all busses or classes support all
these callbacks; and not all drivers use all the callbacks.
The phases are seen by driver notifications issued in this order:
Generally, different callbacks are used depending on whether the system is
going to the standby or memory sleep state ("suspend-to-RAM") or it is going to
be hibernated ("suspend-to-disk").
If the system goes to the standby or memory sleep state the phases are seen by
driver notifications issued in this order:
1 bus->pm.prepare(dev) is called after tasks are frozen and it is supposed
to call the device driver's ->pm.prepare() method.
The purpose of this method is mainly to prevent new children of the
device from being registered after it has returned. It also may be used
to generally prepare the device for the upcoming system transition, but
it should not put the device into a low power state.
1 class.suspend(dev, message) is called after tasks are frozen, for
devices associated with a class that has such a method. This
method may sleep.
2 class->pm.suspend(dev) is called if dev is associated with a class that
has such a method. It may invoke the device driver's ->pm.suspend()
method, unless type->pm.suspend(dev) or bus->pm.suspend() does that.
Since I/O activity usually comes from such higher layers, this is
a good place to quiesce all drivers of a given type (and keep such
code out of those drivers).
3 type->pm.suspend(dev) is called if dev is associated with a device type
that has such a method. It may invoke the device driver's
->pm.suspend() method, unless class->pm.suspend(dev) or
bus->pm.suspend() does that.
2 bus.suspend(dev, message) is called next. This method may sleep,
and is often morphed into a device driver call with bus-specific
parameters and/or rules.
4 bus->pm.suspend(dev) is called, if implemented. It usually calls the
device driver's ->pm.suspend() method.
This call should handle parts of device suspend logic that require
sleeping. It probably does work to quiesce the device which hasn't
been abstracted into class.suspend().
This call should generally quiesce the device so that it doesn't do any
I/O after the call has returned. It also may save the device registers
and put it into the appropriate low power state, depending on the bus
type the device is on.
The pm_message_t parameter is currently used to refine those semantics
(described later).
5 bus->pm.suspend_noirq(dev) is called, if implemented. It may call the
device driver's ->pm.suspend_noirq() method, depending on the bus type
in question.
This method is invoked after device interrupts have been suspended,
which means that the driver's interrupt handler will not be called
while it is running. It should save the values of the device's
registers that weren't saved previously and finally put the device into
the appropriate low power state.
The majority of subsystems and device drivers need not implement this
method. However, bus types allowing devices to share interrupt vectors,
like PCI, generally need to use it to prevent interrupt handling issues
from happening during suspend.
At the end of those phases, drivers should normally have stopped all I/O
transactions (DMA, IRQs), saved enough state that they can re-initialize
or restore previous state (as needed by the hardware), and placed the
device into a low-power state. On many platforms they will also use
clk_disable() to gate off one or more clock sources; sometimes they will
also switch off power supplies, or reduce voltages. Drivers which have
runtime PM support may already have performed some or all of the steps
needed to prepare for the upcoming system sleep state.
gate off one or more clock sources; sometimes they will also switch off power
supplies, or reduce voltages. [Drivers supporting runtime PM may already have
performed some or all of the steps needed to prepare for the upcoming system
state transition.]
If device_may_wakeup(dev) returns true, the device should be prepared for
generating hardware wakeup signals when the system is in the sleep state to
trigger a system wakeup event. For example, enable_irq_wake() might identify
GPIO signals hooked up to a switch or other external hardware, and
pci_enable_wake() does something similar for the PCI PME signal.
If a driver (or subsystem) fails it suspend method, the system won't enter the
desired low power state; it will resume all the devices it's suspended so far.
Hibernation Phases
------------------
Hibernating the system is more complicated than putting it into the standby or
memory sleep state, because it involves creating a system image and saving it.
Therefore there are more phases of hibernation and special device PM methods are
used in this case.
First, it is necessary to prepare the system for creating a hibernation image.
This is similar to putting the system into the standby or memory sleep state,
although it generally doesn't require that devices be put into low power states
(that is even not desirable at this point). Driver notifications are then
issued in the following order:
1 bus->pm.prepare(dev) is called after tasks have been frozen and enough
memory has been freed.
2 class->pm.freeze(dev) is called if implemented. It may invoke the
device driver's ->pm.freeze() method, unless type->pm.freeze(dev) or
bus->pm.freeze() does that.
3 type->pm.freeze(dev) is called if implemented. It may invoke the device
driver's ->pm.suspend() method, unless class->pm.freeze(dev) or
bus->pm.freeze() does that.
When any driver sees that its device_can_wakeup(dev), it should make sure
to use the relevant hardware signals to trigger a system wakeup event.
For example, enable_irq_wake() might identify GPIO signals hooked up to
a switch or other external hardware, and pci_enable_wake() does something
similar for PCI's PME# signal.
4 bus->pm.freeze(dev) is called, if implemented. It usually calls the
device driver's ->pm.freeze() method.
If a driver (or bus, or class) fails it suspend method, the system won't
enter the desired low power state; it will resume all the devices it's
suspended so far.
5 bus->pm.freeze_noirq(dev) is called, if implemented. It may call the
device driver's ->pm.freeze_noirq() method, depending on the bus type
in question.
Note that drivers may need to perform different actions based on the target
system lowpower/sleep state. At this writing, there are only platform
specific APIs through which drivers could determine those target states.
The difference between ->pm.freeze() and the corresponding ->pm.suspend() (and
similarly for the "noirq" variants) is that the former should avoid preparing
devices to trigger system wakeup events and putting devices into low power
states, although they generally have to save the values of device registers
so that it's possible to restore them during system resume.
Second, after the system image has been created, the functionality of devices
has to be restored so that the image can be saved. That is similar to resuming
devices after the system has been woken up from the standby or memory sleep
state, which is described below, and causes the following device notifications
to be issued:
1 bus->pm.thaw_noirq(dev), if implemented; may call the device driver's
->pm.thaw_noirq() method, depending on the bus type in question.
2 bus->pm.thaw(dev), if implemented; usually calls the device driver's
->pm.thaw() method.
3 type->pm.thaw(dev), if implemented; may call the device driver's
->pm.thaw() method if not called by the bus type or class.
4 class->pm.thaw(dev), if implemented; may call the device driver's
->pm.thaw() method if not called by the bus type or device type.
5 bus->pm.complete(dev), if implemented; may call the device driver's
->pm.complete() method.
Generally, the role of the ->pm.thaw() methods (including the "noirq" variants)
is to bring the device back to the fully functional state, so that it may be
used for saving the image, if necessary. The role of bus->pm.complete() is to
reverse whatever bus->pm.prepare() did (likewise for the analogous device driver
callbacks).
After the image has been saved, the devices need to be prepared for putting the
system into the low power state. That is analogous to suspending them before
putting the system into the standby or memory sleep state and involves the
following device notifications:
1 bus->pm.prepare(dev).
2 class->pm.poweroff(dev), if implemented; may invoke the device driver's
->pm.poweroff() method if not called by the bus type or device type.
3 type->pm.poweroff(dev), if implemented; may invoke the device driver's
->pm.poweroff() method if not called by the bus type or device class.
4 bus->pm.poweroff(dev), if implemented; usually calls the device driver's
->pm.poweroff() method (if not called by the device class or type).
5 bus->pm.poweroff_noirq(dev), if implemented; may call the device
driver's ->pm.poweroff_noirq() method, depending on the bus type
in question.
The difference between ->pm.poweroff() and the corresponding ->pm.suspend() (and
analogously for the "noirq" variants) is that the former need not save the
device's registers. Still, they should prepare the device for triggering
system wakeup events if necessary and finally put it into the appropriate low
power state.
Device Low Power (suspend) States
---------------------------------
Device low-power states aren't very standard. One device might only handle
Device low-power states aren't standard. One device might only handle
"on" and "off, while another might support a dozen different versions of
"on" (how many engines are active?), plus a state that gets back to "on"
faster than from a full "off".
......@@ -265,7 +401,7 @@ PCI device may not perform DMA or issue IRQs, and any wakeup events it
issues would be issued through the PME# bus signal. Plus, there are
several PCI-standard device states, some of which are optional.
In contrast, integrated system-on-chip processors often use irqs as the
In contrast, integrated system-on-chip processors often use IRQs as the
wakeup event sources (so drivers would call enable_irq_wake) and might
be able to treat DMA completion as a wakeup event (sometimes DMA can stay
active too, it'd only be the CPU and some peripherals that sleep).
......@@ -284,84 +420,86 @@ ways; the aforementioned LCD might be active in one product's "standby",
but a different product using the same SOC might work differently.
Meaning of pm_message_t.event
-----------------------------
Parameters to suspend calls include the device affected and a message of
type pm_message_t, which has one field: the event. If driver does not
recognize the event code, suspend calls may abort the request and return
a negative errno. However, most drivers will be fine if they implement
PM_EVENT_SUSPEND semantics for all messages.
Resuming Devices
----------------
Resuming is done in multiple phases, much like suspending, with all
devices processing each phase's calls before the next phase begins.
The event codes are used to refine the goal of suspending the device, and
mostly matter when creating or resuming system memory image snapshots, as
used with suspend-to-disk:
Again, however, different callbacks are used depending on whether the system is
waking up from the standby or memory sleep state ("suspend-to-RAM") or from
hibernation ("suspend-to-disk").
PM_EVENT_SUSPEND -- quiesce the driver and put hardware into a low-power
state. When used with system sleep states like "suspend-to-RAM" or
"standby", the upcoming resume() call will often be able to rely on
state kept in hardware, or issue system wakeup events.
If the system is waking up from the standby or memory sleep state, the phases
are seen by driver notifications issued in this order:
PM_EVENT_HIBERNATE -- Put hardware into a low-power state and enable wakeup
events as appropriate. It is only used with hibernation
(suspend-to-disk) and few devices are able to wake up the system from
this state; most are completely powered off.
1 bus->pm.resume_noirq(dev) is called, if implemented. It may call the
device driver's ->pm.resume_noirq() method, depending on the bus type in
question.
PM_EVENT_FREEZE -- quiesce the driver, but don't necessarily change into
any low power mode. A system snapshot is about to be taken, often
followed by a call to the driver's resume() method. Neither wakeup
events nor DMA are allowed.
The role of this method is to perform actions that need to be performed
before device drivers' interrupt handlers are allowed to be invoked. If
the given bus type permits devices to share interrupt vectors, like PCI,
this method should bring the device and its driver into a state in which
the driver can recognize if the device is the source of incoming
interrupts, if any, and handle them correctly.
PM_EVENT_PRETHAW -- quiesce the driver, knowing that the upcoming resume()
will restore a suspend-to-disk snapshot from a different kernel image.
Drivers that are smart enough to look at their hardware state during
resume() processing need that state to be correct ... a PRETHAW could
be used to invalidate that state (by resetting the device), like a
shutdown() invocation would before a kexec() or system halt. Other
drivers might handle this the same way as PM_EVENT_FREEZE. Neither
wakeup events nor DMA are allowed.
For example, the PCI bus type's ->pm.resume_noirq() puts the device into
the full power state (D0 in the PCI terminology) and restores the
standard configuration registers of the device. Then, it calls the
device driver's ->pm.resume_noirq() method to perform device-specific
actions needed at this stage of resume.
To enter "standby" (ACPI S1) or "Suspend to RAM" (STR, ACPI S3) states, or
the similarly named APM states, only PM_EVENT_SUSPEND is used; the other event
codes are used for hibernation ("Suspend to Disk", STD, ACPI S4).
2 bus->pm.resume(dev) is called, if implemented. It usually calls the
device driver's ->pm.resume() method.
There's also PM_EVENT_ON, a value which never appears as a suspend event
but is sometimes used to record the "not suspended" device state.
This call should generally bring the the device back to the working
state, so that it can do I/O as requested after the call has returned.
However, it may be more convenient to use the device class or device
type ->pm.resume() for this purpose, in which case the bus type's
->pm.resume() method need not be implemented at all.
3 type->pm.resume(dev) is called, if implemented. It may invoke the
device driver's ->pm.resume() method, unless class->pm.resume(dev) or
bus->pm.resume() does that.
Resuming Devices
----------------
Resuming is done in multiple phases, much like suspending, with all
devices processing each phase's calls before the next phase begins.
For devices that are not associated with any bus type or device class
this method plays the role of bus->pm.resume().
The phases are seen by driver notifications issued in this order:
4 class->pm.resume(dev) is called, if implemented. It may invoke the
device driver's ->pm.resume() method, unless bus->pm.resume(dev) or
type->pm.resume() does that.
1 bus.resume(dev) reverses the effects of bus.suspend(). This may
be morphed into a device driver call with bus-specific parameters;
implementations may sleep.
For devices that are not associated with any bus type or device type
this method plays the role of bus->pm.resume().
2 class.resume(dev) is called for devices associated with a class
that has such a method. Implementations may sleep.
5 bus->pm.complete(dev) is called, if implemented. It is supposed to
invoke the device driver's ->pm.complete() method.
This reverses the effects of class.suspend(), and would usually
reactivate the device's I/O queue.
The role of this method is to reverse whatever bus->pm.prepare(dev)
(or the driver's ->pm.prepare()) did during suspend, if necessary.
At the end of those phases, drivers should normally be as functional as
they were before suspending: I/O can be performed using DMA and IRQs, and
the relevant clocks are gated on. The device need not be "fully on"; it
might be in a runtime lowpower/suspend state that acts as if it were.
the relevant clocks are gated on. In principle the device need not be
"fully on"; it might be in a runtime lowpower/suspend state during suspend and
the resume callbacks may try to restore that state, but that need not be
desirable from the user's point of view. In fact, there are multiple reasons
why it's better to always put devices into the "fully working" state in the
system sleep resume callbacks and they are discussed in more detail in
Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt.
However, the details here may again be platform-specific. For example,
some systems support multiple "run" states, and the mode in effect at
the end of resume() might not be the one which preceded suspension.
the end of resume might not be the one which preceded suspension.
That means availability of certain clocks or power supplies changed,
which could easily affect how a driver works.
Drivers need to be able to handle hardware which has been reset since the
suspend methods were called, for example by complete reinitialization.
This may be the hardest part, and the one most protected by NDA'd documents
and chip errata. It's simplest if the hardware state hasn't changed since
the suspend() was called, but that can't always be guaranteed.
the suspend was carried out, but that can't be guaranteed (in fact, it ususally
is not the case).
Drivers must also be prepared to notice that the device has been removed
while the system was powered off, whenever that's physically possible.
......@@ -371,11 +509,76 @@ will notice and handle such removals are currently bus-specific, and often
involve a separate thread.
Note that the bus-specific runtime PM wakeup mechanism can exist, and might
be defined to share some of the same driver code as for system wakeup. For
example, a bus-specific device driver's resume() method might be used there,
so it wouldn't only be called from bus.resume() during system-wide wakeup.
See bus-specific information about how runtime wakeup events are handled.
Resume From Hibernation
-----------------------
Resuming from hibernation is, again, more complicated than resuming from a sleep
state in which the contents of main memory are preserved, because it requires
a system image to be loaded into memory and the pre-hibernation memory contents
to be restored before control can be passed back to the image kernel.
In principle, the image might be loaded into memory and the pre-hibernation