Commit 041d3a8c authored by Michal Nazarewicz's avatar Michal Nazarewicz Committed by Marek Szyprowski
Browse files

mm: page_alloc: introduce alloc_contig_range()

This commit adds the alloc_contig_range() function which tries
to allocate given range of pages.  It tries to migrate all
already allocated pages that fall in the range thus freeing them.
Once all pages in the range are freed they are removed from the
buddy system thus allocated for the caller to use.
Signed-off-by: default avatarMichal Nazarewicz <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarMarek Szyprowski <>
Acked-by: default avatarMel Gorman <>
Reviewed-by: default avatarKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <>
Tested-by: default avatarRob Clark <>
Tested-by: default avatarOhad Ben-Cohen <>
Tested-by: default avatarBenjamin Gaignard <>
Tested-by: default avatarRobert Nelson <>
Tested-by: default avatarBarry Song <>
parent ff9543fd
......@@ -391,4 +391,12 @@ static inline bool pm_suspended_storage(void)
#endif /* CONFIG_PM_SLEEP */
/* The below functions must be run on a range from a single zone. */
extern int alloc_contig_range(unsigned long start, unsigned long end);
extern void free_contig_range(unsigned long pfn, unsigned nr_pages);
#endif /* __LINUX_GFP_H */
......@@ -57,6 +57,7 @@
#include <linux/ftrace_event.h>
#include <linux/memcontrol.h>
#include <linux/prefetch.h>
#include <linux/migrate.h>
#include <linux/page-debug-flags.h>
#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
......@@ -5550,6 +5551,193 @@ out:
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&zone->lock, flags);
static unsigned long pfn_max_align_down(unsigned long pfn)
return pfn & ~(max_t(unsigned long, MAX_ORDER_NR_PAGES,
pageblock_nr_pages) - 1);
static unsigned long pfn_max_align_up(unsigned long pfn)
return ALIGN(pfn, max_t(unsigned long, MAX_ORDER_NR_PAGES,
static struct page *
__alloc_contig_migrate_alloc(struct page *page, unsigned long private,
int **resultp)
return alloc_page(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE);
/* [start, end) must belong to a single zone. */
static int __alloc_contig_migrate_range(unsigned long start, unsigned long end)
/* This function is based on compact_zone() from compaction.c. */
unsigned long pfn = start;
unsigned int tries = 0;
int ret = 0;
struct compact_control cc = {
.nr_migratepages = 0,
.order = -1,
.zone = page_zone(pfn_to_page(start)),
.sync = true,
while (pfn < end || !list_empty(&cc.migratepages)) {
if (fatal_signal_pending(current)) {
ret = -EINTR;
if (list_empty(&cc.migratepages)) {
cc.nr_migratepages = 0;
pfn = isolate_migratepages_range(, &cc,
pfn, end);
if (!pfn) {
ret = -EINTR;
tries = 0;
} else if (++tries == 5) {
ret = ret < 0 ? ret : -EBUSY;
ret = migrate_pages(&cc.migratepages,
0, false, true);
return ret > 0 ? 0 : ret;
* alloc_contig_range() -- tries to allocate given range of pages
* @start: start PFN to allocate
* @end: one-past-the-last PFN to allocate
* The PFN range does not have to be pageblock or MAX_ORDER_NR_PAGES
* aligned, however it's the caller's responsibility to guarantee that
* we are the only thread that changes migrate type of pageblocks the
* pages fall in.
* The PFN range must belong to a single zone.
* Returns zero on success or negative error code. On success all
* pages which PFN is in [start, end) are allocated for the caller and
* need to be freed with free_contig_range().
int alloc_contig_range(unsigned long start, unsigned long end)
struct zone *zone = page_zone(pfn_to_page(start));
unsigned long outer_start, outer_end;
int ret = 0, order;
* What we do here is we mark all pageblocks in range as
* MIGRATE_ISOLATE. Because pageblock and max order pages may
* have different sizes, and due to the way page allocator
* work, we align the range to biggest of the two pages so
* that page allocator won't try to merge buddies from
* different pageblocks and change MIGRATE_ISOLATE to some
* other migration type.
* Once the pageblocks are marked as MIGRATE_ISOLATE, we
* migrate the pages from an unaligned range (ie. pages that
* we are interested in). This will put all the pages in
* range back to page allocator as MIGRATE_ISOLATE.
* When this is done, we take the pages in range from page
* allocator removing them from the buddy system. This way
* page allocator will never consider using them.
* This lets us mark the pageblocks back as
* MIGRATE_CMA/MIGRATE_MOVABLE so that free pages in the
* aligned range but not in the unaligned, original range are
* put back to page allocator so that buddy can use them.
ret = start_isolate_page_range(pfn_max_align_down(start),
if (ret)
goto done;
ret = __alloc_contig_migrate_range(start, end);
if (ret)
goto done;
* Pages from [start, end) are within a MAX_ORDER_NR_PAGES
* aligned blocks that are marked as MIGRATE_ISOLATE. What's
* more, all pages in [start, end) are free in page allocator.
* What we are going to do is to allocate all pages from
* [start, end) (that is remove them from page allocator).
* The only problem is that pages at the beginning and at the
* end of interesting range may be not aligned with pages that
* page allocator holds, ie. they can be part of higher order
* pages. Because of this, we reserve the bigger range and
* once this is done free the pages we are not interested in.
* We don't have to hold zone->lock here because the pages are
* isolated thus they won't get removed from buddy.
order = 0;
outer_start = start;
while (!PageBuddy(pfn_to_page(outer_start))) {
if (++order >= MAX_ORDER) {
ret = -EBUSY;
goto done;
outer_start &= ~0UL << order;
/* Make sure the range is really isolated. */
if (test_pages_isolated(outer_start, end)) {
pr_warn("alloc_contig_range test_pages_isolated(%lx, %lx) failed\n",
outer_start, end);
ret = -EBUSY;
goto done;
outer_end = isolate_freepages_range(outer_start, end);
if (!outer_end) {
ret = -EBUSY;
goto done;
/* Free head and tail (if any) */
if (start != outer_start)
free_contig_range(outer_start, start - outer_start);
if (end != outer_end)
free_contig_range(end, outer_end - end);
return ret;
void free_contig_range(unsigned long pfn, unsigned nr_pages)
for (; nr_pages--; ++pfn)
* All pages in the range must be isolated before calling this.
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