page_alloc.c 91.1 KB
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/*
 *  linux/mm/page_alloc.c
 *
 *  Manages the free list, the system allocates free pages here.
 *  Note that kmalloc() lives in slab.c
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994  Linus Torvalds
 *  Swap reorganised 29.12.95, Stephen Tweedie
 *  Support of BIGMEM added by Gerhard Wichert, Siemens AG, July 1999
 *  Reshaped it to be a zoned allocator, Ingo Molnar, Red Hat, 1999
 *  Discontiguous memory support, Kanoj Sarcar, SGI, Nov 1999
 *  Zone balancing, Kanoj Sarcar, SGI, Jan 2000
 *  Per cpu hot/cold page lists, bulk allocation, Martin J. Bligh, Sept 2002
 *          (lots of bits borrowed from Ingo Molnar & Andrew Morton)
 */

#include <linux/stddef.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/bootmem.h>
#include <linux/compiler.h>
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#include <linux/kernel.h>
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#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/suspend.h>
#include <linux/pagevec.h>
#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/topology.h>
#include <linux/sysctl.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/cpuset.h>
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#include <linux/memory_hotplug.h>
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#include <linux/nodemask.h>
#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
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#include <linux/mempolicy.h>
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#include <linux/stop_machine.h>
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#include <linux/sort.h>
#include <linux/pfn.h>
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#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
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#include <linux/fault-inject.h>
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#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
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#include <asm/div64.h>
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#include "internal.h"

/*
 * MCD - HACK: Find somewhere to initialize this EARLY, or make this
 * initializer cleaner
 */
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nodemask_t node_online_map __read_mostly = { { [0] = 1UL } };
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(node_online_map);
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nodemask_t node_possible_map __read_mostly = NODE_MASK_ALL;
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(node_possible_map);
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unsigned long totalram_pages __read_mostly;
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unsigned long totalreserve_pages __read_mostly;
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long nr_swap_pages;
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int percpu_pagelist_fraction;
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static void __free_pages_ok(struct page *page, unsigned int order);
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/*
 * results with 256, 32 in the lowmem_reserve sysctl:
 *	1G machine -> (16M dma, 800M-16M normal, 1G-800M high)
 *	1G machine -> (16M dma, 784M normal, 224M high)
 *	NORMAL allocation will leave 784M/256 of ram reserved in the ZONE_DMA
 *	HIGHMEM allocation will leave 224M/32 of ram reserved in ZONE_NORMAL
 *	HIGHMEM allocation will (224M+784M)/256 of ram reserved in ZONE_DMA
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 *
 * TBD: should special case ZONE_DMA32 machines here - in those we normally
 * don't need any ZONE_NORMAL reservation
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 */
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int sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio[MAX_NR_ZONES-1] = {
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#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA
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	 256,
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#endif
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#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA32
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	 256,
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#endif
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#ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
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	 32
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#endif
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};
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(totalram_pages);

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static char * const zone_names[MAX_NR_ZONES] = {
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#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA
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	 "DMA",
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#endif
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#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA32
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	 "DMA32",
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#endif
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	 "Normal",
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#ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
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	 "HighMem"
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#endif
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};

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int min_free_kbytes = 1024;

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unsigned long __meminitdata nr_kernel_pages;
unsigned long __meminitdata nr_all_pages;
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static unsigned long __initdata dma_reserve;
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#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_POPULATES_NODE_MAP
  /*
   * MAX_ACTIVE_REGIONS determines the maxmimum number of distinct
   * ranges of memory (RAM) that may be registered with add_active_range().
   * Ranges passed to add_active_range() will be merged if possible
   * so the number of times add_active_range() can be called is
   * related to the number of nodes and the number of holes
   */
  #ifdef CONFIG_MAX_ACTIVE_REGIONS
    /* Allow an architecture to set MAX_ACTIVE_REGIONS to save memory */
    #define MAX_ACTIVE_REGIONS CONFIG_MAX_ACTIVE_REGIONS
  #else
    #if MAX_NUMNODES >= 32
      /* If there can be many nodes, allow up to 50 holes per node */
      #define MAX_ACTIVE_REGIONS (MAX_NUMNODES*50)
    #else
      /* By default, allow up to 256 distinct regions */
      #define MAX_ACTIVE_REGIONS 256
    #endif
  #endif

  struct node_active_region __initdata early_node_map[MAX_ACTIVE_REGIONS];
  int __initdata nr_nodemap_entries;
  unsigned long __initdata arch_zone_lowest_possible_pfn[MAX_NR_ZONES];
  unsigned long __initdata arch_zone_highest_possible_pfn[MAX_NR_ZONES];
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#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTPLUG_RESERVE
  unsigned long __initdata node_boundary_start_pfn[MAX_NUMNODES];
  unsigned long __initdata node_boundary_end_pfn[MAX_NUMNODES];
#endif /* CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTPLUG_RESERVE */
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#endif /* CONFIG_ARCH_POPULATES_NODE_MAP */

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#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
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static int page_outside_zone_boundaries(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
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{
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	int ret = 0;
	unsigned seq;
	unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
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	do {
		seq = zone_span_seqbegin(zone);
		if (pfn >= zone->zone_start_pfn + zone->spanned_pages)
			ret = 1;
		else if (pfn < zone->zone_start_pfn)
			ret = 1;
	} while (zone_span_seqretry(zone, seq));

	return ret;
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}

static int page_is_consistent(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
{
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#ifdef CONFIG_HOLES_IN_ZONE
	if (!pfn_valid(page_to_pfn(page)))
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		return 0;
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#endif
	if (zone != page_zone(page))
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		return 0;

	return 1;
}
/*
 * Temporary debugging check for pages not lying within a given zone.
 */
static int bad_range(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
{
	if (page_outside_zone_boundaries(zone, page))
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		return 1;
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	if (!page_is_consistent(zone, page))
		return 1;

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	return 0;
}
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#else
static inline int bad_range(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
{
	return 0;
}
#endif

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static void bad_page(struct page *page)
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{
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	printk(KERN_EMERG "Bad page state in process '%s'\n"
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		KERN_EMERG "page:%p flags:0x%0*lx mapping:%p mapcount:%d count:%d\n"
		KERN_EMERG "Trying to fix it up, but a reboot is needed\n"
		KERN_EMERG "Backtrace:\n",
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		current->comm, page, (int)(2*sizeof(unsigned long)),
		(unsigned long)page->flags, page->mapping,
		page_mapcount(page), page_count(page));
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	dump_stack();
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	page->flags &= ~(1 << PG_lru	|
			1 << PG_private |
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			1 << PG_locked	|
			1 << PG_active	|
			1 << PG_dirty	|
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			1 << PG_reclaim |
			1 << PG_slab    |
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			1 << PG_swapcache |
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			1 << PG_writeback |
			1 << PG_buddy );
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	set_page_count(page, 0);
	reset_page_mapcount(page);
	page->mapping = NULL;
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	add_taint(TAINT_BAD_PAGE);
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}

/*
 * Higher-order pages are called "compound pages".  They are structured thusly:
 *
 * The first PAGE_SIZE page is called the "head page".
 *
 * The remaining PAGE_SIZE pages are called "tail pages".
 *
 * All pages have PG_compound set.  All pages have their ->private pointing at
 * the head page (even the head page has this).
 *
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 * The first tail page's ->lru.next holds the address of the compound page's
 * put_page() function.  Its ->lru.prev holds the order of allocation.
 * This usage means that zero-order pages may not be compound.
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 */
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static void free_compound_page(struct page *page)
{
	__free_pages_ok(page, (unsigned long)page[1].lru.prev);
}

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static void prep_compound_page(struct page *page, unsigned long order)
{
	int i;
	int nr_pages = 1 << order;

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	set_compound_page_dtor(page, free_compound_page);
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	page[1].lru.prev = (void *)order;
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	for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
		struct page *p = page + i;

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		__SetPageCompound(p);
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		set_page_private(p, (unsigned long)page);
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	}
}

static void destroy_compound_page(struct page *page, unsigned long order)
{
	int i;
	int nr_pages = 1 << order;

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	if (unlikely((unsigned long)page[1].lru.prev != order))
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		bad_page(page);
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	for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
		struct page *p = page + i;

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		if (unlikely(!PageCompound(p) |
				(page_private(p) != (unsigned long)page)))
			bad_page(page);
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		__ClearPageCompound(p);
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	}
}

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static inline void prep_zero_page(struct page *page, int order, gfp_t gfp_flags)
{
	int i;

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	VM_BUG_ON((gfp_flags & (__GFP_WAIT | __GFP_HIGHMEM)) == __GFP_HIGHMEM);
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	/*
	 * clear_highpage() will use KM_USER0, so it's a bug to use __GFP_ZERO
	 * and __GFP_HIGHMEM from hard or soft interrupt context.
	 */
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	VM_BUG_ON((gfp_flags & __GFP_HIGHMEM) && in_interrupt());
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	for (i = 0; i < (1 << order); i++)
		clear_highpage(page + i);
}

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/*
 * function for dealing with page's order in buddy system.
 * zone->lock is already acquired when we use these.
 * So, we don't need atomic page->flags operations here.
 */
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static inline unsigned long page_order(struct page *page)
{
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	return page_private(page);
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}

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static inline void set_page_order(struct page *page, int order)
{
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	set_page_private(page, order);
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	__SetPageBuddy(page);
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}

static inline void rmv_page_order(struct page *page)
{
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	__ClearPageBuddy(page);
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	set_page_private(page, 0);
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}

/*
 * Locate the struct page for both the matching buddy in our
 * pair (buddy1) and the combined O(n+1) page they form (page).
 *
 * 1) Any buddy B1 will have an order O twin B2 which satisfies
 * the following equation:
 *     B2 = B1 ^ (1 << O)
 * For example, if the starting buddy (buddy2) is #8 its order
 * 1 buddy is #10:
 *     B2 = 8 ^ (1 << 1) = 8 ^ 2 = 10
 *
 * 2) Any buddy B will have an order O+1 parent P which
 * satisfies the following equation:
 *     P = B & ~(1 << O)
 *
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 * Assumption: *_mem_map is contiguous at least up to MAX_ORDER
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 */
static inline struct page *
__page_find_buddy(struct page *page, unsigned long page_idx, unsigned int order)
{
	unsigned long buddy_idx = page_idx ^ (1 << order);

	return page + (buddy_idx - page_idx);
}

static inline unsigned long
__find_combined_index(unsigned long page_idx, unsigned int order)
{
	return (page_idx & ~(1 << order));
}

/*
 * This function checks whether a page is free && is the buddy
 * we can do coalesce a page and its buddy if
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 * (a) the buddy is not in a hole &&
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 * (b) the buddy is in the buddy system &&
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 * (c) a page and its buddy have the same order &&
 * (d) a page and its buddy are in the same zone.
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 *
 * For recording whether a page is in the buddy system, we use PG_buddy.
 * Setting, clearing, and testing PG_buddy is serialized by zone->lock.
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 *
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 * For recording page's order, we use page_private(page).
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 */
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static inline int page_is_buddy(struct page *page, struct page *buddy,
								int order)
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{
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#ifdef CONFIG_HOLES_IN_ZONE
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	if (!pfn_valid(page_to_pfn(buddy)))
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		return 0;
#endif

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	if (page_zone_id(page) != page_zone_id(buddy))
		return 0;

	if (PageBuddy(buddy) && page_order(buddy) == order) {
		BUG_ON(page_count(buddy) != 0);
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		return 1;
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	}
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	return 0;
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}

/*
 * Freeing function for a buddy system allocator.
 *
 * The concept of a buddy system is to maintain direct-mapped table
 * (containing bit values) for memory blocks of various "orders".
 * The bottom level table contains the map for the smallest allocatable
 * units of memory (here, pages), and each level above it describes
 * pairs of units from the levels below, hence, "buddies".
 * At a high level, all that happens here is marking the table entry
 * at the bottom level available, and propagating the changes upward
 * as necessary, plus some accounting needed to play nicely with other
 * parts of the VM system.
 * At each level, we keep a list of pages, which are heads of continuous
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 * free pages of length of (1 << order) and marked with PG_buddy. Page's
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 * order is recorded in page_private(page) field.
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 * So when we are allocating or freeing one, we can derive the state of the
 * other.  That is, if we allocate a small block, and both were   
 * free, the remainder of the region must be split into blocks.   
 * If a block is freed, and its buddy is also free, then this
 * triggers coalescing into a block of larger size.            
 *
 * -- wli
 */

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static inline void __free_one_page(struct page *page,
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		struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
{
	unsigned long page_idx;
	int order_size = 1 << order;

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	if (unlikely(PageCompound(page)))
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		destroy_compound_page(page, order);

	page_idx = page_to_pfn(page) & ((1 << MAX_ORDER) - 1);

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	VM_BUG_ON(page_idx & (order_size - 1));
	VM_BUG_ON(bad_range(zone, page));
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	__mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_PAGES, order_size);
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	while (order < MAX_ORDER-1) {
		unsigned long combined_idx;
		struct free_area *area;
		struct page *buddy;

		buddy = __page_find_buddy(page, page_idx, order);
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		if (!page_is_buddy(page, buddy, order))
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			break;		/* Move the buddy up one level. */
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		list_del(&buddy->lru);
		area = zone->free_area + order;
		area->nr_free--;
		rmv_page_order(buddy);
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		combined_idx = __find_combined_index(page_idx, order);
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		page = page + (combined_idx - page_idx);
		page_idx = combined_idx;
		order++;
	}
	set_page_order(page, order);
	list_add(&page->lru, &zone->free_area[order].free_list);
	zone->free_area[order].nr_free++;
}

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static inline int free_pages_check(struct page *page)
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{
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	if (unlikely(page_mapcount(page) |
		(page->mapping != NULL)  |
		(page_count(page) != 0)  |
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		(page->flags & (
			1 << PG_lru	|
			1 << PG_private |
			1 << PG_locked	|
			1 << PG_active	|
			1 << PG_reclaim	|
			1 << PG_slab	|
			1 << PG_swapcache |
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			1 << PG_writeback |
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			1 << PG_reserved |
			1 << PG_buddy ))))
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		bad_page(page);
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	if (PageDirty(page))
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		__ClearPageDirty(page);
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	/*
	 * For now, we report if PG_reserved was found set, but do not
	 * clear it, and do not free the page.  But we shall soon need
	 * to do more, for when the ZERO_PAGE count wraps negative.
	 */
	return PageReserved(page);
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}

/*
 * Frees a list of pages. 
 * Assumes all pages on list are in same zone, and of same order.
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 * count is the number of pages to free.
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 *
 * If the zone was previously in an "all pages pinned" state then look to
 * see if this freeing clears that state.
 *
 * And clear the zone's pages_scanned counter, to hold off the "all pages are
 * pinned" detection logic.
 */
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static void free_pages_bulk(struct zone *zone, int count,
					struct list_head *list, int order)
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{
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	spin_lock(&zone->lock);
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	zone->all_unreclaimable = 0;
	zone->pages_scanned = 0;
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	while (count--) {
		struct page *page;

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		VM_BUG_ON(list_empty(list));
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		page = list_entry(list->prev, struct page, lru);
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		/* have to delete it as __free_one_page list manipulates */
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		list_del(&page->lru);
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		__free_one_page(page, zone, order);
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	}
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	spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
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}

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static void free_one_page(struct zone *zone, struct page *page, int order)
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{
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	spin_lock(&zone->lock);
	zone->all_unreclaimable = 0;
	zone->pages_scanned = 0;
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	__free_one_page(page, zone, order);
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	spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
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}

static void __free_pages_ok(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
	unsigned long flags;
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	int i;
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	int reserved = 0;
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	for (i = 0 ; i < (1 << order) ; ++i)
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		reserved += free_pages_check(page + i);
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	if (reserved)
		return;

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	if (!PageHighMem(page))
		debug_check_no_locks_freed(page_address(page),PAGE_SIZE<<order);
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	arch_free_page(page, order);
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	kernel_map_pages(page, 1 << order, 0);
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	local_irq_save(flags);
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	__count_vm_events(PGFREE, 1 << order);
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	free_one_page(page_zone(page), page, order);
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	local_irq_restore(flags);
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}

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/*
 * permit the bootmem allocator to evade page validation on high-order frees
 */
void fastcall __init __free_pages_bootmem(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
	if (order == 0) {
		__ClearPageReserved(page);
		set_page_count(page, 0);
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		set_page_refcounted(page);
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		__free_page(page);
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	} else {
		int loop;

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		prefetchw(page);
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		for (loop = 0; loop < BITS_PER_LONG; loop++) {
			struct page *p = &page[loop];

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			if (loop + 1 < BITS_PER_LONG)
				prefetchw(p + 1);
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			__ClearPageReserved(p);
			set_page_count(p, 0);
		}

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		set_page_refcounted(page);
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		__free_pages(page, order);
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	}
}

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/*
 * The order of subdivision here is critical for the IO subsystem.
 * Please do not alter this order without good reasons and regression
 * testing. Specifically, as large blocks of memory are subdivided,
 * the order in which smaller blocks are delivered depends on the order
 * they're subdivided in this function. This is the primary factor
 * influencing the order in which pages are delivered to the IO
 * subsystem according to empirical testing, and this is also justified
 * by considering the behavior of a buddy system containing a single
 * large block of memory acted on by a series of small allocations.
 * This behavior is a critical factor in sglist merging's success.
 *
 * -- wli
 */
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static inline void expand(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
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 	int low, int high, struct free_area *area)
{
	unsigned long size = 1 << high;

	while (high > low) {
		area--;
		high--;
		size >>= 1;
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		VM_BUG_ON(bad_range(zone, &page[size]));
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		list_add(&page[size].lru, &area->free_list);
		area->nr_free++;
		set_page_order(&page[size], high);
	}
}

/*
 * This page is about to be returned from the page allocator
 */
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static int prep_new_page(struct page *page, int order, gfp_t gfp_flags)
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{
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	if (unlikely(page_mapcount(page) |
		(page->mapping != NULL)  |
		(page_count(page) != 0)  |
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		(page->flags & (
			1 << PG_lru	|
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			1 << PG_private	|
			1 << PG_locked	|
			1 << PG_active	|
			1 << PG_dirty	|
			1 << PG_reclaim	|
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			1 << PG_slab    |
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			1 << PG_swapcache |
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			1 << PG_writeback |
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			1 << PG_reserved |
			1 << PG_buddy ))))
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		bad_page(page);
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	/*
	 * For now, we report if PG_reserved was found set, but do not
	 * clear it, and do not allocate the page: as a safety net.
	 */
	if (PageReserved(page))
		return 1;

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	page->flags &= ~(1 << PG_uptodate | 1 << PG_error |
			1 << PG_referenced | 1 << PG_arch_1 |
			1 << PG_checked | 1 << PG_mappedtodisk);
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	set_page_private(page, 0);
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	set_page_refcounted(page);
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	arch_alloc_page(page, order);
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	kernel_map_pages(page, 1 << order, 1);
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	if (gfp_flags & __GFP_ZERO)
		prep_zero_page(page, order, gfp_flags);

	if (order && (gfp_flags & __GFP_COMP))
		prep_compound_page(page, order);

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	return 0;
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}

/* 
 * Do the hard work of removing an element from the buddy allocator.
 * Call me with the zone->lock already held.
 */
static struct page *__rmqueue(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
{
	struct free_area * area;
	unsigned int current_order;
	struct page *page;

	for (current_order = order; current_order < MAX_ORDER; ++current_order) {
		area = zone->free_area + current_order;
		if (list_empty(&area->free_list))
			continue;

		page = list_entry(area->free_list.next, struct page, lru);
		list_del(&page->lru);
		rmv_page_order(page);
		area->nr_free--;
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		__mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_PAGES, - (1UL << order));
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		expand(zone, page, order, current_order, area);
		return page;
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	}

	return NULL;
}

/* 
 * Obtain a specified number of elements from the buddy allocator, all under
 * a single hold of the lock, for efficiency.  Add them to the supplied list.
 * Returns the number of new pages which were placed at *list.
 */
static int rmqueue_bulk(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order, 
			unsigned long count, struct list_head *list)
{
	int i;
	
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	spin_lock(&zone->lock);
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	for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
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		struct page *page = __rmqueue(zone, order);
		if (unlikely(page == NULL))
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			break;
		list_add_tail(&page->lru, list);
	}
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	spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
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	return i;
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}

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#if MAX_NUMNODES > 1
int nr_node_ids __read_mostly;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nr_node_ids);

/*
 * Figure out the number of possible node ids.
 */
static void __init setup_nr_node_ids(void)
{
	unsigned int node;
	unsigned int highest = 0;

	for_each_node_mask(node, node_possible_map)
		highest = node;
	nr_node_ids = highest + 1;
}
#else
static void __init setup_nr_node_ids(void) {}
#endif

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#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
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/*
 * Called from the slab reaper to drain pagesets on a particular node that
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 * belongs to the currently executing processor.
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 * Note that this function must be called with the thread pinned to
 * a single processor.
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 */
void drain_node_pages(int nodeid)
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{
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	int i;
	enum zone_type z;
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	unsigned long flags;

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	for (z = 0; z < MAX_NR_ZONES; z++) {
		struct zone *zone = NODE_DATA(nodeid)->node_zones + z;
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		struct per_cpu_pageset *pset;

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		if (!populated_zone(zone))
			continue;

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		pset = zone_pcp(zone, smp_processor_id());
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		for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(pset->pcp); i++) {
			struct per_cpu_pages *pcp;

			pcp = &pset->pcp[i];
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			if (pcp->count) {
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				int to_drain;

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				local_irq_save(flags);
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				if (pcp->count >= pcp->batch)
					to_drain = pcp->batch;
				else
					to_drain = pcp->count;
				free_pages_bulk(zone, to_drain, &pcp->list, 0);
				pcp->count -= to_drain;
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				local_irq_restore(flags);
			}
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		}
	}
}
#endif

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static void __drain_pages(unsigned int cpu)
{
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	unsigned long flags;
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	struct zone *zone;
	int i;

	for_each_zone(zone) {
		struct per_cpu_pageset *pset;

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		if (!populated_zone(zone))
			continue;

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		pset = zone_pcp(zone, cpu);
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		for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(pset->pcp); i++) {
			struct per_cpu_pages *pcp;

			pcp = &pset->pcp[i];
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			local_irq_save(flags);
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			free_pages_bulk(zone, pcp->count, &pcp->list, 0);
			pcp->count = 0;
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			local_irq_restore(flags);
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		}
	}
}

#ifdef CONFIG_PM

void mark_free_pages(struct zone *zone)
{
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	unsigned long pfn, max_zone_pfn;
	unsigned long flags;
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	int order;
	struct list_head *curr;

	if (!zone->spanned_pages)
		return;

	spin_lock_irqsave(&zone->lock, flags);
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	max_zone_pfn = zone->zone_start_pfn + zone->spanned_pages;
	for (pfn = zone->zone_start_pfn; pfn < max_zone_pfn; pfn++)
		if (pfn_valid(pfn)) {
			struct page *page = pfn_to_page(pfn);

			if (!PageNosave(page))
				ClearPageNosaveFree(page);
		}
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	for (order = MAX_ORDER - 1; order >= 0; --order)
		list_for_each(curr, &zone->free_area[order].free_list) {
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			unsigned long i;
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			pfn = page_to_pfn(list_entry(curr, struct page, lru));
			for (i = 0; i < (1UL << order); i++)
				SetPageNosaveFree(pfn_to_page(pfn + i));
		}
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	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&zone->lock, flags);
}

/*
 * Spill all of this CPU's per-cpu pages back into the buddy allocator.
 */
void drain_local_pages(void)
{
	unsigned long flags;

	local_irq_save(flags);	
	__drain_pages(smp_processor_id());
	local_irq_restore(flags);	
}
#endif /* CONFIG_PM */

/*
 * Free a 0-order page
 */
static void fastcall free_hot_cold_page(struct page *page, int cold)
{
	struct zone *zone = page_zone(page);
	struct per_cpu_pages *pcp;
	unsigned long flags;

	if (PageAnon(page))
		page->mapping = NULL;
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	if (free_pages_check(page))
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		return;

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	if (!PageHighMem(page))
		debug_check_no_locks_freed(page_address(page), PAGE_SIZE);
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	arch_free_page(page, 0);
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	kernel_map_pages(page, 1, 0);

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	pcp = &zone_pcp(zone, get_cpu())->pcp[cold];
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	local_irq_save(flags);
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	__count_vm_event(PGFREE);
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	list_add(&page->lru, &pcp->list);
	pcp->count++;
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	if (pcp->count >= pcp->high) {
		free_pages_bulk(zone, pcp->batch, &pcp->list, 0);
		pcp->count -= pcp->batch;
	}
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	local_irq_restore(flags);
	put_cpu();
}

void fastcall free_hot_page(struct page *page)
{
	free_hot_cold_page(page, 0);
}
	
void fastcall free_cold_page(struct page *page)
{
	free_hot_cold_page(page, 1);
}

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/*
 * split_page takes a non-compound higher-order page, and splits it into
 * n (1<<order) sub-pages: page[0..n]
 * Each sub-page must be freed individually.
 *
 * Note: this is probably too low level an operation for use in drivers.
 * Please consult with lkml before using this in your driver.
 */
void split_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
	int i;

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	VM_BUG_ON(PageCompound(page));
	VM_BUG_ON(!page_count(page));
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	for (i = 1; i < (1 << order); i++)
		set_page_refcounted(page + i);
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}

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/*
 * Really, prep_compound_page() should be called from __rmqueue_bulk().  But
 * we cheat by calling it from here, in the order > 0 path.  Saves a branch
 * or two.
 */
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static struct page *buffered_rmqueue(struct zonelist *zonelist,
			struct zone *zone, int order, gfp_t gfp_flags)
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{
	unsigned long flags;
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	struct page *page;
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	int cold = !!(gfp_flags & __GFP_COLD);
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	int cpu;
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again:
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	cpu  = get_cpu();
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	if (likely(order == 0)) {
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		struct per_cpu_pages *pcp;

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		pcp = &zone_pcp(zone, cpu)->pcp[cold];
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		local_irq_save(flags);
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		if (!pcp->count) {
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			pcp->count = rmqueue_bulk(zone, 0,
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						pcp->batch, &pcp->list);
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			if (unlikely(!pcp->count))
				goto failed;
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		}
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		page = list_entry(pcp->list.next, struct page, lru);
		list_del(&page->lru);
		pcp->count--;
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	} else {
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		spin_lock_irqsave(&zone->lock, flags);
		page = __rmqueue(zone, order);
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		spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
		if (!page)
			goto failed;
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	}

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	__count_zone_vm_events(PGALLOC, zone, 1 << order);
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	zone_statistics(zonelist, zone);
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	local_irq_restore(flags);
	put_cpu();
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	VM_BUG_ON(bad_range(zone, page));
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	if (prep_new_page(page, order, gfp_flags))
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		goto again;
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	return page;
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failed:
	local_irq_restore(flags);
	put_cpu();
	return NULL;
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}

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#define ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS	0x01 /* don't check watermarks at all */
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#define ALLOC_WMARK_MIN		0x02 /* use pages_min watermark */
#define ALLOC_WMARK_LOW		0x04 /* use pages_low watermark */
#define ALLOC_WMARK_HIGH	0x08 /* use pages_high watermark */
#define ALLOC_HARDER		0x10 /* try to alloc harder */
#define ALLOC_HIGH		0x20 /* __GFP_HIGH set */
#define ALLOC_CPUSET		0x40 /* check for correct cpuset */
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#ifdef CONFIG_FAIL_PAGE_ALLOC

static struct fail_page_alloc_attr {
	struct fault_attr attr;

	u32 ignore_gfp_highmem;
	u32 ignore_gfp_wait;

#ifdef CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_DEBUG_FS

	struct dentry *ignore_gfp_highmem_file;
	struct dentry *ignore_gfp_wait_file;

#endif /* CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_DEBUG_FS */

} fail_page_alloc = {
	.attr = FAULT_ATTR_INITIALIZER,
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	.ignore_gfp_wait = 1,
	.ignore_gfp_highmem = 1,
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};

static int __init setup_fail_page_alloc(char *str)
{
	return setup_fault_attr(&fail_page_alloc.attr, str);
}
__setup("fail_page_alloc=", setup_fail_page_alloc);

static int should_fail_alloc_page(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order)
{
	if (gfp_mask & __GFP_NOFAIL)
		return 0;
	if (fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_highmem && (gfp_mask & __GFP_HIGHMEM))
		return 0;
	if (fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_wait && (gfp_mask & __GFP_WAIT))
		return 0;

	return should_fail(&fail_page_alloc.attr, 1 << order);
}

#ifdef CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_DEBUG_FS

static int __init fail_page_alloc_debugfs(void)
{
	mode_t mode = S_IFREG | S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR;
	struct dentry *dir;
	int err;

	err = init_fault_attr_dentries(&fail_page_alloc.attr,
				       "fail_page_alloc");
	if (err)
		return err;
	dir = fail_page_alloc.attr.dentries.dir;

	fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_wait_file =
		debugfs_create_bool("ignore-gfp-wait", mode, dir,
				      &fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_wait);

	fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_highmem_file =
		debugfs_create_bool("ignore-gfp-highmem", mode, dir,
				      &fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_highmem);

	if (!fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_wait_file ||
			!fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_highmem_file) {
		err = -ENOMEM;
		debugfs_remove(fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_wait_file);
		debugfs_remove(fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_highmem_file);
		cleanup_fault_attr_dentries(&fail_page_alloc.attr);
	}

	return err;
}

late_initcall(fail_page_alloc_debugfs);

#endif /* CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_DEBUG_FS */

#else /* CONFIG_FAIL_PAGE_ALLOC */

static inline int should_fail_alloc_page(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order)
{
	return 0;
}

#endif /* CONFIG_FAIL_PAGE_ALLOC */

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/*
 * Return 1 if free pages are above 'mark'. This takes into account the order
 * of the allocation.
 */
int zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, int order, unsigned long mark,
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		      int classzone_idx, int alloc_flags)
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{
	/* free_pages my go negative - that's OK */
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	long min = mark;
	long free_pages = zone_page_state(z, NR_FREE_PAGES) - (1 << order) + 1;
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	int o;

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	if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_HIGH)
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		min -= min / 2;
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	if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_HARDER)
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		min -= min / 4;

	if (free_pages <= min + z->lowmem_reserve[classzone_idx])
		return 0;
	for (o = 0; o < order; o++) {
		/* At the next order, this order's pages become unavailable */
		free_pages -= z->free_area[o].nr_free << o;

		/* Require fewer higher order pages to be free */
		min >>= 1;

		if (free_pages <= min)
			return 0;
	}
	return 1;
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
/*
 * zlc_setup - Setup for "zonelist cache".  Uses cached zone data to
 * skip over zones that are not allowed by the cpuset, or that have
 * been recently (in last second) found to be nearly full.  See further
 * comments in mmzone.h.  Reduces cache footprint of zonelist scans
 * that have to skip over alot of full or unallowed zones.
 *
 * If the zonelist cache is present in the passed in zonelist, then
 * returns a pointer to the allowed node mask (either the current
 * tasks mems_allowed, or node_online_map.)
 *
 * If the zonelist cache is not available for this zonelist, does
 * nothing and returns NULL.
 *
 * If the fullzones BITMAP in the zonelist cache is stale (more than
 * a second since last zap'd) then we zap it out (clear its bits.)
 *
 * We hold off even calling zlc_setup, until after we've checked the
 * first zone in the zonelist, on the theory that most allocations will
 * be satisfied from that first zone, so best to examine that zone as
 * quickly as we can.
 */
static nodemask_t *zlc_setup(struct zonelist *zonelist, int alloc_flags)
{
	struct zonelist_cache *zlc;	/* cached zonelist speedup info */
	nodemask_t *allowednodes;	/* zonelist_cache approximation */

	zlc = zonelist->zlcache_ptr;
	if (!zlc)
		return NULL;

	if (jiffies - zlc->last_full_zap > 1 * HZ) {
		bitmap_zero(zlc->fullzones, MAX_ZONES_PER_ZONELIST);
		zlc->last_full_zap = jiffies;
	}

	allowednodes = !in_interrupt() && (alloc_flags & ALLOC_CPUSET) ?
					&cpuset_current_mems_allowed :
					&node_online_map;
	return allowednodes;
}

/*
 * Given 'z' scanning a zonelist, run a couple of quick checks to see
 * if it is worth looking at further for free memory:
 *  1) Check that the zone isn't thought to be full (doesn't have its
 *     bit set in the zonelist_cache fullzones BITMAP).
 *  2) Check that the zones node (obtained from the zonelist_cache
 *     z_to_n[] mapping) is allowed in the passed in allowednodes mask.
 * Return true (non-zero) if zone is worth looking at further, or
 * else return false (zero) if it is not.
 *
 * This check -ignores- the distinction between various watermarks,
 * such as GFP_HIGH, GFP_ATOMIC, PF_MEMALLOC, ...  If a zone is
 * found to be full for any variation of these watermarks, it will
 * be considered full for up to one second by all requests, unless
 * we are so low on memory on all allowed nodes that we are forced
 * into the second scan of the zonelist.
 *
 * In the second scan we ignore this zonelist cache and exactly
 * apply the watermarks to all zones, even it is slower to do so.
 * We are low on memory in the second scan, and should leave no stone
 * unturned looking for a free page.
 */
static int zlc_zone_worth_trying(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct zone **z,
						nodemask_t *allowednodes)
{
	struct zonelist_cache *zlc;	/* cached zonelist speedup info */
	int i;				/* index of *z in zonelist zones */
	int n;				/* node that zone *z is on */

	zlc = zonelist->zlcache_ptr;
	if (!zlc)
		return 1;

	i = z - zonelist->zones;
	n = zlc->z_to_n[i];

	/* This zone is worth trying if it is allowed but not full */
	return node_isset(n, *allowednodes) && !test_bit(i, zlc->fullzones);
}

/*
 * Given 'z' scanning a zonelist, set the corresponding bit in
 * zlc->fullzones, so that subsequent attempts to allocate a page
 * from that zone don't waste time re-examining it.
 */
static void zlc_mark_zone_full(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct zone **z)
{
	struct zonelist_cache *zlc;	/* cached zonelist speedup info */
	int i;				/* index of *z in zonelist zones */

	zlc = zonelist->zlcache_ptr;
	if (!zlc)
		return;

	i = z - zonelist->zones;

	set_bit(i, zlc->fullzones);
}

#else	/* CONFIG_NUMA */

static nodemask_t *zlc_setup(struct zonelist *zonelist, int alloc_flags)
{
	return NULL;
}

static int zlc_zone_worth_trying(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct zone **z,
				nodemask_t *allowednodes)
{
	return 1;
}

static void zlc_mark_zone_full(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct zone **z)
{
}
#endif	/* CONFIG_NUMA */

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/*
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 * get_page_from_freelist goes through the zonelist trying to allocate
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 * a page.
 */
static struct page *
get_page_from_freelist(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
		struct zonelist *zonelist, int alloc_flags)
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{
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	struct zone **z;
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	struct page *page = NULL;
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	int classzone_idx = zone_idx(zonelist->zones[0]);
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	struct zone *zone;
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	nodemask_t *allowednodes = NULL;/* zonelist_cache approximation */
	int zlc_active = 0;		/* set if using zonelist_cache */
	int did_zlc_setup = 0;		/* just call zlc_setup() one time */
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zonelist_scan:
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	/*
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	 * Scan zonelist, looking for a zone with enough free.
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	 * See also cpuset_zone_allowed() comment in kernel/cpuset.c.
	 */
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	z = zonelist->zones;

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	do {
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		if (NUMA_BUILD && zlc_active &&
			!zlc_zone_worth_trying(zonelist, z, allowednodes))
				continue;
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		zone = *z;
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		if (unlikely(NUMA_BUILD && (gfp_mask & __GFP_THISNODE) &&
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			zone->zone_pgdat != zonelist->zones[0]->zone_pgdat))
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				break;
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		if ((alloc_flags & ALLOC_CPUSET) &&
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			!cpuset_zone_allowed_softwall(zone, gfp_mask))
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				goto try_next_zone;
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		if (!(alloc_flags & ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS)) {
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			unsigned long mark;
			if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_WMARK_MIN)
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				mark = zone->pages_min;
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			else if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_WMARK_LOW)
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				mark = zone->pages_low;
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			else
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				mark = zone->pages_high;
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			if (!zone_watermark_ok(zone, order, mark,
				    classzone_idx, alloc_flags)) {
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				if (!zone_reclaim_mode ||
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				    !zone_reclaim(zone, gfp_mask, order))
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					goto this_zone_full;
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			}
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		}

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		page = buffered_rmqueue(zonelist, zone, order, gfp_mask);
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		if (page)
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			break;
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this_zone_full:
		if (NUMA_BUILD)
			zlc_mark_zone_full(zonelist, z);
try_next_zone:
		if (NUMA_BUILD && !did_zlc_setup) {
			/* we do zlc_setup after the first zone is tried */
			allowednodes = zlc_setup(zonelist, alloc_flags);
			zlc_active = 1;
			did_zlc_setup = 1;
		}
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	} while (*(++z) != NULL);
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	if (unlikely(NUMA_BUILD && page == NULL && zlc_active)) {
		/* Disable zlc cache for second zonelist scan */
		zlc_active = 0;
		goto zonelist_scan;
	}
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	return page;
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}

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/*
 * This is the 'heart' of the zoned buddy allocator.
 */
struct page * fastcall
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__alloc_pages(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
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		struct zonelist *zonelist)
{