sched.c 142 KB
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/*
 *  kernel/sched.c
 *
 *  Kernel scheduler and related syscalls
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1991-2002  Linus Torvalds
 *
 *  1996-12-23  Modified by Dave Grothe to fix bugs in semaphores and
 *		make semaphores SMP safe
 *  1998-11-19	Implemented schedule_timeout() and related stuff
 *		by Andrea Arcangeli
 *  2002-01-04	New ultra-scalable O(1) scheduler by Ingo Molnar:
 *		hybrid priority-list and round-robin design with
 *		an array-switch method of distributing timeslices
 *		and per-CPU runqueues.  Cleanups and useful suggestions
 *		by Davide Libenzi, preemptible kernel bits by Robert Love.
 *  2003-09-03	Interactivity tuning by Con Kolivas.
 *  2004-04-02	Scheduler domains code by Nick Piggin
 */

#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/nmi.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <linux/highmem.h>
#include <linux/smp_lock.h>
#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
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#include <linux/capability.h>
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#include <linux/completion.h>
#include <linux/kernel_stat.h>
#include <linux/security.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/profile.h>
#include <linux/suspend.h>
#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/smp.h>
#include <linux/threads.h>
#include <linux/timer.h>
#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/cpuset.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/kthread.h>
#include <linux/seq_file.h>
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
#include <linux/times.h>
#include <linux/acct.h>
#include <asm/tlb.h>

#include <asm/unistd.h>

/*
 * Convert user-nice values [ -20 ... 0 ... 19 ]
 * to static priority [ MAX_RT_PRIO..MAX_PRIO-1 ],
 * and back.
 */
#define NICE_TO_PRIO(nice)	(MAX_RT_PRIO + (nice) + 20)
#define PRIO_TO_NICE(prio)	((prio) - MAX_RT_PRIO - 20)
#define TASK_NICE(p)		PRIO_TO_NICE((p)->static_prio)

/*
 * 'User priority' is the nice value converted to something we
 * can work with better when scaling various scheduler parameters,
 * it's a [ 0 ... 39 ] range.
 */
#define USER_PRIO(p)		((p)-MAX_RT_PRIO)
#define TASK_USER_PRIO(p)	USER_PRIO((p)->static_prio)
#define MAX_USER_PRIO		(USER_PRIO(MAX_PRIO))

/*
 * Some helpers for converting nanosecond timing to jiffy resolution
 */
#define NS_TO_JIFFIES(TIME)	((TIME) / (1000000000 / HZ))
#define JIFFIES_TO_NS(TIME)	((TIME) * (1000000000 / HZ))

/*
 * These are the 'tuning knobs' of the scheduler:
 *
 * Minimum timeslice is 5 msecs (or 1 jiffy, whichever is larger),
 * default timeslice is 100 msecs, maximum timeslice is 800 msecs.
 * Timeslices get refilled after they expire.
 */
#define MIN_TIMESLICE		max(5 * HZ / 1000, 1)
#define DEF_TIMESLICE		(100 * HZ / 1000)
#define ON_RUNQUEUE_WEIGHT	 30
#define CHILD_PENALTY		 95
#define PARENT_PENALTY		100
#define EXIT_WEIGHT		  3
#define PRIO_BONUS_RATIO	 25
#define MAX_BONUS		(MAX_USER_PRIO * PRIO_BONUS_RATIO / 100)
#define INTERACTIVE_DELTA	  2
#define MAX_SLEEP_AVG		(DEF_TIMESLICE * MAX_BONUS)
#define STARVATION_LIMIT	(MAX_SLEEP_AVG)
#define NS_MAX_SLEEP_AVG	(JIFFIES_TO_NS(MAX_SLEEP_AVG))

/*
 * If a task is 'interactive' then we reinsert it in the active
 * array after it has expired its current timeslice. (it will not
 * continue to run immediately, it will still roundrobin with
 * other interactive tasks.)
 *
 * This part scales the interactivity limit depending on niceness.
 *
 * We scale it linearly, offset by the INTERACTIVE_DELTA delta.
 * Here are a few examples of different nice levels:
 *
 *  TASK_INTERACTIVE(-20): [1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0]
 *  TASK_INTERACTIVE(-10): [1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0]
 *  TASK_INTERACTIVE(  0): [1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]
 *  TASK_INTERACTIVE( 10): [1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]
 *  TASK_INTERACTIVE( 19): [0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]
 *
 * (the X axis represents the possible -5 ... 0 ... +5 dynamic
 *  priority range a task can explore, a value of '1' means the
 *  task is rated interactive.)
 *
 * Ie. nice +19 tasks can never get 'interactive' enough to be
 * reinserted into the active array. And only heavily CPU-hog nice -20
 * tasks will be expired. Default nice 0 tasks are somewhere between,
 * it takes some effort for them to get interactive, but it's not
 * too hard.
 */

#define CURRENT_BONUS(p) \
	(NS_TO_JIFFIES((p)->sleep_avg) * MAX_BONUS / \
		MAX_SLEEP_AVG)

#define GRANULARITY	(10 * HZ / 1000 ? : 1)

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
#define TIMESLICE_GRANULARITY(p)	(GRANULARITY * \
		(1 << (((MAX_BONUS - CURRENT_BONUS(p)) ? : 1) - 1)) * \
			num_online_cpus())
#else
#define TIMESLICE_GRANULARITY(p)	(GRANULARITY * \
		(1 << (((MAX_BONUS - CURRENT_BONUS(p)) ? : 1) - 1)))
#endif

#define SCALE(v1,v1_max,v2_max) \
	(v1) * (v2_max) / (v1_max)

#define DELTA(p) \
	(SCALE(TASK_NICE(p), 40, MAX_BONUS) + INTERACTIVE_DELTA)

#define TASK_INTERACTIVE(p) \
	((p)->prio <= (p)->static_prio - DELTA(p))

#define INTERACTIVE_SLEEP(p) \
	(JIFFIES_TO_NS(MAX_SLEEP_AVG * \
		(MAX_BONUS / 2 + DELTA((p)) + 1) / MAX_BONUS - 1))

#define TASK_PREEMPTS_CURR(p, rq) \
	((p)->prio < (rq)->curr->prio)

/*
 * task_timeslice() scales user-nice values [ -20 ... 0 ... 19 ]
 * to time slice values: [800ms ... 100ms ... 5ms]
 *
 * The higher a thread's priority, the bigger timeslices
 * it gets during one round of execution. But even the lowest
 * priority thread gets MIN_TIMESLICE worth of execution time.
 */

#define SCALE_PRIO(x, prio) \
	max(x * (MAX_PRIO - prio) / (MAX_USER_PRIO/2), MIN_TIMESLICE)

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static unsigned int task_timeslice(task_t *p)
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{
	if (p->static_prio < NICE_TO_PRIO(0))
		return SCALE_PRIO(DEF_TIMESLICE*4, p->static_prio);
	else
		return SCALE_PRIO(DEF_TIMESLICE, p->static_prio);
}
#define task_hot(p, now, sd) ((long long) ((now) - (p)->last_ran)	\
				< (long long) (sd)->cache_hot_time)

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void __put_task_struct_cb(struct rcu_head *rhp)
{
	__put_task_struct(container_of(rhp, struct task_struct, rcu));
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(__put_task_struct_cb);

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/*
 * These are the runqueue data structures:
 */

#define BITMAP_SIZE ((((MAX_PRIO+1+7)/8)+sizeof(long)-1)/sizeof(long))

typedef struct runqueue runqueue_t;

struct prio_array {
	unsigned int nr_active;
	unsigned long bitmap[BITMAP_SIZE];
	struct list_head queue[MAX_PRIO];
};

/*
 * This is the main, per-CPU runqueue data structure.
 *
 * Locking rule: those places that want to lock multiple runqueues
 * (such as the load balancing or the thread migration code), lock
 * acquire operations must be ordered by ascending &runqueue.
 */
struct runqueue {
	spinlock_t lock;

	/*
	 * nr_running and cpu_load should be in the same cacheline because
	 * remote CPUs use both these fields when doing load calculation.
	 */
	unsigned long nr_running;
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
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	unsigned long prio_bias;
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	unsigned long cpu_load[3];
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#endif
	unsigned long long nr_switches;

	/*
	 * This is part of a global counter where only the total sum
	 * over all CPUs matters. A task can increase this counter on
	 * one CPU and if it got migrated afterwards it may decrease
	 * it on another CPU. Always updated under the runqueue lock:
	 */
	unsigned long nr_uninterruptible;

	unsigned long expired_timestamp;
	unsigned long long timestamp_last_tick;
	task_t *curr, *idle;
	struct mm_struct *prev_mm;
	prio_array_t *active, *expired, arrays[2];
	int best_expired_prio;
	atomic_t nr_iowait;

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	struct sched_domain *sd;

	/* For active balancing */
	int active_balance;
	int push_cpu;

	task_t *migration_thread;
	struct list_head migration_queue;
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS
	/* latency stats */
	struct sched_info rq_sched_info;

	/* sys_sched_yield() stats */
	unsigned long yld_exp_empty;
	unsigned long yld_act_empty;
	unsigned long yld_both_empty;
	unsigned long yld_cnt;

	/* schedule() stats */
	unsigned long sched_switch;
	unsigned long sched_cnt;
	unsigned long sched_goidle;

	/* try_to_wake_up() stats */
	unsigned long ttwu_cnt;
	unsigned long ttwu_local;
#endif
};

static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct runqueue, runqueues);

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/*
 * The domain tree (rq->sd) is protected by RCU's quiescent state transition.
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 * See detach_destroy_domains: synchronize_sched for details.
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 *
 * The domain tree of any CPU may only be accessed from within
 * preempt-disabled sections.
 */
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#define for_each_domain(cpu, domain) \
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for (domain = rcu_dereference(cpu_rq(cpu)->sd); domain; domain = domain->parent)
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#define cpu_rq(cpu)		(&per_cpu(runqueues, (cpu)))
#define this_rq()		(&__get_cpu_var(runqueues))
#define task_rq(p)		cpu_rq(task_cpu(p))
#define cpu_curr(cpu)		(cpu_rq(cpu)->curr)

#ifndef prepare_arch_switch
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# define prepare_arch_switch(next)	do { } while (0)
#endif
#ifndef finish_arch_switch
# define finish_arch_switch(prev)	do { } while (0)
#endif

#ifndef __ARCH_WANT_UNLOCKED_CTXSW
static inline int task_running(runqueue_t *rq, task_t *p)
{
	return rq->curr == p;
}

static inline void prepare_lock_switch(runqueue_t *rq, task_t *next)
{
}

static inline void finish_lock_switch(runqueue_t *rq, task_t *prev)
{
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#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SPINLOCK
	/* this is a valid case when another task releases the spinlock */
	rq->lock.owner = current;
#endif
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	spin_unlock_irq(&rq->lock);
}

#else /* __ARCH_WANT_UNLOCKED_CTXSW */
static inline int task_running(runqueue_t *rq, task_t *p)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	return p->oncpu;
#else
	return rq->curr == p;
#endif
}

static inline void prepare_lock_switch(runqueue_t *rq, task_t *next)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	/*
	 * We can optimise this out completely for !SMP, because the
	 * SMP rebalancing from interrupt is the only thing that cares
	 * here.
	 */
	next->oncpu = 1;
#endif
#ifdef __ARCH_WANT_INTERRUPTS_ON_CTXSW
	spin_unlock_irq(&rq->lock);
#else
	spin_unlock(&rq->lock);
#endif
}

static inline void finish_lock_switch(runqueue_t *rq, task_t *prev)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	/*
	 * After ->oncpu is cleared, the task can be moved to a different CPU.
	 * We must ensure this doesn't happen until the switch is completely
	 * finished.
	 */
	smp_wmb();
	prev->oncpu = 0;
#endif
#ifndef __ARCH_WANT_INTERRUPTS_ON_CTXSW
	local_irq_enable();
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#endif
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}
#endif /* __ARCH_WANT_UNLOCKED_CTXSW */
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/*
 * task_rq_lock - lock the runqueue a given task resides on and disable
 * interrupts.  Note the ordering: we can safely lookup the task_rq without
 * explicitly disabling preemption.
 */
static inline runqueue_t *task_rq_lock(task_t *p, unsigned long *flags)
	__acquires(rq->lock)
{
	struct runqueue *rq;

repeat_lock_task:
	local_irq_save(*flags);
	rq = task_rq(p);
	spin_lock(&rq->lock);
	if (unlikely(rq != task_rq(p))) {
		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rq->lock, *flags);
		goto repeat_lock_task;
	}
	return rq;
}

static inline void task_rq_unlock(runqueue_t *rq, unsigned long *flags)
	__releases(rq->lock)
{
	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rq->lock, *flags);
}

#ifdef CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS
/*
 * bump this up when changing the output format or the meaning of an existing
 * format, so that tools can adapt (or abort)
 */
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#define SCHEDSTAT_VERSION 12
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static int show_schedstat(struct seq_file *seq, void *v)
{
	int cpu;

	seq_printf(seq, "version %d\n", SCHEDSTAT_VERSION);
	seq_printf(seq, "timestamp %lu\n", jiffies);
	for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
		runqueue_t *rq = cpu_rq(cpu);
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
		struct sched_domain *sd;
		int dcnt = 0;
#endif

		/* runqueue-specific stats */
		seq_printf(seq,
		    "cpu%d %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu",
		    cpu, rq->yld_both_empty,
		    rq->yld_act_empty, rq->yld_exp_empty, rq->yld_cnt,
		    rq->sched_switch, rq->sched_cnt, rq->sched_goidle,
		    rq->ttwu_cnt, rq->ttwu_local,
		    rq->rq_sched_info.cpu_time,
		    rq->rq_sched_info.run_delay, rq->rq_sched_info.pcnt);

		seq_printf(seq, "\n");

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
		/* domain-specific stats */
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		preempt_disable();
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		for_each_domain(cpu, sd) {
			enum idle_type itype;
			char mask_str[NR_CPUS];

			cpumask_scnprintf(mask_str, NR_CPUS, sd->span);
			seq_printf(seq, "domain%d %s", dcnt++, mask_str);
			for (itype = SCHED_IDLE; itype < MAX_IDLE_TYPES;
					itype++) {
				seq_printf(seq, " %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu",
				    sd->lb_cnt[itype],
				    sd->lb_balanced[itype],
				    sd->lb_failed[itype],
				    sd->lb_imbalance[itype],
				    sd->lb_gained[itype],
				    sd->lb_hot_gained[itype],
				    sd->lb_nobusyq[itype],
				    sd->lb_nobusyg[itype]);
			}
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			seq_printf(seq, " %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu\n",
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			    sd->alb_cnt, sd->alb_failed, sd->alb_pushed,
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			    sd->sbe_cnt, sd->sbe_balanced, sd->sbe_pushed,
			    sd->sbf_cnt, sd->sbf_balanced, sd->sbf_pushed,
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			    sd->ttwu_wake_remote, sd->ttwu_move_affine, sd->ttwu_move_balance);
		}
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		preempt_enable();
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#endif
	}
	return 0;
}

static int schedstat_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{
	unsigned int size = PAGE_SIZE * (1 + num_online_cpus() / 32);
	char *buf = kmalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
	struct seq_file *m;
	int res;

	if (!buf)
		return -ENOMEM;
	res = single_open(file, show_schedstat, NULL);
	if (!res) {
		m = file->private_data;
		m->buf = buf;
		m->size = size;
	} else
		kfree(buf);
	return res;
}

struct file_operations proc_schedstat_operations = {
	.open    = schedstat_open,
	.read    = seq_read,
	.llseek  = seq_lseek,
	.release = single_release,
};

# define schedstat_inc(rq, field)	do { (rq)->field++; } while (0)
# define schedstat_add(rq, field, amt)	do { (rq)->field += (amt); } while (0)
#else /* !CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS */
# define schedstat_inc(rq, field)	do { } while (0)
# define schedstat_add(rq, field, amt)	do { } while (0)
#endif

/*
 * rq_lock - lock a given runqueue and disable interrupts.
 */
static inline runqueue_t *this_rq_lock(void)
	__acquires(rq->lock)
{
	runqueue_t *rq;

	local_irq_disable();
	rq = this_rq();
	spin_lock(&rq->lock);

	return rq;
}

#ifdef CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS
/*
 * Called when a process is dequeued from the active array and given
 * the cpu.  We should note that with the exception of interactive
 * tasks, the expired queue will become the active queue after the active
 * queue is empty, without explicitly dequeuing and requeuing tasks in the
 * expired queue.  (Interactive tasks may be requeued directly to the
 * active queue, thus delaying tasks in the expired queue from running;
 * see scheduler_tick()).
 *
 * This function is only called from sched_info_arrive(), rather than
 * dequeue_task(). Even though a task may be queued and dequeued multiple
 * times as it is shuffled about, we're really interested in knowing how
 * long it was from the *first* time it was queued to the time that it
 * finally hit a cpu.
 */
static inline void sched_info_dequeued(task_t *t)
{
	t->sched_info.last_queued = 0;
}

/*
 * Called when a task finally hits the cpu.  We can now calculate how
 * long it was waiting to run.  We also note when it began so that we
 * can keep stats on how long its timeslice is.
 */
static inline void sched_info_arrive(task_t *t)
{
	unsigned long now = jiffies, diff = 0;
	struct runqueue *rq = task_rq(t);

	if (t->sched_info.last_queued)
		diff = now - t->sched_info.last_queued;
	sched_info_dequeued(t);
	t->sched_info.run_delay += diff;
	t->sched_info.last_arrival = now;
	t->sched_info.pcnt++;

	if (!rq)
		return;

	rq->rq_sched_info.run_delay += diff;
	rq->rq_sched_info.pcnt++;
}

/*
 * Called when a process is queued into either the active or expired
 * array.  The time is noted and later used to determine how long we
 * had to wait for us to reach the cpu.  Since the expired queue will
 * become the active queue after active queue is empty, without dequeuing
 * and requeuing any tasks, we are interested in queuing to either. It
 * is unusual but not impossible for tasks to be dequeued and immediately
 * requeued in the same or another array: this can happen in sched_yield(),
 * set_user_nice(), and even load_balance() as it moves tasks from runqueue
 * to runqueue.
 *
 * This function is only called from enqueue_task(), but also only updates
 * the timestamp if it is already not set.  It's assumed that
 * sched_info_dequeued() will clear that stamp when appropriate.
 */
static inline void sched_info_queued(task_t *t)
{
	if (!t->sched_info.last_queued)
		t->sched_info.last_queued = jiffies;
}

/*
 * Called when a process ceases being the active-running process, either
 * voluntarily or involuntarily.  Now we can calculate how long we ran.
 */
static inline void sched_info_depart(task_t *t)
{
	struct runqueue *rq = task_rq(t);
	unsigned long diff = jiffies - t->sched_info.last_arrival;

	t->sched_info.cpu_time += diff;

	if (rq)
		rq->rq_sched_info.cpu_time += diff;
}

/*
 * Called when tasks are switched involuntarily due, typically, to expiring
 * their time slice.  (This may also be called when switching to or from
 * the idle task.)  We are only called when prev != next.
 */
static inline void sched_info_switch(task_t *prev, task_t *next)
{
	struct runqueue *rq = task_rq(prev);

	/*
	 * prev now departs the cpu.  It's not interesting to record
	 * stats about how efficient we were at scheduling the idle
	 * process, however.
	 */
	if (prev != rq->idle)
		sched_info_depart(prev);

	if (next != rq->idle)
		sched_info_arrive(next);
}
#else
#define sched_info_queued(t)		do { } while (0)
#define sched_info_switch(t, next)	do { } while (0)
#endif /* CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS */

/*
 * Adding/removing a task to/from a priority array:
 */
static void dequeue_task(struct task_struct *p, prio_array_t *array)
{
	array->nr_active--;
	list_del(&p->run_list);
	if (list_empty(array->queue + p->prio))
		__clear_bit(p->prio, array->bitmap);
}

static void enqueue_task(struct task_struct *p, prio_array_t *array)
{
	sched_info_queued(p);
	list_add_tail(&p->run_list, array->queue + p->prio);
	__set_bit(p->prio, array->bitmap);
	array->nr_active++;
	p->array = array;
}

/*
 * Put task to the end of the run list without the overhead of dequeue
 * followed by enqueue.
 */
static void requeue_task(struct task_struct *p, prio_array_t *array)
{
	list_move_tail(&p->run_list, array->queue + p->prio);
}

static inline void enqueue_task_head(struct task_struct *p, prio_array_t *array)
{
	list_add(&p->run_list, array->queue + p->prio);
	__set_bit(p->prio, array->bitmap);
	array->nr_active++;
	p->array = array;
}

/*
 * effective_prio - return the priority that is based on the static
 * priority but is modified by bonuses/penalties.
 *
 * We scale the actual sleep average [0 .... MAX_SLEEP_AVG]
 * into the -5 ... 0 ... +5 bonus/penalty range.
 *
 * We use 25% of the full 0...39 priority range so that:
 *
 * 1) nice +19 interactive tasks do not preempt nice 0 CPU hogs.
 * 2) nice -20 CPU hogs do not get preempted by nice 0 tasks.
 *
 * Both properties are important to certain workloads.
 */
static int effective_prio(task_t *p)
{
	int bonus, prio;

	if (rt_task(p))
		return p->prio;

	bonus = CURRENT_BONUS(p) - MAX_BONUS / 2;

	prio = p->static_prio - bonus;
	if (prio < MAX_RT_PRIO)
		prio = MAX_RT_PRIO;
	if (prio > MAX_PRIO-1)
		prio = MAX_PRIO-1;
	return prio;
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
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static inline void inc_prio_bias(runqueue_t *rq, int prio)
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{
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	rq->prio_bias += MAX_PRIO - prio;
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}

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static inline void dec_prio_bias(runqueue_t *rq, int prio)
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{
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	rq->prio_bias -= MAX_PRIO - prio;
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}
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static inline void inc_nr_running(task_t *p, runqueue_t *rq)
{
	rq->nr_running++;
	if (rt_task(p)) {
		if (p != rq->migration_thread)
			/*
			 * The migration thread does the actual balancing. Do
			 * not bias by its priority as the ultra high priority
			 * will skew balancing adversely.
			 */
			inc_prio_bias(rq, p->prio);
	} else
		inc_prio_bias(rq, p->static_prio);
}

static inline void dec_nr_running(task_t *p, runqueue_t *rq)
{
	rq->nr_running--;
	if (rt_task(p)) {
		if (p != rq->migration_thread)
			dec_prio_bias(rq, p->prio);
	} else
		dec_prio_bias(rq, p->static_prio);
}
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#else
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static inline void inc_prio_bias(runqueue_t *rq, int prio)
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{
}

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static inline void dec_prio_bias(runqueue_t *rq, int prio)
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{
}

static inline void inc_nr_running(task_t *p, runqueue_t *rq)
{
	rq->nr_running++;
}

static inline void dec_nr_running(task_t *p, runqueue_t *rq)
{
	rq->nr_running--;
}
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#endif
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/*
 * __activate_task - move a task to the runqueue.
 */
static inline void __activate_task(task_t *p, runqueue_t *rq)
{
	enqueue_task(p, rq->active);
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	inc_nr_running(p, rq);
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}

/*
 * __activate_idle_task - move idle task to the _front_ of runqueue.
 */
static inline void __activate_idle_task(task_t *p, runqueue_t *rq)
{
	enqueue_task_head(p, rq->active);
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	inc_nr_running(p, rq);
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}

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static int recalc_task_prio(task_t *p, unsigned long long now)
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{
	/* Caller must always ensure 'now >= p->timestamp' */
	unsigned long long __sleep_time = now - p->timestamp;
	unsigned long sleep_time;

	if (__sleep_time > NS_MAX_SLEEP_AVG)
		sleep_time = NS_MAX_SLEEP_AVG;
	else
		sleep_time = (unsigned long)__sleep_time;

	if (likely(sleep_time > 0)) {
		/*
		 * User tasks that sleep a long time are categorised as
		 * idle and will get just interactive status to stay active &
		 * prevent them suddenly becoming cpu hogs and starving
		 * other processes.
		 */
		if (p->mm && p->activated != -1 &&
			sleep_time > INTERACTIVE_SLEEP(p)) {
				p->sleep_avg = JIFFIES_TO_NS(MAX_SLEEP_AVG -
						DEF_TIMESLICE);
		} else {
			/*
			 * The lower the sleep avg a task has the more
			 * rapidly it will rise with sleep time.
			 */
			sleep_time *= (MAX_BONUS - CURRENT_BONUS(p)) ? : 1;

			/*
			 * Tasks waking from uninterruptible sleep are
			 * limited in their sleep_avg rise as they
			 * are likely to be waiting on I/O
			 */
			if (p->activated == -1 && p->mm) {
				if (p->sleep_avg >= INTERACTIVE_SLEEP(p))
					sleep_time = 0;
				else if (p->sleep_avg + sleep_time >=
						INTERACTIVE_SLEEP(p)) {
					p->sleep_avg = INTERACTIVE_SLEEP(p);
					sleep_time = 0;
				}
			}

			/*
			 * This code gives a bonus to interactive tasks.
			 *
			 * The boost works by updating the 'average sleep time'
			 * value here, based on ->timestamp. The more time a
			 * task spends sleeping, the higher the average gets -
			 * and the higher the priority boost gets as well.
			 */
			p->sleep_avg += sleep_time;

			if (p->sleep_avg > NS_MAX_SLEEP_AVG)
				p->sleep_avg = NS_MAX_SLEEP_AVG;
		}
	}

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	return effective_prio(p);
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}

/*
 * activate_task - move a task to the runqueue and do priority recalculation
 *
 * Update all the scheduling statistics stuff. (sleep average
 * calculation, priority modifiers, etc.)
 */
static void activate_task(task_t *p, runqueue_t *rq, int local)
{
	unsigned long long now;

	now = sched_clock();
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	if (!local) {
		/* Compensate for drifting sched_clock */
		runqueue_t *this_rq = this_rq();
		now = (now - this_rq->timestamp_last_tick)
			+ rq->timestamp_last_tick;
	}
#endif

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	if (!rt_task(p))
		p->prio = recalc_task_prio(p, now);
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	/*
	 * This checks to make sure it's not an uninterruptible task
	 * that is now waking up.
	 */
	if (!p->activated) {
		/*
		 * Tasks which were woken up by interrupts (ie. hw events)
		 * are most likely of interactive nature. So we give them
		 * the credit of extending their sleep time to the period
		 * of time they spend on the runqueue, waiting for execution
		 * on a CPU, first time around:
		 */
		if (in_interrupt())
			p->activated = 2;
		else {
			/*
			 * Normal first-time wakeups get a credit too for
			 * on-runqueue time, but it will be weighted down:
			 */
			p->activated = 1;
		}
	}
	p->timestamp = now;

	__activate_task(p, rq);
}

/*
 * deactivate_task - remove a task from the runqueue.
 */
static void deactivate_task(struct task_struct *p, runqueue_t *rq)
{
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	dec_nr_running(p, rq);
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	dequeue_task(p, p->array);
	p->array = NULL;
}

/*
 * resched_task - mark a task 'to be rescheduled now'.
 *
 * On UP this means the setting of the need_resched flag, on SMP it
 * might also involve a cross-CPU call to trigger the scheduler on
 * the target CPU.
 */
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
static void resched_task(task_t *p)
{
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	int cpu;
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	assert_spin_locked(&task_rq(p)->lock);

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	if (unlikely(test_tsk_thread_flag(p, TIF_NEED_RESCHED)))
		return;

	set_tsk_thread_flag(p, TIF_NEED_RESCHED);
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	cpu = task_cpu(p);
	if (cpu == smp_processor_id())
		return;

	/* NEED_RESCHED must be visible before we test POLLING_NRFLAG */
	smp_mb();
	if (!test_tsk_thread_flag(p, TIF_POLLING_NRFLAG))
		smp_send_reschedule(cpu);
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}
#else
static inline void resched_task(task_t *p)
{
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	assert_spin_locked(&task_rq(p)->lock);
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	set_tsk_need_resched(p);
}
#endif

/**
 * task_curr - is this task currently executing on a CPU?
 * @p: the task in question.
 */
inline int task_curr(const task_t *p)
{
	return cpu_curr(task_cpu(p)) == p;
}

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
typedef struct {
	struct list_head list;

	task_t *task;
	int dest_cpu;

	struct completion done;
} migration_req_t;

/*
 * The task's runqueue lock must be held.
 * Returns true if you have to wait for migration thread.
 */
static int migrate_task(task_t *p, int dest_cpu, migration_req_t *req)
{
	runqueue_t *rq = task_rq(p);

	/*
	 * If the task is not on a runqueue (and not running), then
	 * it is sufficient to simply update the task's cpu field.
	 */
	if (!p->array && !task_running(rq, p)) {
		set_task_cpu(p, dest_cpu);
		return 0;
	}

	init_completion(&req->done);
	req->task = p;
	req->dest_cpu = dest_cpu;
	list_add(&req->list, &rq->migration_queue);
	return 1;
}

/*
 * wait_task_inactive - wait for a thread to unschedule.
 *
 * The caller must ensure that the task *will* unschedule sometime soon,
 * else this function might spin for a *long* time. This function can't
 * be called with interrupts off, or it may introduce deadlock with
 * smp_call_function() if an IPI is sent by the same process we are
 * waiting to become inactive.
 */
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void wait_task_inactive(task_t *p)
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{
	unsigned long flags;
	runqueue_t *rq;
	int preempted;

repeat:
	rq = task_rq_lock(p, &flags);
	/* Must be off runqueue entirely, not preempted. */
	if (unlikely(p->array || task_running(rq, p))) {
		/* If it's preempted, we yield.  It could be a while. */
		preempted = !task_running(rq, p);
		task_rq_unlock(rq, &flags);
		cpu_relax();
		if (preempted)
			yield();
		goto repeat;
	}
	task_rq_unlock(rq, &flags);
}

/***
 * kick_process - kick a running thread to enter/exit the kernel
 * @p: the to-be-kicked thread
 *
 * Cause a process which is running on another CPU to enter
 * kernel-mode, without any delay. (to get signals handled.)
 *
 * NOTE: this function doesnt have to take the runqueue lock,
 * because all it wants to ensure is that the remote task enters
 * the kernel. If the IPI races and the task has been migrated
 * to another CPU then no harm is done and the purpose has been
 * achieved as well.
 */
void kick_process(task_t *p)
{
	int cpu;

	preempt_disable();
	cpu = task_cpu(p);
	if ((cpu != smp_processor_id()) && task_curr(p))
		smp_send_reschedule(cpu);
	preempt_enable();
}

/*
 * Return a low guess at the load of a migration-source cpu.
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