transaction.c 61 KB
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/*
 * linux/fs/transaction.c
 * 
 * Written by Stephen C. Tweedie <sct@redhat.com>, 1998
 *
 * Copyright 1998 Red Hat corp --- All Rights Reserved
 *
 * This file is part of the Linux kernel and is made available under
 * the terms of the GNU General Public License, version 2, or at your
 * option, any later version, incorporated herein by reference.
 *
 * Generic filesystem transaction handling code; part of the ext2fs
 * journaling system.  
 *
 * This file manages transactions (compound commits managed by the
 * journaling code) and handles (individual atomic operations by the
 * filesystem).
 */

#include <linux/time.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/jbd.h>
#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/timer.h>
#include <linux/smp_lock.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/highmem.h>

/*
 * get_transaction: obtain a new transaction_t object.
 *
 * Simply allocate and initialise a new transaction.  Create it in
 * RUNNING state and add it to the current journal (which should not
 * have an existing running transaction: we only make a new transaction
 * once we have started to commit the old one).
 *
 * Preconditions:
 *	The journal MUST be locked.  We don't perform atomic mallocs on the
 *	new transaction	and we can't block without protecting against other
 *	processes trying to touch the journal while it is in transition.
 *
 * Called under j_state_lock
 */

static transaction_t *
get_transaction(journal_t *journal, transaction_t *transaction)
{
	transaction->t_journal = journal;
	transaction->t_state = T_RUNNING;
	transaction->t_tid = journal->j_transaction_sequence++;
	transaction->t_expires = jiffies + journal->j_commit_interval;
	spin_lock_init(&transaction->t_handle_lock);

	/* Set up the commit timer for the new transaction. */
	journal->j_commit_timer->expires = transaction->t_expires;
	add_timer(journal->j_commit_timer);

	J_ASSERT(journal->j_running_transaction == NULL);
	journal->j_running_transaction = transaction;

	return transaction;
}

/*
 * Handle management.
 *
 * A handle_t is an object which represents a single atomic update to a
 * filesystem, and which tracks all of the modifications which form part
 * of that one update.
 */

/*
 * start_this_handle: Given a handle, deal with any locking or stalling
 * needed to make sure that there is enough journal space for the handle
 * to begin.  Attach the handle to a transaction and set up the
 * transaction's buffer credits.  
 */

static int start_this_handle(journal_t *journal, handle_t *handle)
{
	transaction_t *transaction;
	int needed;
	int nblocks = handle->h_buffer_credits;
	transaction_t *new_transaction = NULL;
	int ret = 0;

	if (nblocks > journal->j_max_transaction_buffers) {
		printk(KERN_ERR "JBD: %s wants too many credits (%d > %d)\n",
		       current->comm, nblocks,
		       journal->j_max_transaction_buffers);
		ret = -ENOSPC;
		goto out;
	}

alloc_transaction:
	if (!journal->j_running_transaction) {
		new_transaction = jbd_kmalloc(sizeof(*new_transaction),
						GFP_NOFS);
		if (!new_transaction) {
			ret = -ENOMEM;
			goto out;
		}
		memset(new_transaction, 0, sizeof(*new_transaction));
	}

	jbd_debug(3, "New handle %p going live.\n", handle);

repeat:

	/*
	 * We need to hold j_state_lock until t_updates has been incremented,
	 * for proper journal barrier handling
	 */
	spin_lock(&journal->j_state_lock);
repeat_locked:
	if (is_journal_aborted(journal) ||
	    (journal->j_errno != 0 && !(journal->j_flags & JFS_ACK_ERR))) {
		spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
		ret = -EROFS; 
		goto out;
	}

	/* Wait on the journal's transaction barrier if necessary */
	if (journal->j_barrier_count) {
		spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
		wait_event(journal->j_wait_transaction_locked,
				journal->j_barrier_count == 0);
		goto repeat;
	}

	if (!journal->j_running_transaction) {
		if (!new_transaction) {
			spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
			goto alloc_transaction;
		}
		get_transaction(journal, new_transaction);
		new_transaction = NULL;
	}

	transaction = journal->j_running_transaction;

	/*
	 * If the current transaction is locked down for commit, wait for the
	 * lock to be released.
	 */
	if (transaction->t_state == T_LOCKED) {
		DEFINE_WAIT(wait);

		prepare_to_wait(&journal->j_wait_transaction_locked,
					&wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
		spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
		schedule();
		finish_wait(&journal->j_wait_transaction_locked, &wait);
		goto repeat;
	}

	/*
	 * If there is not enough space left in the log to write all potential
	 * buffers requested by this operation, we need to stall pending a log
	 * checkpoint to free some more log space.
	 */
	spin_lock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
	needed = transaction->t_outstanding_credits + nblocks;

	if (needed > journal->j_max_transaction_buffers) {
		/*
		 * If the current transaction is already too large, then start
		 * to commit it: we can then go back and attach this handle to
		 * a new transaction.
		 */
		DEFINE_WAIT(wait);

		jbd_debug(2, "Handle %p starting new commit...\n", handle);
		spin_unlock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
		prepare_to_wait(&journal->j_wait_transaction_locked, &wait,
				TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
		__log_start_commit(journal, transaction->t_tid);
		spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
		schedule();
		finish_wait(&journal->j_wait_transaction_locked, &wait);
		goto repeat;
	}

	/* 
	 * The commit code assumes that it can get enough log space
	 * without forcing a checkpoint.  This is *critical* for
	 * correctness: a checkpoint of a buffer which is also
	 * associated with a committing transaction creates a deadlock,
	 * so commit simply cannot force through checkpoints.
	 *
	 * We must therefore ensure the necessary space in the journal
	 * *before* starting to dirty potentially checkpointed buffers
	 * in the new transaction. 
	 *
	 * The worst part is, any transaction currently committing can
	 * reduce the free space arbitrarily.  Be careful to account for
	 * those buffers when checkpointing.
	 */

	/*
	 * @@@ AKPM: This seems rather over-defensive.  We're giving commit
	 * a _lot_ of headroom: 1/4 of the journal plus the size of
	 * the committing transaction.  Really, we only need to give it
	 * committing_transaction->t_outstanding_credits plus "enough" for
	 * the log control blocks.
	 * Also, this test is inconsitent with the matching one in
	 * journal_extend().
	 */
	if (__log_space_left(journal) < jbd_space_needed(journal)) {
		jbd_debug(2, "Handle %p waiting for checkpoint...\n", handle);
		spin_unlock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
		__log_wait_for_space(journal);
		goto repeat_locked;
	}

	/* OK, account for the buffers that this operation expects to
	 * use and add the handle to the running transaction. */

	handle->h_transaction = transaction;
	transaction->t_outstanding_credits += nblocks;
	transaction->t_updates++;
	transaction->t_handle_count++;
	jbd_debug(4, "Handle %p given %d credits (total %d, free %d)\n",
		  handle, nblocks, transaction->t_outstanding_credits,
		  __log_space_left(journal));
	spin_unlock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
	spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
out:
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	kfree(new_transaction);
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	return ret;
}

/* Allocate a new handle.  This should probably be in a slab... */
static handle_t *new_handle(int nblocks)
{
	handle_t *handle = jbd_alloc_handle(GFP_NOFS);
	if (!handle)
		return NULL;
	memset(handle, 0, sizeof(*handle));
	handle->h_buffer_credits = nblocks;
	handle->h_ref = 1;

	return handle;
}

/**
 * handle_t *journal_start() - Obtain a new handle.  
 * @journal: Journal to start transaction on.
 * @nblocks: number of block buffer we might modify
 *
 * We make sure that the transaction can guarantee at least nblocks of
 * modified buffers in the log.  We block until the log can guarantee
 * that much space.  
 *
 * This function is visible to journal users (like ext3fs), so is not
 * called with the journal already locked.
 *
 * Return a pointer to a newly allocated handle, or NULL on failure
 */
handle_t *journal_start(journal_t *journal, int nblocks)
{
	handle_t *handle = journal_current_handle();
	int err;

	if (!journal)
		return ERR_PTR(-EROFS);

	if (handle) {
		J_ASSERT(handle->h_transaction->t_journal == journal);
		handle->h_ref++;
		return handle;
	}

	handle = new_handle(nblocks);
	if (!handle)
		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);

	current->journal_info = handle;

	err = start_this_handle(journal, handle);
	if (err < 0) {
		jbd_free_handle(handle);
		current->journal_info = NULL;
		handle = ERR_PTR(err);
	}
	return handle;
}

/**
 * int journal_extend() - extend buffer credits.
 * @handle:  handle to 'extend'
 * @nblocks: nr blocks to try to extend by.
 * 
 * Some transactions, such as large extends and truncates, can be done
 * atomically all at once or in several stages.  The operation requests
 * a credit for a number of buffer modications in advance, but can
 * extend its credit if it needs more.  
 *
 * journal_extend tries to give the running handle more buffer credits.
 * It does not guarantee that allocation - this is a best-effort only.
 * The calling process MUST be able to deal cleanly with a failure to
 * extend here.
 *
 * Return 0 on success, non-zero on failure.
 *
 * return code < 0 implies an error
 * return code > 0 implies normal transaction-full status.
 */
int journal_extend(handle_t *handle, int nblocks)
{
	transaction_t *transaction = handle->h_transaction;
	journal_t *journal = transaction->t_journal;
	int result;
	int wanted;

	result = -EIO;
	if (is_handle_aborted(handle))
		goto out;

	result = 1;

	spin_lock(&journal->j_state_lock);

	/* Don't extend a locked-down transaction! */
	if (handle->h_transaction->t_state != T_RUNNING) {
		jbd_debug(3, "denied handle %p %d blocks: "
			  "transaction not running\n", handle, nblocks);
		goto error_out;
	}

	spin_lock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
	wanted = transaction->t_outstanding_credits + nblocks;

	if (wanted > journal->j_max_transaction_buffers) {
		jbd_debug(3, "denied handle %p %d blocks: "
			  "transaction too large\n", handle, nblocks);
		goto unlock;
	}

	if (wanted > __log_space_left(journal)) {
		jbd_debug(3, "denied handle %p %d blocks: "
			  "insufficient log space\n", handle, nblocks);
		goto unlock;
	}

	handle->h_buffer_credits += nblocks;
	transaction->t_outstanding_credits += nblocks;
	result = 0;

	jbd_debug(3, "extended handle %p by %d\n", handle, nblocks);
unlock:
	spin_unlock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
error_out:
	spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
out:
	return result;
}


/**
 * int journal_restart() - restart a handle .
 * @handle:  handle to restart
 * @nblocks: nr credits requested
 * 
 * Restart a handle for a multi-transaction filesystem
 * operation.
 *
 * If the journal_extend() call above fails to grant new buffer credits
 * to a running handle, a call to journal_restart will commit the
 * handle's transaction so far and reattach the handle to a new
 * transaction capabable of guaranteeing the requested number of
 * credits.
 */

int journal_restart(handle_t *handle, int nblocks)
{
	transaction_t *transaction = handle->h_transaction;
	journal_t *journal = transaction->t_journal;
	int ret;

	/* If we've had an abort of any type, don't even think about
	 * actually doing the restart! */
	if (is_handle_aborted(handle))
		return 0;

	/*
	 * First unlink the handle from its current transaction, and start the
	 * commit on that.
	 */
	J_ASSERT(transaction->t_updates > 0);
	J_ASSERT(journal_current_handle() == handle);

	spin_lock(&journal->j_state_lock);
	spin_lock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
	transaction->t_outstanding_credits -= handle->h_buffer_credits;
	transaction->t_updates--;

	if (!transaction->t_updates)
		wake_up(&journal->j_wait_updates);
	spin_unlock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);

	jbd_debug(2, "restarting handle %p\n", handle);
	__log_start_commit(journal, transaction->t_tid);
	spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);

	handle->h_buffer_credits = nblocks;
	ret = start_this_handle(journal, handle);
	return ret;
}


/**
 * void journal_lock_updates () - establish a transaction barrier.
 * @journal:  Journal to establish a barrier on.
 *
 * This locks out any further updates from being started, and blocks
 * until all existing updates have completed, returning only once the
 * journal is in a quiescent state with no updates running.
 *
 * The journal lock should not be held on entry.
 */
void journal_lock_updates(journal_t *journal)
{
	DEFINE_WAIT(wait);

	spin_lock(&journal->j_state_lock);
	++journal->j_barrier_count;

	/* Wait until there are no running updates */
	while (1) {
		transaction_t *transaction = journal->j_running_transaction;

		if (!transaction)
			break;

		spin_lock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
		if (!transaction->t_updates) {
			spin_unlock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
			break;
		}
		prepare_to_wait(&journal->j_wait_updates, &wait,
				TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
		spin_unlock(&transaction->t_handle_lock);
		spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
		schedule();
		finish_wait(&journal->j_wait_updates, &wait);
		spin_lock(&journal->j_state_lock);
	}
	spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);

	/*
	 * We have now established a barrier against other normal updates, but
	 * we also need to barrier against other journal_lock_updates() calls
	 * to make sure that we serialise special journal-locked operations
	 * too.
	 */
458
	mutex_lock(&journal->j_barrier);
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}

/**
 * void journal_unlock_updates (journal_t* journal) - release barrier
 * @journal:  Journal to release the barrier on.
 * 
 * Release a transaction barrier obtained with journal_lock_updates().
 *
 * Should be called without the journal lock held.
 */
void journal_unlock_updates (journal_t *journal)
{
	J_ASSERT(journal->j_barrier_count != 0);

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	mutex_unlock(&journal->j_barrier);
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	spin_lock(&journal->j_state_lock);
	--journal->j_barrier_count;
	spin_unlock(&journal->j_state_lock);
	wake_up(&journal->j_wait_transaction_locked);
}

/*
 * Report any unexpected dirty buffers which turn up.  Normally those
 * indicate an error, but they can occur if the user is running (say)
 * tune2fs to modify the live filesystem, so we need the option of
 * continuing as gracefully as possible.  #
 *
 * The caller should already hold the journal lock and
 * j_list_lock spinlock: most callers will need those anyway
 * in order to probe the buffer's journaling state safely.
 */
static void jbd_unexpected_dirty_buffer(struct journal_head *jh)
{
	int jlist;

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	/* If this buffer is one which might reasonably be dirty
	 * --- ie. data, or not part of this journal --- then
	 * we're OK to leave it alone, but otherwise we need to
	 * move the dirty bit to the journal's own internal
	 * JBDDirty bit. */
	jlist = jh->b_jlist;

	if (jlist == BJ_Metadata || jlist == BJ_Reserved ||
	    jlist == BJ_Shadow || jlist == BJ_Forget) {
		struct buffer_head *bh = jh2bh(jh);

		if (test_clear_buffer_dirty(bh))
			set_buffer_jbddirty(bh);
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	}
}

/*
 * If the buffer is already part of the current transaction, then there
 * is nothing we need to do.  If it is already part of a prior
 * transaction which we are still committing to disk, then we need to
 * make sure that we do not overwrite the old copy: we do copy-out to
 * preserve the copy going to disk.  We also account the buffer against
 * the handle's metadata buffer credits (unless the buffer is already
 * part of the transaction, that is).
 *
 */
static int
do_get_write_access(handle_t *handle, struct journal_head *jh,
			int force_copy)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	transaction_t *transaction;
	journal_t *journal;
	int error;
	char *frozen_buffer = NULL;
	int need_copy = 0;

	if (is_handle_aborted(handle))
		return -EROFS;

	transaction = handle->h_transaction;
	journal = transaction->t_journal;

	jbd_debug(5, "buffer_head %p, force_copy %d\n", jh, force_copy);

	JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "entry");
repeat:
	bh = jh2bh(jh);

	/* @@@ Need to check for errors here at some point. */

	lock_buffer(bh);
	jbd_lock_bh_state(bh);

	/* We now hold the buffer lock so it is safe to query the buffer
	 * state.  Is the buffer dirty? 
	 * 
	 * If so, there are two possibilities.  The buffer may be
	 * non-journaled, and undergoing a quite legitimate writeback.
	 * Otherwise, it is journaled, and we don't expect dirty buffers
	 * in that state (the buffers should be marked JBD_Dirty
	 * instead.)  So either the IO is being done under our own
	 * control and this is a bug, or it's a third party IO such as
	 * dump(8) (which may leave the buffer scheduled for read ---
	 * ie. locked but not dirty) or tune2fs (which may actually have
	 * the buffer dirtied, ugh.)  */

	if (buffer_dirty(bh)) {
		/*
		 * First question: is this buffer already part of the current
		 * transaction or the existing committing transaction?
		 */
		if (jh->b_transaction) {
			J_ASSERT_JH(jh,
				jh->b_transaction == transaction || 
				jh->b_transaction ==
					journal->j_committing_transaction);
			if (jh->b_next_transaction)
				J_ASSERT_JH(jh, jh->b_next_transaction ==
							transaction);
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		}
		/*
		 * In any case we need to clean the dirty flag and we must
		 * do it under the buffer lock to be sure we don't race
		 * with running write-out.
		 */
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "Unexpected dirty buffer");
		jbd_unexpected_dirty_buffer(jh);
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 	}

	unlock_buffer(bh);

	error = -EROFS;
	if (is_handle_aborted(handle)) {
		jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);
		goto out;
	}
	error = 0;

	/*
	 * The buffer is already part of this transaction if b_transaction or
	 * b_next_transaction points to it
	 */
	if (jh->b_transaction == transaction ||
	    jh->b_next_transaction == transaction)
		goto done;

	/*
	 * If there is already a copy-out version of this buffer, then we don't
	 * need to make another one
	 */
	if (jh->b_frozen_data) {
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "has frozen data");
		J_ASSERT_JH(jh, jh->b_next_transaction == NULL);
		jh->b_next_transaction = transaction;
		goto done;
	}

	/* Is there data here we need to preserve? */

	if (jh->b_transaction && jh->b_transaction != transaction) {
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "owned by older transaction");
		J_ASSERT_JH(jh, jh->b_next_transaction == NULL);
		J_ASSERT_JH(jh, jh->b_transaction ==
					journal->j_committing_transaction);

		/* There is one case we have to be very careful about.
		 * If the committing transaction is currently writing
		 * this buffer out to disk and has NOT made a copy-out,
		 * then we cannot modify the buffer contents at all
		 * right now.  The essence of copy-out is that it is the
		 * extra copy, not the primary copy, which gets
		 * journaled.  If the primary copy is already going to
		 * disk then we cannot do copy-out here. */

		if (jh->b_jlist == BJ_Shadow) {
			DEFINE_WAIT_BIT(wait, &bh->b_state, BH_Unshadow);
			wait_queue_head_t *wqh;

			wqh = bit_waitqueue(&bh->b_state, BH_Unshadow);

			JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "on shadow: sleep");
			jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);
			/* commit wakes up all shadow buffers after IO */
			for ( ; ; ) {
				prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait.wait,
						TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
				if (jh->b_jlist != BJ_Shadow)
					break;
				schedule();
			}
			finish_wait(wqh, &wait.wait);
			goto repeat;
		}

		/* Only do the copy if the currently-owning transaction
		 * still needs it.  If it is on the Forget list, the
		 * committing transaction is past that stage.  The
		 * buffer had better remain locked during the kmalloc,
		 * but that should be true --- we hold the journal lock
		 * still and the buffer is already on the BUF_JOURNAL
		 * list so won't be flushed. 
		 *
		 * Subtle point, though: if this is a get_undo_access,
		 * then we will be relying on the frozen_data to contain
		 * the new value of the committed_data record after the
		 * transaction, so we HAVE to force the frozen_data copy
		 * in that case. */

		if (jh->b_jlist != BJ_Forget || force_copy) {
			JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "generate frozen data");
			if (!frozen_buffer) {
				JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "allocate memory for buffer");
				jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);
				frozen_buffer = jbd_kmalloc(jh2bh(jh)->b_size,
							    GFP_NOFS);
				if (!frozen_buffer) {
					printk(KERN_EMERG
					       "%s: OOM for frozen_buffer\n",
					       __FUNCTION__);
					JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "oom!");
					error = -ENOMEM;
					jbd_lock_bh_state(bh);
					goto done;
				}
				goto repeat;
			}
			jh->b_frozen_data = frozen_buffer;
			frozen_buffer = NULL;
			need_copy = 1;
		}
		jh->b_next_transaction = transaction;
	}


	/*
	 * Finally, if the buffer is not journaled right now, we need to make
	 * sure it doesn't get written to disk before the caller actually
	 * commits the new data
	 */
	if (!jh->b_transaction) {
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "no transaction");
		J_ASSERT_JH(jh, !jh->b_next_transaction);
		jh->b_transaction = transaction;
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "file as BJ_Reserved");
		spin_lock(&journal->j_list_lock);
		__journal_file_buffer(jh, transaction, BJ_Reserved);
		spin_unlock(&journal->j_list_lock);
	}

done:
	if (need_copy) {
		struct page *page;
		int offset;
		char *source;

		J_EXPECT_JH(jh, buffer_uptodate(jh2bh(jh)),
			    "Possible IO failure.\n");
		page = jh2bh(jh)->b_page;
		offset = ((unsigned long) jh2bh(jh)->b_data) & ~PAGE_MASK;
		source = kmap_atomic(page, KM_USER0);
		memcpy(jh->b_frozen_data, source+offset, jh2bh(jh)->b_size);
		kunmap_atomic(source, KM_USER0);
	}
	jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);

	/*
	 * If we are about to journal a buffer, then any revoke pending on it is
	 * no longer valid
	 */
	journal_cancel_revoke(handle, jh);

out:
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	kfree(frozen_buffer);
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	JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "exit");
	return error;
}

/**
 * int journal_get_write_access() - notify intent to modify a buffer for metadata (not data) update.
 * @handle: transaction to add buffer modifications to
 * @bh:     bh to be used for metadata writes
 * @credits: variable that will receive credits for the buffer
 *
 * Returns an error code or 0 on success.
 *
 * In full data journalling mode the buffer may be of type BJ_AsyncData,
 * because we're write()ing a buffer which is also part of a shared mapping.
 */

int journal_get_write_access(handle_t *handle, struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	struct journal_head *jh = journal_add_journal_head(bh);
	int rc;

	/* We do not want to get caught playing with fields which the
	 * log thread also manipulates.  Make sure that the buffer
	 * completes any outstanding IO before proceeding. */
	rc = do_get_write_access(handle, jh, 0);
	journal_put_journal_head(jh);
	return rc;
}


/*
 * When the user wants to journal a newly created buffer_head
 * (ie. getblk() returned a new buffer and we are going to populate it
 * manually rather than reading off disk), then we need to keep the
 * buffer_head locked until it has been completely filled with new
 * data.  In this case, we should be able to make the assertion that
 * the bh is not already part of an existing transaction.  
 * 
 * The buffer should already be locked by the caller by this point.
 * There is no lock ranking violation: it was a newly created,
 * unlocked buffer beforehand. */

/**
 * int journal_get_create_access () - notify intent to use newly created bh
 * @handle: transaction to new buffer to
 * @bh: new buffer.
 *
 * Call this if you create a new bh.
 */
int journal_get_create_access(handle_t *handle, struct buffer_head *bh) 
{
	transaction_t *transaction = handle->h_transaction;
	journal_t *journal = transaction->t_journal;
	struct journal_head *jh = journal_add_journal_head(bh);
	int err;

	jbd_debug(5, "journal_head %p\n", jh);
	err = -EROFS;
	if (is_handle_aborted(handle))
		goto out;
	err = 0;

	JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "entry");
	/*
	 * The buffer may already belong to this transaction due to pre-zeroing
	 * in the filesystem's new_block code.  It may also be on the previous,
	 * committing transaction's lists, but it HAS to be in Forget state in
	 * that case: the transaction must have deleted the buffer for it to be
	 * reused here.
	 */
	jbd_lock_bh_state(bh);
	spin_lock(&journal->j_list_lock);
	J_ASSERT_JH(jh, (jh->b_transaction == transaction ||
		jh->b_transaction == NULL ||
		(jh->b_transaction == journal->j_committing_transaction &&
			  jh->b_jlist == BJ_Forget)));

	J_ASSERT_JH(jh, jh->b_next_transaction == NULL);
	J_ASSERT_JH(jh, buffer_locked(jh2bh(jh)));

	if (jh->b_transaction == NULL) {
		jh->b_transaction = transaction;
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "file as BJ_Reserved");
		__journal_file_buffer(jh, transaction, BJ_Reserved);
	} else if (jh->b_transaction == journal->j_committing_transaction) {
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "set next transaction");
		jh->b_next_transaction = transaction;
	}
	spin_unlock(&journal->j_list_lock);
	jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);

	/*
	 * akpm: I added this.  ext3_alloc_branch can pick up new indirect
	 * blocks which contain freed but then revoked metadata.  We need
	 * to cancel the revoke in case we end up freeing it yet again
	 * and the reallocating as data - this would cause a second revoke,
	 * which hits an assertion error.
	 */
	JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "cancelling revoke");
	journal_cancel_revoke(handle, jh);
	journal_put_journal_head(jh);
out:
	return err;
}

/**
 * int journal_get_undo_access() -  Notify intent to modify metadata with
 *     non-rewindable consequences
 * @handle: transaction
 * @bh: buffer to undo
 * @credits: store the number of taken credits here (if not NULL)
 *
 * Sometimes there is a need to distinguish between metadata which has
 * been committed to disk and that which has not.  The ext3fs code uses
 * this for freeing and allocating space, we have to make sure that we
 * do not reuse freed space until the deallocation has been committed,
 * since if we overwrote that space we would make the delete
 * un-rewindable in case of a crash.
 * 
 * To deal with that, journal_get_undo_access requests write access to a
 * buffer for parts of non-rewindable operations such as delete
 * operations on the bitmaps.  The journaling code must keep a copy of
 * the buffer's contents prior to the undo_access call until such time
 * as we know that the buffer has definitely been committed to disk.
 * 
 * We never need to know which transaction the committed data is part
 * of, buffers touched here are guaranteed to be dirtied later and so
 * will be committed to a new transaction in due course, at which point
 * we can discard the old committed data pointer.
 *
 * Returns error number or 0 on success.
 */
int journal_get_undo_access(handle_t *handle, struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	int err;
	struct journal_head *jh = journal_add_journal_head(bh);
	char *committed_data = NULL;

	JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "entry");

	/*
	 * Do this first --- it can drop the journal lock, so we want to
	 * make sure that obtaining the committed_data is done
	 * atomically wrt. completion of any outstanding commits.
	 */
	err = do_get_write_access(handle, jh, 1);
	if (err)
		goto out;

repeat:
	if (!jh->b_committed_data) {
		committed_data = jbd_kmalloc(jh2bh(jh)->b_size, GFP_NOFS);
		if (!committed_data) {
			printk(KERN_EMERG "%s: No memory for committed data\n",
				__FUNCTION__);
			err = -ENOMEM;
			goto out;
		}
	}

	jbd_lock_bh_state(bh);
	if (!jh->b_committed_data) {
		/* Copy out the current buffer contents into the
		 * preserved, committed copy. */
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "generate b_committed data");
		if (!committed_data) {
			jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);
			goto repeat;
		}

		jh->b_committed_data = committed_data;
		committed_data = NULL;
		memcpy(jh->b_committed_data, bh->b_data, bh->b_size);
	}
	jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);
out:
	journal_put_journal_head(jh);
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	kfree(committed_data);
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	return err;
}

/** 
 * int journal_dirty_data() -  mark a buffer as containing dirty data which
 *                             needs to be flushed before we can commit the
 *                             current transaction.  
 * @handle: transaction
 * @bh: bufferhead to mark
 * 
 * The buffer is placed on the transaction's data list and is marked as
 * belonging to the transaction.
 *
 * Returns error number or 0 on success.
 *
 * journal_dirty_data() can be called via page_launder->ext3_writepage
 * by kswapd.
 */
int journal_dirty_data(handle_t *handle, struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	journal_t *journal = handle->h_transaction->t_journal;
	int need_brelse = 0;
	struct journal_head *jh;

	if (is_handle_aborted(handle))
		return 0;

	jh = journal_add_journal_head(bh);
	JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "entry");

	/*
	 * The buffer could *already* be dirty.  Writeout can start
	 * at any time.
	 */
	jbd_debug(4, "jh: %p, tid:%d\n", jh, handle->h_transaction->t_tid);

	/*
	 * What if the buffer is already part of a running transaction?
	 * 
	 * There are two cases:
	 * 1) It is part of the current running transaction.  Refile it,
	 *    just in case we have allocated it as metadata, deallocated
	 *    it, then reallocated it as data. 
	 * 2) It is part of the previous, still-committing transaction.
	 *    If all we want to do is to guarantee that the buffer will be
	 *    written to disk before this new transaction commits, then
	 *    being sure that the *previous* transaction has this same 
	 *    property is sufficient for us!  Just leave it on its old
	 *    transaction.
	 *
	 * In case (2), the buffer must not already exist as metadata
	 * --- that would violate write ordering (a transaction is free
	 * to write its data at any point, even before the previous
	 * committing transaction has committed).  The caller must
	 * never, ever allow this to happen: there's nothing we can do
	 * about it in this layer.
	 */
	jbd_lock_bh_state(bh);
	spin_lock(&journal->j_list_lock);
	if (jh->b_transaction) {
		JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "has transaction");
		if (jh->b_transaction != handle->h_transaction) {
			JBUFFER_TRACE(jh, "belongs to older transaction");
			J_ASSERT_JH(jh, jh->b_transaction ==
					journal->j_committing_transaction);

			/* @@@ IS THIS TRUE  ? */
			/*
			 * Not any more.  Scenario: someone does a write()
			 * in data=journal mode.  The buffer's transaction has
			 * moved into commit.  Then someone does another
			 * write() to the file.  We do the frozen data copyout
			 * and set b_next_transaction to point to j_running_t.
			 * And while we're in that state, someone does a
			 * writepage() in an attempt to pageout the same area
			 * of the file via a shared mapping.  At present that
			 * calls journal_dirty_data(), and we get right here.
			 * It may be too late to journal the data.  Simply
			 * falling through to the next test will suffice: the
			 * data will be dirty and wil be checkpointed.  The
			 * ordering comments in the next comment block still
			 * apply.
			 */
			//J_ASSERT_JH(jh, jh->b_next_transaction == NULL);

			/*
			 * If we're journalling data, and this buffer was
			 * subject to a write(), it could be metadata, forget
			 * or shadow against the committing transaction.  Now,
			 * someone has dirtied the same darn page via a mapping
			 * and it is being writepage()'d.
			 * We *could* just steal the page from commit, with some
			 * fancy locking there.  Instead, we just skip it -
			 * don't tie the page's buffers to the new transaction
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