assign.cc 22.3 KB
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/*
 * EMULAB-COPYRIGHT
 * Copyright (c) 2000-2003 University of Utah and the Flux Group.
 * All rights reserved.
 */

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#include "port.h"

#include <hash_map>
#include <rope>
#include <queue>

#include <boost/config.hpp>
#include <boost/utility.hpp>
#include <boost/property_map.hpp>
#include <boost/graph/graph_traits.hpp>
#include <boost/graph/adjacency_list.hpp>
#include <boost/graph/dijkstra_shortest_paths.hpp>
#include <boost/graph/graphviz.hpp>

#include <fstream.h>
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#include <iostream.h>
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#include <time.h>
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#include <stdlib.h>
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#include <math.h>
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#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
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#include <sys/resource.h>
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#include <signal.h>
#include <sys/signal.h>
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using namespace boost;
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#include "common.h"
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#include "delay.h"
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#include "physical.h"
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#include "virtual.h"
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#include "vclass.h"
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#include "pclass.h"
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#include "score.h"
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#include "solution.h"
#include "maps.h"
#include "anneal.h"
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// Here we set up all our graphs.  Need to create the graphs
// themselves and then setup the property maps.
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tb_pgraph PG;
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tb_pgraph_vertex_pmap pvertex_pmap = get(vertex_data, PG);
tb_pgraph_edge_pmap pedge_pmap = get(edge_data, PG);
tb_sgraph SG;
tb_sgraph_vertex_pmap svertex_pmap = get(vertex_data, SG);
tb_sgraph_edge_pmap sedge_pmap = get(edge_data, SG);
tb_vgraph VG;
tb_vgraph_vertex_pmap vvertex_pmap = get(vertex_data, VG);
tb_vgraph_edge_pmap vedge_pmap = get(edge_data, VG);

// A simple list of physical types.
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name_count_map ptypes;
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// List of virtual types by name.
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name_count_map vtypes;
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name_list_map vclasses;
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// A list of all pclasses.
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pclass_list pclasses;
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// Map from a pnode* to the the corresponding pvertex.
pnode_pvertex_map pnode2vertex;
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// Map of a type to a tt_entry, a vector of pclasses and the size of
// the vector.
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pclass_types type_table;
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#ifdef PER_VNODE_TT
pclass_types vnode_type_table;
#endif
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// This datastructure contains all the information needed to calculate
// the shortest path between any two switches.  Indexed by svertex,
// the value will be a predicate map (indexed by svertex as well) of
// the shortest paths for the given vertex.
switch_pred_map_map switch_preds;
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// Same, but for distances 
switch_dist_map_map switch_dist;
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// Time started, finished, and the time limit
double timestart, timeend, timelimit, timetarget;
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// An amount to scale the neighborhood size by
double scale_neighborhood = 1.0;

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#ifdef GNUPLOT_OUTPUT
FILE *scoresout, *tempout, *deltaout;
#endif
// Whether or not assign is allowed to generate trivial links
bool allow_trivial_links = true;
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// Whether or not assign should use pclasses
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bool disable_pclasses = false;
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// Whether or not assign should prune out pclasses that it knows can
// never be used
bool prune_pclasses = false;
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// Whether or not we should use the experimental support for dynamic pclasses
bool dynamic_pclasses = false;
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// Whether or not to allow assign to temporarily over-subscribe pnodes
bool allow_overload = false;
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// Forces assign to do greedy link assignment, by chosing the first link in its
// list, which is usually the lowest-cost
bool greedy_link_assignment = false;
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// Forces assign to skip melting, and, instead, use the temperature given as
// the initial temperature
bool no_melting = false;
double initial_temperature = 0.0f;
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// Print out a summary of the solution in addition to the solution itself
bool print_summary = false;

// Use the 'connected' find algorithm
double use_connected_pnode_find = 0.0f;
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// XXX - shouldn't be in this file
double absbest;
int absbestviolated, iters, iters_to_best;
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/*
 * Internal functions
 */
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// Return the CPU time (in seconds) used by this process
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float used_time()
{
  struct rusage ru;
  getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF,&ru);
  return ru.ru_utime.tv_sec+ru.ru_utime.tv_usec/1000000.0+
    ru.ru_stime.tv_sec+ru.ru_stime.tv_usec/1000000.0;
}

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// Read in the .ptop file
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void read_physical_topology(char *filename)
{
  ifstream ptopfile;
  ptopfile.open(filename);
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  if (!ptopfile.is_open()) {
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      cout << "Unable to open ptop file " << filename << endl;
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      exit(EXIT_UNRETRYABLE);
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  }
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  cout << "Physical Graph: " << parse_ptop(PG,SG,ptopfile) << endl;

#ifdef DUMP_GRAPH
  {
    cout << "Physical Graph:" << endl;
    
    pvertex_iterator vit,vendit;
    tie(vit,vendit) = vertices(PG);
    
    for (;vit != vendit;vit++) {
      tb_pnode *p = get(pvertex_pmap,*vit);
      cout << *vit << "\t" << *p;
    }
    
    pedge_iterator eit,eendit;
    tie(eit,eendit) = edges(PG);

    for (;eit != eendit;eit++) {
      tb_plink *p = get(pedge_pmap,*eit);
      cout << *eit << " (" << source(*eit,PG) << " <-> " <<
	target(*eit,PG) << ")\t" << *p;
    }
  }
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#endif // DUMP_GRAPH
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#ifdef GRAPH_DEBUG
  {
    cout << "Switch Graph:" << endl;
    

    svertex_iterator vit,vendit;
    tie(vit,vendit) = vertices(SG);
    
    for (;vit != vendit;vit++) {
      tb_switch *p = get(svertex_pmap,*vit);
      cout << *vit << "\t" << *p;
    }
    
    sedge_iterator eit,eendit;
    tie(eit,eendit) = edges(SG);

    for (;eit != eendit;eit++) {
      tb_slink *p = get(sedge_pmap,*eit);
      cout << *eit << " (" << source(*eit,SG) << " <-> " <<
	target(*eit,SG) << ")\t" << *p;
    }
  }
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#endif // GRAPH_DEBUG
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  // Set up pnode2vertex - a mapping between vertices in the physical graph and
  // the pnodes that we just read in from the ptop file
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  pvertex_iterator pvit,pvendit;
  tie(pvit,pvendit) = vertices(PG);
  for (;pvit != pvendit;pvit++) {
    pnode2vertex[get(pvertex_pmap,*pvit)]=*pvit;
  }

}

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// Calculate the minimum spanning tree for the switches - we only consider one
// potential path between each pair of switches.
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void calculate_switch_MST()
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{
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  cout << "Calculating shortest paths on switch fabric." << endl;
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  // Set up the weight map for Dijkstra's
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  tb_sgraph_weight_pmap sweight_pmap = get(edge_weight, SG);
  sedge_iterator seit,seendit;
  tie(seit,seendit) = edges(SG);
  for (;seit != seendit;seit++) {
    tb_slink *slink = get(sedge_pmap,*seit);
    // XXX should we make this more complicated depending on
    // latency/loss as well?
    put(sweight_pmap,*seit,
	100000000-get(pedge_pmap,slink->mate)->delay_info.bandwidth);
  }
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  // Let boost do the Disjktra's for us, from each switch
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  svertex_iterator svit,svendit;
  tie(svit,svendit) = vertices(SG);
  for (;svit != svendit;svit++) {
    switch_preds[*svit] = new switch_pred_map(num_vertices(SG));
    switch_dist[*svit] = new switch_dist_map(num_vertices(SG));
    dijkstra_shortest_paths(SG,*svit,
    			    predecessor_map(&((*switch_preds[*svit])[0])).
			    distance_map(&((*switch_dist[*svit])[0])));
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  }

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#ifdef GRAPH_DEBUG
  cout << "Shortest paths" << endl;
  tie(svit,svendit) = vertices(SG);
  for (;svit != svendit;svit++) {
    cout << *svit << ":" << endl;
    for (unsigned int i = 0;i<num_vertices(SG);++i) {
      cout << i << " " << (*switch_dist[*svit])[i] << endl;
    }
  }
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#endif // GRAPH_DEBUG
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}

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// Read in the .top file
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void read_virtual_topology(char *filename)
{
  ifstream topfile;
  topfile.open(filename);
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  if (!topfile.is_open()) {
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      cout << "Unable to open top file " << filename << endl;
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      exit(EXIT_UNRETRYABLE);
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  }
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  cout << "Virtual Graph: " << parse_top(VG,topfile) << endl;

#ifdef DUMP_GRAPH
  {
    cout << "Virtual Graph:" << endl;
    

    vvertex_iterator vit,vendit;
    tie(vit,vendit) = vertices(VG);
    
    for (;vit != vendit;vit++) {
      tb_vnode *p = get(vvertex_pmap,*vit);
      cout << *vit << "\t" << *p;
    }
    
    vedge_iterator eit,eendit;
    tie(eit,eendit) = edges(VG);

    for (;eit != eendit;eit++) {
      tb_vlink *p = get(vedge_pmap,*eit);
      cout << *eit << " (" << source(*eit,VG) << " <-> " <<
	target(*eit,VG) << ")\t" << *p;
    }
  }  
#endif
}
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/*
 * Make a pass through the pclasses, looking for ones that no node can use, and
 * nuking them.
 */
void prune_unusable_pclasses() {
    cout << "Pruning pclasses." << endl;
    int pruned = 0;
    pclass_list::iterator pclass_iterator = pclasses.begin();
    while (pclass_iterator != pclasses.end()) {
	if ((*pclass_iterator)->refcount == 0) {
	    pclass_list::iterator nukeme = pclass_iterator;
	    pclass_iterator++;
#ifdef PCLASS_DEBUG
	    cout << "Pruning " << (*nukeme)->name << endl;
#endif
	    pruned++;
	    delete *nukeme;
	    pclasses.erase(nukeme);
	} else {
	    pclass_iterator++;
	}
    }
    cout << "pclass pruning complete: removed " << pruned << " pclasses, " <<
	pclasses.size() << " remain." << endl;
}

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void print_help()
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{
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  cout << "assign [options] ptopfile topfile [config params]" << endl;
  cout << "Options: " << endl;
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#ifdef TIME_TERMINATE
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  cout << "  -l <time>   - Limit runtime." << endl;
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#endif
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  cout << "  -s <seed>   - Set the seed." << endl;
  cout << "  -v <viz>    - Produce graphviz files with given prefix." <<
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    endl;
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  cout << "  -r          - Don't allow trivial links." << endl;
  cout << "  -p          - Disable pclasses." << endl;
  cout << "  -d          - Enable dynamic pclasses." << endl;
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#ifdef PER_VNODE_TT
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  cout << "  -P          - Prune unusable pclasses." << endl;
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#endif
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  cout << "  -T          - Doing some scoring self-testing." << endl;
  cout << "  -H <float>  - Try <float> times harder." << endl;
  cout << "  -o          - Allow overloaded pnodes to be considered." << endl;
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  cout << "  -t <float>  - Start the temperature at <float> instead of melting."
      << endl;
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  cout << "  -u          - Print a summary of the solution." << endl;
  cout << "  -c <float>  - Use the 'connected' pnode finding algorithm " <<
      "<float>% of the time." << endl;
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  exit(EXIT_UNRETRYABLE);
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}
 
// Perfrom a pre-cehck to make sure that there are enough free nodes of the
// proper types. Returns 1 if the proper types exist, 0 if they do not.
// TODO - move away from using global variables
int type_precheck() {
    cout << "Type precheck:" << endl;
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    bool ok = true;
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    // First, check the regular types
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    for (name_count_map::iterator vtype_it=vtypes.begin();
	    vtype_it != vtypes.end();++vtype_it) {
    
	// Check to see if there were any pnodes of the type at all
	name_count_map::iterator ptype_it = ptypes.find(vtype_it->first);
	if (ptype_it == ptypes.end()) {
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	    cout << "  *** No physical nodes of type " << vtype_it->first
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		<< " found" << endl;
	    ok = false;
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	} else {
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	    // Okay, there are some - are there enough?
	    if (ptype_it->second < vtype_it->second) {
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		cout << "  *** " << vtype_it->second << " nodes of type " <<
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		    vtype_it->first << " requested, but only "
		    << ptype_it->second << " found" << endl;
		ok = false;
	    }
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	}
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    }
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    // Check the vclasses, too
    for (name_list_map::iterator vclass_it = vclasses.begin();
	    vclass_it != vclasses.end(); ++vclass_it) {
	bool found_match = false;
	for (vector<crope>::iterator vtype_it = vclass_it->second.begin();
		vtype_it != vclass_it->second.end(); vtype_it++) {
	    if (ptypes.find(*vtype_it) != ptypes.end()) {
		found_match = true;
		break;
	    }
	}

	if (!found_match) {
	    cout << "  *** No physical nodes can satisfy vclass " <<
		vclass_it->first << endl;
	    ok = false;
	}
    }

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    if (ok) {
      cout << "Type preecheck passed." << endl;
      return 1;
    } else {
      cout << "Type precheck failed!" << endl;
      return 0;
    }
}
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// Perfrom a pre-cehck to make sure that every vnode has at least one possible
// mapping.  Returns 1 if this is the case, 0 if not.
// TODO - move away from using global variables
int mapping_precheck() {
#ifdef PER_VNODE_TT
    cout << "Node mapping precheck:" << endl;
    /*
     * Build up an entry in the type table for each vnode, by first looking at
     * the type table entry for the vnode's type, then checking each entry to
     * make sure that it:
     * (1) Has enough interfaces
     * (2) Has enough total bandwidth (for emulated links)
     * (3) Meets any 1.0-weight features and/or desires
     */
    vvertex_iterator vit,vendit;
    tie(vit,vendit) = vertices(VG);
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    /*
     * Indicates whether all nodes have potential matches or not
     */
    bool ok = true;
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    for (;vit != vendit;vit++) {
	tb_vnode *v = get(vvertex_pmap,*vit);
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	pclass_vector *vec = new pclass_vector();
	vnode_type_table[v->name] = tt_entry(0,vec);

	// This constitutes a list of the number of ptypes that matched the
	// criteria. We use to guess what's wrong with the vnode.
	int matched_links = 0;
	int matched_bw = 0;
	// Keep track of desires had how many 'hits', so that we can tell
	// if any simply were not matched
	tb_vnode::desires_count_map matched_desires;

	tb_vclass *vclass = v->vclass;
	tb_vclass::members_map::iterator mit;
	if (vclass) {
	    mit = vclass->members.begin();
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	}
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	for (;;) {
	    // Loop over all types this node can take on, which might be only
	    // one, if it's not part of a vclass
	    crope this_type;
	    if (vclass) {
		this_type = mit->first;
	    } else {
		this_type = v->type;
	    }
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	    for (pclass_vector::iterator it = type_table[this_type].second->begin();
		    it != type_table[this_type].second->end(); it++) {
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		bool potential_match = true;
		// Grab the first node of the pclass as a representative sample
		tb_pnode *pnode = *((*it)->members[this_type]->L.begin());
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		// Check the number of interfaces - if the pnode is a switch,
		// for now, we don't check this, since it can end up with more
		// 'interfaces' due to the fact that it can have interswitch
		// links
		if ((pnode->total_interfaces >= v->num_links) ||
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			(!pnode->current_type.compare("switch"))) {
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		    matched_links++;
		} else {
		    potential_match = false;
		}
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		// Check bandwidth on emulated links
		if (pnode->total_bandwidth >= v->total_bandwidth) {
		    matched_bw++;
		} else {
		    potential_match = false;
		}
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		// Check to see if if the pnode has enough slots of the
		// appropriate type available
		tb_pnode::types_map::iterator mit = pnode->types.find(v->type);
		if (mit == pnode->types.end()) {
		    // Must have been a vtype to get here - ignore it
		} else {
		    if (v->typecount > mit->second->max_load) {
			// Nope, this vnode is too demanding
			potential_match = false;
		    }
		}

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		//
		// Check features and desires
		//

		// Desires first
		for (tb_vnode::desires_map::iterator desire_it = v->desires.begin();
			desire_it != v->desires.end();
			desire_it++) {
		    crope name = (*desire_it).first;
		    float value = (*desire_it).second;
		    // Only check for desires that would result in a violation if
		    // unsatisfied
		    if (value >= FD_VIOLATION_WEIGHT) {
			if (matched_desires.find(name) == matched_desires.end()) {
			    matched_desires[name] = 0;
			}
			tb_pnode::features_map::iterator feature_it =
			    pnode->features.find(name);
			if (feature_it != pnode->features.end()) {
			    matched_desires[name]++;
			} else {
			    potential_match = false;
			}
		    }
		}
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		// Next, features
		for (tb_pnode::features_map::iterator feature_it = pnode->features.begin();
			feature_it != pnode->features.end(); feature_it++) {
		    crope name = (*feature_it).first;
		    float value = (*feature_it).second;
		    // Only check for feature that would result in a violation if
		    // undesired
		    if (value >= FD_VIOLATION_WEIGHT) {
			tb_vnode::desires_map::iterator desire_it =
			    v->desires.find(name);
			if (desire_it == v->desires.end()) {
			    potential_match = false;
			}
		    }
		}
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		if (potential_match) {
		    vec->push_back(*it);
		    vnode_type_table[v->name].first++;
		    (*it)->refcount++;
#ifdef PCLASS_DEBUG
		    cerr << v->name << " can map to " << (*it)->name << endl;
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#endif
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		}
	    }
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	    if (vclass) { 
		mit++;
		if (mit == vclass->members.end()) {
		    break;
		}
	    } else {
		// If not a vtype, we only had to do this once
		break;
	    }
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	}
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	if (vnode_type_table[v->name].first == 0) {
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	    cout << "  *** No possible mapping for " << v->name << endl;
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	    // Make an attempt to figure out why it didn't match
	    if (!matched_links) {
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		cout << "      Too many links!" << endl;
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	    }
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	    if (!matched_bw) {
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		cout << "      Too much bandwidth on emulated links!" << endl;
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	    }
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	    for (tb_vnode::desires_count_map::iterator dit = matched_desires.begin();
		    dit != matched_desires.end();
		    dit++) {
		if (dit->second == 0) {
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		    cout << "      No physical nodes have feature " << dit->first
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			<< "!" << endl;
		}
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	    }
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	    ok = false;
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	}
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#ifdef PCLASS_DEBUG
	cerr << v->name << " can map to " << vnode_type_table[v->name].first << " pclasses"
	    << endl;
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#endif
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    }
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    if (ok) {
	cout << "Node mapping precheck succeeded" << endl;
	return 1;
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    } else {
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	cout << "Node mapping precheck failed!" << endl;
	return 0;
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    }

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#else // PER_VNODE_TT
    // PER_VNODE_TT is required for this check, just pretend it's OK.
    return 1;
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#endif
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}
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// Signal handler - add a convneint way to kill assign and make it return an
// unretryable error
void exit_unretryable(int signal) {
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  cout << "Killed with signal " << signal << " - exiting!" << endl;
  _exit(EXIT_UNRETRYABLE);
}

// Singal handler - add a way for a user to get some status information
extern double temp;
void status_report(int signal) {
  cout << "I: " << iters << " T: " << temp << " S: " << get_score() << " V: "
    << violated << " (Best S: " << absbest << " V:" << absbestviolated << ")"
    << endl;
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}

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int main(int argc,char **argv)
{
  int seed = 0;
  crope viz_prefix;
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  bool scoring_selftest = false;
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  // Handle command line
  char ch;
  timelimit = 0.0;
  timetarget = 0.0;
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  while ((ch = getopt(argc,argv,"s:v:l:t:rpPTdH:oguc:")) != -1) {
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    switch (ch) {
    case 's':
      if (sscanf(optarg,"%d",&seed) != 1) {
	print_help();
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      }
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      break;
    case 'v':
      viz_prefix = optarg;
      break;
#ifdef TIME_TERMINATE
    case 'l':
      if (sscanf(optarg,"%lf",&timelimit) != 1) {
	print_help();
      }
      break;
#endif
#ifdef TIME_TARGET
    case 't':
      if (sscanf(optarg,"%lf",&timetarget) != 1) {
	print_help();
      }
      break;
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#endif
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    case 'r':
      allow_trivial_links = false; break;
    case 'p':
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      disable_pclasses = true; break;
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#ifdef PER_VNODE_TT
    case 'P':
      prune_pclasses = true; break;
#endif
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    case 'T':
      scoring_selftest = true; break;
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    case 'd':
      dynamic_pclasses = true; break;
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    case 'H':
      if (sscanf(optarg,"%lf",&scale_neighborhood) != 1) {
	print_help();
      }
      break;
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    case 'o':
      allow_overload = true; break;
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    case 'g':
      greedy_link_assignment = true; break;
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    case 't':
      if (sscanf(optarg,"%lf",&initial_temperature) != 1) {
	print_help();
      }
      no_melting = true; break;
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    case 'u':
      print_summary = true; break;
    case 'c':
      if (sscanf(optarg,"%lf",&use_connected_pnode_find) != 1) {
	print_help();
      }
      break;
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    default:
      print_help();
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    }
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  }
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  argc -= optind;
  argv += optind;
  
  if (seed == 0) {
    if (getenv("ASSIGN_SEED") != NULL) {
      sscanf(getenv("ASSIGN_SEED"),"%d",&seed);
    } else {
      seed = time(NULL)+getpid();
    }
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  }
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  if (viz_prefix.size() == 0) {
    if (getenv("ASSIGN_GRAPHVIZ") != NULL) {
      viz_prefix = getenv("ASSIGN_GRAPHVIZ");
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    }
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  }
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  if (argc == 0) {
    print_help();
  }

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  // Set up a signal handler for USR1 that exits with an unretryable error
  struct sigaction action;
  action.sa_handler = exit_unretryable;
  sigemptyset(&action.sa_mask);
  action.sa_flags = 0;
  sigaction(SIGUSR1,&action,NULL);
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  sigaction(SIGINT,&action,NULL);
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  // Set up a signal handler for control+T
  struct sigaction action2;
  action2.sa_handler = status_report;
  sigemptyset(&action2.sa_mask);
  action2.sa_flags = 0;
  sigaction(SIGINFO,&action2,NULL);

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  // Convert options to the common.h parameters.
  parse_options(argv, options, noptions);
#ifdef SCORE_DEBUG
  dump_options("Configuration options:", options, noptions);
#endif

#ifdef GNUPLOT_OUTPUT
  scoresout = fopen("scores.out","w");
  tempout = fopen("temp.out","w");
  deltaout = fopen("delta.out","w");
#endif

  cout << "seed = " << seed << endl;
  std::srandom(seed);

  read_physical_topology(argv[0]);
  calculate_switch_MST();
  
  cout << "Generating physical equivalence classes:";
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  generate_pclasses(PG,disable_pclasses,dynamic_pclasses);
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  cout << pclasses.size() << endl;
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#ifdef PCLASS_DEBUG
  pclass_debug();
#endif
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  read_virtual_topology(argv[1]);
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  // Run the type precheck
  if (!type_precheck()) {
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      exit(EXIT_UNRETRYABLE);
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  }
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  // Run the mapping precheck
  if (!mapping_precheck()) {
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      exit(EXIT_UNRETRYABLE);
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  }
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#ifdef PER_VNODE_TT
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  if (prune_pclasses) {
      prune_unusable_pclasses();
  }
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#endif

  // Output graphviz if necessary
  if (viz_prefix.size() != 0) {
    crope vviz = viz_prefix + "_virtual.viz";
    crope pviz = viz_prefix + "_physical.viz";
    crope sviz = viz_prefix + "_switch.viz";
    ofstream vfile,pfile,sfile;
    vfile.open(vviz.c_str());
    write_graphviz(vfile,VG,vvertex_writer(),vedge_writer(),graph_writer());
    vfile.close();
    pfile.open(pviz.c_str());
    write_graphviz(pfile,PG,pvertex_writer(),pedge_writer(),graph_writer());
    pfile.close();
    sfile.open(sviz.c_str());
    write_graphviz(sfile,SG,svertex_writer(),sedge_writer(),graph_writer());
    sfile.close();
  }
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  // Handle the initial temperature, if one was given - a NULL initial temp.
  // means that we should start with the normal melting procedure
  double *initial_temperature_pointer;
  if (no_melting) {
    initial_temperature_pointer = &initial_temperature;
  } else {
    initial_temperature_pointer = NULL;
  }
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  timestart = used_time();
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  anneal(scoring_selftest, scale_neighborhood, initial_temperature_pointer,
      use_connected_pnode_find);
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  timeend = used_time();
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#ifdef GNUPLOT_OUTPUT
  fclose(scoresout);
  fclose(tempout);
  fclose(deltaout);
#endif

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  if ((!compare_scores(get_score(),absbest)) || (violated > absbestviolated)) {
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    cout << "Internal error: Invalid migration assumptions." << endl;
    cout << "score:" << get_score() << " absbest:" << absbest <<
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      " violated:" << violated << " absbestviolated:" <<
      absbestviolated << endl;
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    cout << "  Contact calfeld" << endl;
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  }
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  cout << "   BEST SCORE:  " << get_score() << " in " << iters <<
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    " iters and " << timeend-timestart << " seconds" << endl;
  cout << "With " << violated << " violations" << endl;
  cout << "Iters to find best score:  " << iters_to_best << endl;
  cout << "Violations: " << violated << endl;
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  cout << vinfo;
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  print_solution();
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  if (print_summary) {
    print_solution_summary();
  }

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  if (viz_prefix.size() != 0) {
    crope aviz = viz_prefix + "_solution.viz";
    ofstream afile;
    afile.open(aviz.c_str());
    write_graphviz(afile,VG,solution_vertex_writer(),
		   solution_edge_writer(),graph_writer());
    afile.close();
  }
  
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  if (violated != 0) {
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      exit(EXIT_RETRYABLE);
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  } else {
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      exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
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  }
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}
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