setup.txt 12 KB
Newer Older
1 2 3 4 5 6
#
# EMULAB-COPYRIGHT
# Copyright (c) 2001-2005 University of Utah and the Flux Group.
# All rights reserved.
#

7
#####
8
##### Setting up the Utah Network Testbed software on a boss node
9
##### Tested on FreeBSD 4.11
10
#####
11

12 13 14 15 16 17
##### Important notes

In order to be able to help you debug any problems you run into or answer
certain questions, we'll need have accounts, preferably with root access if
allowed by your institution's AUP, on your boss and ops nodes, and will need to
be able to access the webserver on boss.
18 19 20
This is crucial during testbed installation and bringup; after that it's not
so important, except when you are upgrading to a new version of our software.

21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57
Supported environment:
This software does make some assumptions about the environment in which it is
run. Some of the most basic ones are listed below. In general, we don't have
the resources to adapt it to every possible environment. So, you will need to
either work out a way to match the environment outlined below, or be willing to
invest some work in adapting the software.

(1) You will need at least two network interfaces on each node - one for the
control network, and one for the experimental network. The experimental network
needs to be one on which we can make VLANs with SNMP. Currently, we support
Cisco 6500 and 4000 series switches (though not all switches in these lines
have been tested). The control net must have full multicast support, including
IGMP snooping. Nodes' control network interfaces must support PXE.

(2) We highly, highly recommend that boss, ops, and all the nodes be in
publicly routed IP space. If this is not possible, then boss and ops should be
given two interfaces: One in the nodes' control network, and one in public IP
space. If you must use private IP space for the nodes' control net, we suggest
using the 192.168/16 subnet, which leaves the larger 10/8 subnet available for
the experimental network.

(3) If you have a firewall, you will need to be able to get certain standard
ports through to boss and ops, such as the ports for http, https, ssh, named
(domain), and smtp. Any other strange network setup (such as NAT) between the
boss/ops and the outside world will cause really big headaches.

(4) The whole testbed should be in a domain or subdomain for which boss can be
the name server.

(5) The nodes must be able to reach boss with DHCP requests on the control
network - this means either being in the same broadcast domain (ie. LAN), or,
if there is a router in between, the router must be capable of forwarding
DHCP/BOOTP packets. Since the nodes will DHCP from boss, it is important that
there not be another DHCP server (ie. one for another part of your lab)
answering their requests.

58 59 60 61 62
(6) Boss and ops should have their own local disk space - in particular, the
/usr/testbed directory cannot be shared between them. It may be possible to
use an external machines (other than ops) as a fileserver - talk to Utah abut
this if you'd like to try.

63
##### Other docs:
Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
64

65 66 67
Useful summary info and diagrams can be found in "build-operate.ppt" and
"security-all.ppt" in http://www.cs.utah.edu/flux/testbed-docs/internals/

Jay Lepreau's avatar
Jay Lepreau committed
68 69 70
##### Step -1 - Set up "ops"

Follow the instructions in the setup-ops.txt file before the ones in this file!
71

72
##### Step 0 - OS installation and setup
73

74
Install FreeBSD on the machine you'll be using for your boss node, using the
75
standard FreeBSD installation process.  When asked by the installer, it's best
76
to choose the 'Developer' distribution set - this gets you full sources.  When
Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88
it asks if you want to install the ports collection, answer *no*. You will
be able to install ports later.

As with setting up ops, you need to create partitions large enough:

/usr	      - Needs space for the ports tree and a system object tree.
	                At least 10GB. Be sure to build with plenty of
			inodes (the ports tree itself uses about 200000, so
			be safe and build with at least a million).
/usr/testbed  - Needs space for testbed software and logs, as well as
			many disk images. At least 10GB, but more is better!
/var          - Holds the database, so at least a few hundred MB. 
89

Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
90 91 92 93 94

Do *not* create any users yet, and just log in a root for the time being.
Our software will create users later, once you get boss set up. BE SURE to
give root a password and REMEMBER it! You are going to need it later.  To
set the root password use "passwd root".
95

Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
96 97 98 99
##### Step 1 - Installing packages

Again, almost the same as on ops. Download the same tarball, and follow
the same pkg_add procedure, except this time, you're going to install
100 101 102
the emulab-boss-1.8 package instead of emulab-ops:

	env PKG_PATH=/usr/tmp/FreeBSD-4.10-20041102 pkg_add emulab-boss-1.8
Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
103 104 105

Also grab a copy og our approved ports tree and install it, the same as
described in setup-ops.txt.
106

Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
107 108
##### Step 2 -  Unpacking source and creating a defs file

Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
109 110 111 112 113 114
Unpack the source tarball:

	mkdir -p /usr/testbed/src/testbed
	mkdir -p /usr/testbed/obj/testbed
	cd /usr/testbed/src/testbed
	tar ....
115

116 117 118
Now, you'll need to create a 'defs file', which is used by the configure
script to describe your enviroment, such as the hostnames of your boss and ops
nodes, and email addresses that certain types of mail will be sent to.
119

120 121
Use the 'defs-example' file in the root of our source distribution as a
template. It contains comments explaining the important variables to set.
122

Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
123
##### Step 3 - Configuring an object tree
124

125 126 127
This works the same as it did on ops. Remember, you have to use the same
defs file on boss that you used on ops!

128

Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
129 130 131
	cd /usr/testbed/obj/testbed
	/usr/testbed/src/testbed/configure \
		--with-TBDEFS=/path/to/your/defs-file
132

133
##### Step 4 - Running the boss installation script
134

135
Again, this works the same as it did on ops, except that you run
136 137 138 139 140
boss-install in the object tree, instead of ops-install. Just run this
script as root (note the same package directory argument as above).

	cd install
	env PKG_PATH=/usr/tmp/FreeBSD-4.10-20041102 perl boss-install
141

Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
142 143
Like the ops-install script, boss-install sets up passwordless sudo for
anyone in the wheel group.
144

145
##### Step 5 - Installing from source.
146

147 148
In your object directory, do a 'gmake && gmake boss-install'. Then, as root, do
a 'gmake post-install'. The post-install target needs to run as root, so that
149
it can make certain scripts setuid, etc.
150

151
##### Step 6 - Setting up root ssh from boss to ops
152

153 154 155 156
This step is now done as part of boss-install/ops-install. To confirm
this, make sure this works:

	boss> sudo ssh ops ls /
157

158
If this *FAILS*, you will need to do this by hand, typing a password:
159

160 161
	scp /root/.ssh/identity.pub ops:/root/.ssh/authorized_keys
	
162
##### Step 7 - Setting up named
163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173

The testbed software manipulates DNS zone files for two reasons. First, it
adds your nodes to them so that you don't have to. Second, it creates CNAMEs
for all the nodes in every experiment. (so that you can use, for example,
'nodeA.myexp.myproj.emulab.net' to refer to your node regardless of which
physical node it got mapped to.)

The named_setup script does this by generating zone files - in general, it
concatenates a '.head' file, written by you, with it's own generated entries.
The main zone file is /etc/namedb/OURDOMAIN.db, where OURDOMAIN is from your
defs file. (OURDOMAIN, unless explicitly specified, is taken to be the domain
174
portion of BOSSNODE). We also generate reverse zone files (for inverse
175 176
lookups, ie. turning IP addresses back into names) in
/etc/named/reverse/SUBNET.db, where SUBNET is the the class-C subnet in which
177 178 179 180
the addresses reside (ie. 10.0.0.db). This value is defined in the defs
file created above, as TESTBED_NETWORK.

boss-install makes a reasonable attempt to create a set of named config
Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
181
files for your, placing them in /etc/namedb. If your testbed consists of
182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190
a single class-C network, then these files will most likely be correct,
although you want to look at them to make sure. Look at these files to make
sure:

	/etc/named/OURDOMAIN.db.head
	/etc/named/reverse/SUBNET.db.head
	/etc/named/named.conf

If you have more than one class-C subnet for your testbed, you'll need a
191
copy of the reverse zone file for each one. You want to put boss, ops, and
192 193
any 'infrastructure' equipment (such as routers and switches) into the zone
files.  These zone files do not need to include the nodes - the nodes will
Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
194
be added to them automatically. Be sure to edit /etc/named/namedb.conf if
195
you add any reverse map files (follow the format for the existing entry).
196 197

Once you think you've got things set up, run /usr/testbed/sbin/named_setup,
198 199
and make sure that it doesn't give you any error messages. It will generate
the following files:
200 201 202

	/etc/namedb/OURDOMAIN.db
	/etc/namedb/reverse/SUBNET.db
203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223

##### If you are using unroutable private IP addresses for part of the
      testbed:

In order to handle this situation, we'll need to use a feature of bind called
`views` so that the private addresses are only exposed to clients within the
testbed. See the bind documentation for more details on this feature. Note
that you'll want to make sure that loopback queries from boss itself see the
internal view - you want boss to resolve its own hostname to its private
address, not its public one.

In order to use multiple views, we generate multiple zone files.  In addition
to OURDOMAIN.db, which will be used for the 'external' view, we create
OURDOMAIN.internal.db for use with the 'internal' view. So, you'll also need
to create OURDOMAIN.internal.db.head .  When we generate the zone files, only
publicly-routable addresses are put into OURDOMAIN.db .
OURDOMAIN.internal.db contains all addresses, both public and private.  So,
basically, you'll want to put the public addresses for boss, ops, etc.  into
OURDOMAIN.db.head, and their private addresses into
OURDOMAIN.internal.db.head . 

224
##### Step 8 - Other miscellaneous things to set up
225

226 227
There are a few things we haven't been able to completely automate just yet,
though we hope to soon. 
228

229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245
hosts file - You want to put boss/ops name/IP addresses in /etc/hosts on
both boss and ops to avoid boottime circular dependencies (cause of NFS
cross mounts). This is done for you in ops-install and boss-install, but
you might want to confirm it was done properly. If you change the IP
addresses of boss/ops later, you will want to be sure to update /etc/hosts
on both machines.

SSL certificates - Our apache config file expects to find SSL certificates
in: 
	/usr/local/etc/apache/ssl.crt/www.<sitename>.crt
	/usr/local/etc/apache/ssl.key/www.<sitename>.key
	
(where <sitename> is OURDOMAIN from the configure defs file, which defaults
to boss's domain name).

boss-install already generated a temporary no-passhrase certificate for you
and placed them in the locations specified above. However, we recommend
Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
246
that you get a "real" certificate from Verisign (or one of the others).
247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254

DHCPD - boss-install generated a dhcpd.conf.template and installed it in
/usr/local/etc (the template is derived from information you provided in
defs file). It then generated an actual dhcpd.conf file and started up
dhcpd for you. Do not edit the dhcpd.conf file directly! If you need need to
make changes, change the template instead and then run:

	/usr/testbed/sbin/dhcpd_makeconf -i -r
255

256 257 258 259 260
tftpboot - There are a few bootloaders, mini-kernels, and MFSes that are used
to boot, reload, etc. testbed machines, which live in /tftpboot . For the time
being, these are not distributed with our source, and require some site
customizations, so ask Utah for the boot loaders, etc.

261
disk images - You'll also, of course, need disk images to go on your nodes.
262 263
Right now, we have no automatic way of generating these, so you'll have to ask
Utah for some.
264

265 266 267 268 269
locate database - It can be useful to update the 'locate' database to help you
find files as you're learning the system. This normally happends nightly, but
you can force it to happen now by running 'locate.updatedb' as root. This will
take several minutes. You can then find foo.conf by running 'locate foo.conf'.

270
##### Step 9 - Reboot boss
271 272 273

Okay, go ahead and reboot boss now, and make sure it comes up okay.

274
##### Step 10 - Filling the database
275 276 277 278

See the file setup-db.txt in this directory for instructions on getting the
proper information about your site and nodes into the database.