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# Copyright (c) 2001-2005 University of Utah and the Flux Group.
# All rights reserved.

##### Setting up the Utah Network Testbed software on a boss node
##### Tested on FreeBSD 4.11

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##### Important notes

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In order to save your time and ours when building and installing an
Emulab, we make some up-front requirements.  We need explicit
agreement to these conditions, in advance.

1. We need to be satisfied that you have appropriate technical
expertise, that those who have it will be directly involved, and that
"management" will exercise appropriate supervision.  This may take the
form of some sort of teleconference "interview" procedure with the
project lead and your people.  The ideal people to bring up an Emulab
are quality system and network administrators; good student versions
of such people can work.

2. We must be closely involved in designing the overall network
architecture of your Emulab, and approve the planned hardware.  This
aspect is not as simple technically as it appears, and includes
financial, security, and support tradeoffs.

3. To be able to help you debug any problems you run into or answer
certain questions, we'll need to have accounts, preferably with root
access if allowed by your institution's AUP, on your Emulab's two
servers ('boss' and 'ops'), and will need to be able to access the
webserver on boss.  This is crucial during testbed installation and
bringup; after that it's not so important, except when you are
upgrading to a new version of our software.

4. Serial line consoles and remote power controllers must be connected
to at least two experimental nodes, so we can help debug.


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Supported environment:
This software does make some assumptions about the environment in which it is
run. Some of the most basic ones are listed below. In general, we don't have
the resources to adapt it to every possible environment. So, you will need to
either work out a way to match the environment outlined below, or be willing to
invest some work in adapting the software.

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(1) You will need at least two network interfaces on each node: one for the
control network and one for the experimental network. The experimental network
needs to be one on which we can make VLANs with SNMP. Currently, Emulab supports
* Cisco 6500 and 4000 series switches (though not all switches in these lines
  have been tested)
* many Nortel switches (those with RAPID-CITY Nortel mibs, ie, 5510-24T 5510-48T
  5520-24T 5520-48T, and reasonably recent Accellars).
* some Foundry switches
* Intel 510T (probably a bit bit-rotted since we haven't used it in a long time,
  but likely easy to fix)
* HP Procurve switch support has been written (by Cornell) but not yet
  fully tested.
Emulab's Cisco support is the best, because those are the switches we have.
The control net must have full multicast support, including IGMP
snooping. Nodes' control network interfaces must support PXE.
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(2) We highly, highly recommend that boss, ops, and all the nodes be in
publicly routed IP space. If this is not possible, then boss and ops should be
given two interfaces: One in the nodes' control network, and one in public IP
space. If you must use private IP space for the nodes' control net, we suggest
using the 192.168/16 subnet, which leaves the larger 10/8 subnet available for
the experimental network.

(3) If you have a firewall, you will need to be able to get certain standard
ports through to boss and ops, such as the ports for http, https, ssh, named
(domain), and smtp. Any other strange network setup (such as NAT) between the
boss/ops and the outside world will cause really big headaches.

(4) The whole testbed should be in a domain or subdomain for which boss can be
the name server.

(5) The nodes must be able to reach boss with DHCP requests on the control
network - this means either being in the same broadcast domain (ie. LAN), or,
if there is a router in between, the router must be capable of forwarding
DHCP/BOOTP packets. Since the nodes will DHCP from boss, it is important that
there not be another DHCP server (ie. one for another part of your lab)
answering their requests.

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(6) Boss and ops should have their own local disk space - in particular, the
/usr/testbed directory cannot be shared between them. It may be possible to
use an external machines (other than ops) as a fileserver - talk to Utah abut
this if you'd like to try.

##### Other docs:
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Useful summary info and diagrams can be found in "build-operate.ppt" and
"security-all.ppt" in

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##### Step -1 - Set up "ops"

Follow the instructions in the setup-ops.txt file before the ones in this file!

##### Step 0 - OS installation and setup

Install FreeBSD on the machine you'll be using for your boss node, using the
standard FreeBSD installation process.  When asked by the installer, it's best
to choose the 'Developer' distribution set - this gets you full sources.  When
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it asks if you want to install the ports collection, answer *no*. You will
be able to install ports later.

As with setting up ops, you need to create partitions large enough:

/usr	      - Needs space for the ports tree and a system object tree.
	                At least 10GB. Be sure to build with plenty of
			inodes (the ports tree itself uses about 200000, so
			be safe and build with at least a million).
/usr/testbed  - Needs space for testbed software and logs, as well as
			many disk images. At least 10GB, but more is better!
/var          - Holds the database, so at least a few hundred MB. 

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Do *not* create any users yet, and just log in a root for the time being.
Our software will create users later, once you get boss set up. BE SURE to
give root a password and REMEMBER it! You are going to need it later.  To
set the root password use "passwd root".

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If you already created users, then delete them with the "pw" command
and make sure the home directories for them are removed as well!

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##### Step 1 - Installing packages

Again, almost the same as on ops. Download the same tarball, and follow
the same pkg_add procedure, except this time, you're going to install
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the emulab-boss-1.8 package instead of emulab-ops:

	env PKG_PATH=/usr/tmp/FreeBSD-4.10-20041102 pkg_add emulab-boss-1.8
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Also grab a copy og our approved ports tree and install it, the same as
described in setup-ops.txt.

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##### Step 2 -  Unpacking source and creating a defs file

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Unpack the source tarball:

	mkdir -p /usr/testbed/src/testbed
	mkdir -p /usr/testbed/obj/testbed
	cd /usr/testbed/src/testbed
	tar ....

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Now, you'll need to create a 'defs file', which is used by the configure
script to describe your enviroment, such as the hostnames of your boss and ops
nodes, and email addresses that certain types of mail will be sent to.

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Use the 'defs-example' file in the root of our source distribution as a
template. It contains comments explaining the important variables to set.

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##### Step 3 - Configuring an object tree

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This works the same as it did on ops. Remember, you have to use the same
defs file on boss that you used on ops!


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	cd /usr/testbed/obj/testbed
	/usr/testbed/src/testbed/configure \

##### Step 4 - Running the boss installation script

Again, this works the same as it did on ops, except that you run
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boss-install in the object tree, instead of ops-install. Just run this
script as root (note the same package directory argument as above).

	cd install
	env PKG_PATH=/usr/tmp/FreeBSD-4.10-20041102 perl boss-install

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Like the ops-install script, boss-install sets up passwordless sudo for
anyone in the wheel group.

##### Step 5 - Installing from source.

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In your object directory, do a 'gmake && gmake boss-install'. Then, as root, do
a 'gmake post-install'. The post-install target needs to run as root, so that
it can make certain scripts setuid, etc.

##### Step 6 - Setting up root ssh from boss to ops

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This step is now done as part of boss-install/ops-install. To confirm
this, make sure this works:

	boss> sudo ssh ops ls /

If this *FAILS*, you will need to do this by hand, typing a password:

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	scp /root/.ssh/ ops:/root/.ssh/authorized_keys
##### Step 7 - Setting up named
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The testbed software manipulates DNS zone files for two reasons. First, it
adds your nodes to them so that you don't have to. Second, it creates CNAMEs
for all the nodes in every experiment. (so that you can use, for example,
'' to refer to your node regardless of which
physical node it got mapped to.)

The named_setup script does this by generating zone files - in general, it
concatenates a '.head' file, written by you, with it's own generated entries.
The main zone file is /etc/namedb/OURDOMAIN.db, where OURDOMAIN is from your
defs file. (OURDOMAIN, unless explicitly specified, is taken to be the domain
portion of BOSSNODE). We also generate reverse zone files (for inverse
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lookups, ie. turning IP addresses back into names) in
/etc/named/reverse/SUBNET.db, where SUBNET is the the class-C subnet in which
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the addresses reside (ie. 10.0.0.db). This value is defined in the defs
file created above, as TESTBED_NETWORK.

boss-install makes a reasonable attempt to create a set of named config
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files for your, placing them in /etc/namedb. If your testbed consists of
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a single class-C network, then these files will most likely be correct,
although you want to look at them to make sure. Look at these files to make


If you have more than one class-C subnet for your testbed, you'll need a
copy of the reverse zone file for each one. You want to put boss, ops, and
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any 'infrastructure' equipment (such as routers and switches) into the zone
files.  These zone files do not need to include the nodes - the nodes will
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be added to them automatically. Be sure to edit /etc/named/namedb.conf if
you add any reverse map files (follow the format for the existing entry).
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Once you think you've got things set up, run /usr/testbed/sbin/named_setup,
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and make sure that it doesn't give you any error messages. It will generate
the following files:
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##### If you are using unroutable private IP addresses for part of the

In order to handle this situation, we'll need to use a feature of bind called
`views` so that the private addresses are only exposed to clients within the
testbed. See the bind documentation for more details on this feature. Note
that you'll want to make sure that loopback queries from boss itself see the
internal view - you want boss to resolve its own hostname to its private
address, not its public one.

In order to use multiple views, we generate multiple zone files.  In addition
to OURDOMAIN.db, which will be used for the 'external' view, we create
OURDOMAIN.internal.db for use with the 'internal' view. So, you'll also need
to create OURDOMAIN.internal.db.head .  When we generate the zone files, only
publicly-routable addresses are put into OURDOMAIN.db .
OURDOMAIN.internal.db contains all addresses, both public and private.  So,
basically, you'll want to put the public addresses for boss, ops, etc.  into
OURDOMAIN.db.head, and their private addresses into
OURDOMAIN.internal.db.head . 

##### Step 8 - Other miscellaneous things to set up

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There are a few things we haven't been able to completely automate just yet,
though we hope to soon. 

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hosts file - You want to put boss/ops name/IP addresses in /etc/hosts on
both boss and ops to avoid boottime circular dependencies (cause of NFS
cross mounts). This is done for you in ops-install and boss-install, but
you might want to confirm it was done properly. If you change the IP
addresses of boss/ops later, you will want to be sure to update /etc/hosts
on both machines.

SSL certificates - Our apache config file expects to find SSL certificates
(where <sitename> is OURDOMAIN from the configure defs file, which defaults
to boss's domain name).

boss-install already generated a temporary no-passhrase certificate for you
and placed them in the locations specified above. However, we recommend
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that you get a "real" certificate from Verisign (or one of the others).
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DHCPD - boss-install generated a dhcpd.conf.template and installed it in
/usr/local/etc (the template is derived from information you provided in
defs file). It then generated an actual dhcpd.conf file and started up
dhcpd for you. Do not edit the dhcpd.conf file directly! If you need need to
make changes, change the template instead and then run:

	/usr/testbed/sbin/dhcpd_makeconf -i -r

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tftpboot - There are a few bootloaders, mini-kernels, and MFSes that are used
to boot, reload, etc. testbed machines, which live in /tftpboot . For the time
being, these are not distributed with our source, and require some site
customizations, so ask Utah for the boot loaders, etc.

disk images - You'll also, of course, need disk images to go on your nodes.
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Right now, we have no automatic way of generating these, so you'll have to ask
Utah for some.

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locate database - It can be useful to update the 'locate' database to help you
find files as you're learning the system. This normally happends nightly, but
you can force it to happen now by running 'locate.updatedb' as root. This will
take several minutes. You can then find foo.conf by running 'locate foo.conf'.

##### Step 9 - Reboot boss
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Okay, go ahead and reboot boss now, and make sure it comes up okay.

##### Step 10 - Filling the database
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See the file setup-db.txt in this directory for instructions on getting the
proper information about your site and nodes into the database.