Commit 1bcebcaa authored by Pramod R Sanaga's avatar Pramod R Sanaga

Added 2-3 new notes and some references.

parent 2f7f2979
......@@ -169,9 +169,67 @@ closer to reality - probably none of the 3 would be a slam-dunk. But, a
step forward until we figure out a way to get the multiplexing number.
8) Possible remedy to reverse path Ack problems observed in Emulab:
When we set the available bandwidth to paths ( either in a cloud or in a
shared-lan) in Emulab - we deviate in one significant way from what goes on
in the real world routers. Most of the routers have a high throughput ( even
the bottleneck router ) on Inet2 - typically 20 Mbps or more - but the
available bandwidth to a TCP flow might be less than 500 kbps ( on the Harvard
-> Princeton path for example ) - this happens due to a large degree of
multiplexing. However, the Acks and the packets are still processed at the
line rate of (say) 20 Mbps - so there isn't much of a delay variation even on
congested bottleneck links. The Harvard->Princeton path exhibits virtually
insignificant changes in the RTT of full sized (1400 bytes) PING packets sent
once every 50-100 milli seconds(+/- 2 msec variation over the base rtt of 10 msec).
More to the point, the Acks of a forward path TCP
connection do not experience large queuing delays on the reverse path.
With an Emulab reverse path setting of 500 Kbits/sec, we are artificially
introducing very large queuing delays(on the order of 300-400 msec). By the time the Acks of the forward
path get to the head of the queue on the reverse path, the reverse path
IPerf's packets have made the round trip back and congest the queue again.
This effectively increases the RTT of the forward path IPerf to 300-400 msec.
We know that TCP's throughput drops for large bandwidth delay product paths. I
did not observe any significant Ack packet loss for the forward path TCP
connection - so this seems to be the explanation for the throughput drop.
One way we could make this better is to set the delay agent bandwidth to the
capacity of the bottleneck path - but introduce a large number of flows so
that any new flow on the path effectively gets a throughput approx. equal to
our available bandwidth estimate. As and when we change the value of the
available bandwidth, the delay agent has to change the number of background
flows on that path - assuming that the bottleneck capacity remains the same.
I tested this with background UDP traffic and a large number of TCP flows(40)
in the background - the PING times are now stable like the ones seen on Inet2.
9) Estimating statistical multiplexing ?
We *might* be able to side-step the whole TCP RTT fairness debate.
a) Find out the capacity of the bottleneck link.
b) We already know the throughput of a single IPerf flow on that path(from
c) Setup the delay agent bandwidth to the bottleneck capacity and introduce
background TCP flows to make sure that a new TCP flow gets the available
bandwidth. The number of background flows may not be equal to the number of
flows in the real world ( there will not be any RTT variation, as well as no
mix of short/long-lived flows... ). But I hypothesize that the results will be
closer to the results seen on Inet2 paths.
10) How reliable are the shared congestion detection methods ?
In congested paths, the bottleneck link router's queue remains almost always
full - hence producing insignificant delay variations. The shared congestion
detection methods ( both rubenstein and wavelets ) depend on there being
delay variations. If there is no variation - we currently assume that there is
no shared bottleneck. While this is true for paths where the router queues are
on average empty, we will also observe no variance for paths which are
congested most of the time.
This seems to be a condition, which at least for now, we are not in a position
to properly detect as being a shared bottleneck.
......@@ -191,4 +249,49 @@ Volume 5, Issue 3, Jun 1997 Page(s):336 - 350
4) "Zhang, L., Shenker, S. and Clark, D.D., Observations on the dynamics of a congestion control algorithm: the effects of two-way traffic. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. v21. 133-147."
5) L. Kalampoukas, A. Varma, and K. K. Ramakrishnan.
Performance of Two-Way TCP Traffic over Asymmetric
Access Links. In Proc. Interop ’97 Engineers’ Conference,
May 1997.
6) T. V. Lakshman, U. Madhow, and B. Suter. Windowbased
Error Recovery and Flow Control with a Slow
Acknowledgement Channel: A study of TCP/IP Performance.
In Proc. Infocom 97, April 1997.
7) The effects of asymmetry on TCP performance.
Hari Balakrishnan, Venkata N. Padmanabhan and Randy H. Katz
Mobicom 1997
8) Provisioning for bursty Internet traffic: Implications for Industry and
Internet Infrastructure.
David Clark(MIT), William Lehr, Ian Liu
@ MIT ITC Workshop on Internet QoS, 1999
9) Update on buffer sizing in internet routers
Yashar Ganjali(Stanford University)
Nick McKeown(Stanford)
ACM CCR 2006
10) Issues and trends in router design
Keshav, S. Sharma, R.
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY;
Communications Magazine, IEEE
Publication Date: May 1998
11) Sizing router buffers
Guido Appenzeller Stanford University
Isaac Keslassy Stanford University
Nick McKeown Stanford University
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