mapper.in 21.5 KB
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#!/usr/bin/perl -w
#
# EMULAB-COPYRIGHT
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# Copyright (c) 2000-2010 University of Utah and the Flux Group.
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# All rights reserved.
#
use strict;
use English;
use Getopt::Std;
use POSIX qw(setsid ceil);
use POSIX ":sys_wait_h";

#
# This function as the main assign loop.  It converts the virtual
# topology into a top input including LAN and delay translation.  It
# then snapshots the current testbed physical state and runs assign,
# looping a couple times if assign fails.  When assign successfully
# completes it will interpret the results.  Attempt to match any
# existing portmap entries and then update the delays and vlans table.
#
# XXX Internally created nodes (jailhost,delay,sim) are not treated
#     consistently. Needs more thought.
#
# Return codes: We catch all errors with the END block below, and if
# anyone calls die() (exit value is 255) we add in the CANRECOVER bit.
# Failures in assign always cause the caller to stop retrying. 
#
# The CANRECOVER bit indicates 'recoverability' (no db or physical
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# state was modified by the time the error occurred). This is relevant
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# to only modify operations (update).
#
my $WRAPPER_SUCCESS		 = 0x00;
my $WRAPPER_FAILED		 = 0x01;	# Failed (Add other values)
my  $WRAPPER_FAILED_CANRECOVER   = 0x40;        # Can recover from update
my  $WRAPPER_FAILED_FATALLY      = 0x80;	# Do not use this.
# Set this once we modify DB state; forces no recover in fatal().
my $NoRecover = 0;

sub usage ()
{
    print STDERR "Usage: $0 [-v] [-u [-f] | -n] pid eid\n";
    print STDERR " -v   - Enables verbose output\n";
    print STDERR " -u   - Enables update mode\n";
    print STDERR " -f   - Fix current resources during update mode\n";
    print STDERR " -n   - Run assign, but do not reserve/modify resources.\n";
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    print STDERR " -r   - Regression mode.\n";
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    print STDERR " -x   - Turn on the prepass\n";
    print STDERR " -m   - Set the multiplex factor; overrides experiment.\n";
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    print STDERR " -p   - Do a precheck for mapability on an empty testbed - ".
		 "implies -n\n";
    exit($WRAPPER_FAILED);
}
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my $optlist    = "dvunfprqczxm:ko:a";
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my $verbose    = 0;
my $debug      = 0;
my $fixmode    = 0;
my $updating   = 0;
my $impotent   = 0;
my $precheck   = 0;
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my $prepass    = 0;
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my $alloconly  = 0;
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my $outfile;
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my $mfactor;
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my $regression = 0;
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my $noassign   = 0;  # Only with regression mode, use previous solution.
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my $noregfree  = 0;  # Only with regression mode, leave physical state at end.
my $usecurrent = 0;  # Only with regression mode, use current solution.
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my $quiet      = 0;
my $clear      = 0;
my $warnings   = 0;
my $maxrun     = 3;		# Maximum number of times we run assign.
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my $gotlock    = 0;
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my $vtop;
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#
# Configure variables
#
my $TB		= "@prefix@";
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my $DBNAME	= "@TBDBNAME@";
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my $TBOPS       = "@TBOPSEMAIL@";
my $ASSIGN      = "$TB/libexec/assign";
my $WRAPPER2    = "$TB/libexec/assign_wrapper2";
my $PTOPGEN     = "$TB/libexec/ptopgen";
my $VTOPGEN     = "$TB/bin/vtopgen";
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my $NFREE       = "$TB/bin/nfree";
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#
# Load the Testbed support stuff. 
#
use lib "@prefix@/lib";
use libdb;
use libtestbed;
use libtblog;
use libvtop;
use libadminctrl;
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use User;
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# Protos
sub fatal(@);
sub debug($);
sub chat($);
sub RunAssign($$);
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sub FinalizeRegression($);
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sub AssignLoop();
sub MapperWrapper();
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sub PrintSolution();
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# un-taint path
$ENV{'PATH'} = '/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin';
delete @ENV{'IFS', 'CDPATH', 'ENV', 'BASH_ENV'};

# Turn off line buffering on output
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$| = 1;

#
# We want warnings to cause assign_wrapper to exit abnormally.
# 
# FIXME: Is this still needed.  "warn" is only used once.  Also this
#  will cause perl internal warnings (such as "Use of uninitialized
#  value ..."  to cause assign_wrapper to fail. -- kevina
#
$SIG{__WARN__} = sub { tbwarn $_[0];$warnings++; };
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#
# Parse command arguments. Once we return from getopts, all that should be
# left are the required arguments.
#
my %options = ();
if (! getopts($optlist, \%options)) {
    usage();
}
if (@ARGV < 2) {
    usage();
}
if (defined($options{"v"})) {
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    TBDebugTimeStampsOn();
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    $verbose++;
}
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if (defined($options{"a"})) {
    $alloconly++;
}
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if (defined($options{"d"})) {
    $debug++;
}
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if (defined($options{"u"})) {
    $updating = 1;
}
if (defined($options{"n"})) {
    $impotent = 1;
}
if (defined($options{"f"})) {
    $fixmode = 1;
}
if (defined($options{"p"})) {
    $precheck = 1;
}
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if (defined($options{"x"})) {
    $prepass = 1;
}
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if (defined($options{"o"})) {
    $outfile = $options{"o"};
}
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if (defined($options{"m"})) {
    $mfactor = $options{"m"};
}
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if (defined($options{"r"})) {
    if ($DBNAME eq "tbdb") {
	fatal("Cannot use regression mode on main DB");
    }
    $regression = 1;
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    $clear      = 1;
    $fixmode    = 1;
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    TBDebugTimeStampsOn();
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    $usecurrent = 1
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	if (defined($options{"z"}));
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    $noregfree = 1
	if (defined($options{"k"}));
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}
if (defined($options{"q"})) {
    $quiet = 1;
}
if (defined($options{"c"})) {
    $clear = 1;
}
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my $pid = $ARGV[0];
my $eid = $ARGV[1];
my $experiment = Experiment->Lookup($pid, $eid);
if (!defined($experiment)) {
    fatal("Could not lookup experiment object $pid,$eid!")
}
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#
# Verify that this person can muck with the experiment.
#
my $this_user = User->ThisUser();
if (! defined($this_user)) {
    tbdie("You ($UID) do not exist!");
}
if (!TBAdmin() &&
    ! $experiment->AccessCheck($this_user, TB_EXPT_DESTROY)) {
    fatal("You do not have permission to map this experiment!");
}
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# multiplex_factor default.
$mfactor = $experiment->multiplex_factor()
    if (!defined($mfactor) && defined($experiment->multiplex_factor()));
    
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#
# These are the flags to the vtop creation code. 
#
my $vtopflags = 0;
$vtopflags |= $libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_VERBOSE
    if ($verbose);
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$vtopflags |= $libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_QUIET
    if ($quiet);
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$vtopflags |= $libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_UPDATE
    if ($updating);
$vtopflags |= $libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_FIXNODES
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    if ($fixmode || $usecurrent);
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$vtopflags |= $libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_IMPOTENT
    if ($impotent);
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$vtopflags |= $libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_ALLOCONLY
    if ($alloconly);
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$vtopflags |= $libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_REGRESSION
    if ($regression);
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MapperWrapper();
if ($regression) {
    if (0) {
	$updating   = 1;
	$fixmode    = 1;
	$clear      = 0;
	$vtopflags |=
	    ($libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_UPDATE|$libvtop::VTOP_FLAGS_FIXNODES);
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	MapperWrapper();
    }
    FinalizeRegression(0);
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}
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PrintSolution()
    if ($outfile);
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exit(0);
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sub MapperWrapper()
{
    chat("Starting the new and improved mapper wrapper.\n");

    TBDebugTimeStamp("Create libvtop started");
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    $vtop = libvtop->Create($experiment, $this_user, $vtopflags);
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    if (!defined($vtop)) {
	fatal("Could not create vtop structure for $experiment");
    }
    TBDebugTimeStamp("Create libvtop ended");

    if (!$impotent && ($updating || $clear)) {
	if ($clear) {
	    chat("Freeing reserved nodes ...\n");
	    system("export NORELOAD=1; $NFREE -x -a $pid $eid") == 0
		or fatal("Could not release nodes.");
	}
	chat("Clearing physical state before updating.\n");
	$experiment->RemovePhysicalState();
	exit(0)
	    if ($clear && !$regression);
    }
    TBDebugTimeStamp("vtopgen started");
    $vtop->CreateVtop() == 0
	or fatal("Could not create vtop for $experiment");
    TBDebugTimeStamp("vtopgen finished");
    AssignLoop();
    return 0;
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}
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#
# The assign loop. 
#
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sub AssignLoop()
{
    my $currentrun     = 1;
    my $canceled       = 0;
    my $tried_precheck = 0;
    # Admission control counts
    my %admission_control = ();
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    # XXX plab hack - only run assign once on plab topologies, since
    # they're easy to map and the physical topology does not change
    # frequently.
    if ($vtop->plabcount() && $vtop->plabcount == $vtop->virtnodecount()) {
	$maxrun = 2;
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    }

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    TBDebugTimeStamp("mapper loop started");
    while (1) {
	chat("Assign run $currentrun\n");
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	my $prefix = ($debug || $regression ? "$pid-$eid" : "$pid-$eid-$$");
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	#
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	# When precheck is on, we only do one run in impotent mode and exit.
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	#
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	if ($precheck) {
	    $prefix  .= ".empty";
	    $impotent = 1;
	    chat("Trying assign on an empty testbed.\n");
	}
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	#
	# Serialize with the pool daemon if using shared nodes.
	#
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	if ((!($impotent || $regression)) && $vtop->sharednodecount()) {
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	    while (1) {
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		#
		# Use a countup/countdown counter, so that multiple mappers
		# can run, but not while the pool_daemon is running.
		#
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		my $lock_result =
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		    DBQueryFatal("update emulab_locks set value=value+1 ".
				 "where name='pool_daemon' and value>=0");

		$gotlock = $lock_result->affectedrows;
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		last
		    if ($gotlock);
		
		chat("Waiting for pool daemon lock ...\n");
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		sleep(10);
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	    }
	}

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	#
	# RunAssign returns  0 if successful.
	#           returns -1 if failure, but assign says to stop trying.
	#           returns  1 if failure, but assign says to try again.
	#           returns  2 if we made some forward progress.
	#
	my $retval = RunAssign($precheck, $prefix);

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	if ($gotlock) {
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	    DBQueryFatal("update emulab_locks set value=value-1 ".
			 "where name='pool_daemon'");
	    $gotlock = 0;
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	}

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	# Success!
	last
	    if ($retval == 0);

	if ($retval < 0 || $regression) {
	    #
	    # Failure in assign.
	    #
	    FinalizeRegression(1)
		if ($regression);

	    fatal({type => 'primary', severity => SEV_ERROR,
		   error => ['unretriable_assign_error']},
		  "Unretriable error. Giving up.");
	}
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	#
	# When precheck is off, we do a precheck run if the first try fails
	# to find a solution. This avoids looping on an unsolvable topology.
	#
	if (!$precheck && !$tried_precheck) {
	    chat("Trying assign on an empty testbed to verify mapability.\n");
	    my $save_impotent = $impotent;
	    $impotent  = 1;
	    my $retval = RunAssign(1, $prefix . ".empty");
	    if ($retval != 0) {
		fatal({type=>'extra', cause=>'user', severity=>SEV_ERROR,
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	           error=>['infeasible_resource_assignment']}, 
		  "This experiment cannot be instantiated on this ".
                  "testbed. You have most likely asked for hardware ".
                  "this testbed does not have, such as nodes of a type ".
                  "it does not contain, or nodes with too many network ".
                  "interfaces.  You will need to modify this experiment ".
                  "before it can be swapped in - re-submitting the ".
                  "experiment as-is will always result in failure.");
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	    }
	    chat("Assign succeeded on an empty testbed.\n");
	    $impotent = $save_impotent;
	    $tried_precheck = 1;
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	}

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	if ($currentrun >= $maxrun && $retval != 2) {
	    fatal({type => 'primary', severity => SEV_ERROR,
		   error => ['reached_assign_run_limit']},
		  "Reached run limit. Giving up.");
	}
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	chat("Waiting 5 seconds and trying again...\n");
	sleep(5);
	$currentrun++;
    }
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    GatherAssignStats($pid, $eid, %{ $vtop->exptstats() })
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	if (! ($impotent || $alloconly));
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    TBDebugTimeStamp("mapper loop finished");
    return 0;
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}

#
# The guts of an assign run.
#
sub RunAssign($$)
{
    my ($precheck, $prefix) = @_;

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    my $typelimitfile = $prefix .".limits";
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    my $ptopfile = $prefix . ".ptop";
    my $vtopfile = $prefix . ".vtop";
    my $assignexitcode = 0;

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    # Debugging hack for regression mode. Avoid really long assign runs.
    if ($regression && $noassign) {
	if (! -e "assign.log") {
	    chat("No existing assign results file!\n");
	    return -1;
	}
	chat("Using existing assign results file\n");
	goto skiprun;
    }
    
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    #
    # Do admission control test, and gather the info.
    #
    my %admission_control;
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    if (!$regression) {
	if (!TBAdmissionControlCheck(undef, $experiment, \%admission_control)){
	    tberror("Failed admission control checks!\n");
	    return -1;
	}
    }
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    #
    # Append this admission control results to ptopgen.
    #
    if (scalar(keys(%admission_control))) {
	open(TYPELIMIT, ">$typelimitfile") or
	    return -1;

	foreach my $typeclass (keys(%admission_control)) {
	    my $count = $admission_control{$typeclass};

	    print TYPELIMIT "$typeclass $count\n";
	}
	close(TYPELIMIT);
    }


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    #
    # Snapshot physical resources.
    #
    # if updating (-u), include any resources that may already be
    # allocated to experiment in the PTOP results.
    #
    my $ptopargs = "-p $pid ";
    $ptopargs   .= "-e $eid "
	if ($updating);
    $ptopargs   .= "-u "
	if ($updating && $experiment->elabinelab());
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    $ptopargs   .= "-m $mfactor "
	if (defined($mfactor));
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    $ptopargs   .= "-v "
	if ($vtop->virtnodecount());
    $ptopargs   .= "-r "
	if ($vtop->remotenodecount());
    $ptopargs   .= "-S "
	if ($vtop->simnodecount());
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    $ptopargs   .= "-h "
	if ($vtop->sharednodecount());
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    $ptopargs	.= "-a "
    	if ($precheck);
    $ptopargs	.= "-c " . $experiment->delay_capacity() . " "
    	if (defined($experiment->delay_capacity()));
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    $ptopargs .= "-x -g 2 ";
    $ptopargs .= "-l $typelimitfile";
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    chat("ptopargs: '$ptopargs'\n");
    TBDebugTimeStamp("ptopgen started");
    system("$PTOPGEN $ptopargs > $ptopfile");
    if ($?) {
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	tberror("Failure in ptopgen\n");
	return -1;
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    }
    TBDebugTimeStamp("ptopgen finished");

    #
    # Now generate a vtop file and dump it to a file.
    #
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    if (! open(VTOPFILE, "> $vtopfile")) {
	tberror("Could not open $vtopfile: $!\n");
	return -1;
    }
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#    if ($vtop->PrintTop(*VTOPFILE) != 0) {
    if ($vtop->PrintRspec(*VTOPFILE) != 0) {
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	tberror("Could not print vtop file for $experiment\n");
	return -1;
    }
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    close(VTOPFILE);

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    if (! ($impotent || $regression || $alloconly)) {
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	if ($experiment->Update({"maximum_nodes" => $vtop->maximum_nodes(),
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				 "minimum_nodes" => $vtop->minimum_nodes(),
				 "virtnode_count"=> $vtop->virtnodecount() })){
	    tberror("Could not update min/max/virt nodes for $experiment\n");
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	    return -1;
	}
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    }

    # Run assign
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    my $cmd  = "assign";
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    my $args = "-f rspec $ptopfile $vtopfile";
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    $args = "-P $args"
	if (!$vtop->sharednodecount());
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    $args = "-uod -c .75 $args"
	if ($vtop->virtnodecount() || $vtop->simnodecount());
    $args = "-n $args"
    	if ($precheck);
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    $args = "-s 123456 $args"
	if ($regression);
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    $args .= " PN=1.0"
	if ($vtop->sharednodecount());
    
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    # The prepass speeds up assign on big topos with virtual nodes.
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    if ($prepass) {
    	$cmd = "assign_prepass";
    	$args = "-m $mfactor $args"
    	    if (defined($mfactor));
    }
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    chat("assign command: '$cmd $args'\n");

    #
    # Fork a child to run assign. Parent spins watching the cancel flag
    # and waiting for assign to finish.
    #
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    TBDebugTimeStamp("assign started");
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    if (my $childpid = fork()) {
	while (1) {
	    sleep(2);

	    if (waitpid($childpid, &WNOHANG) == $childpid) {
		$assignexitcode = $? >> 8;
		last;
	    }

	    # Check cancel flag.
	    if ($experiment->canceled()) {
		if ((my $pgrp = getpgrp($childpid)) > 0) {
		    kill('TERM', -$pgrp);
		    waitpid($childpid, 0);

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		    tberror({cause => 'canceled', severity => SEV_IMMEDIATE,
			     error => ['cancel_flag']},
			    "Cancel flag set; aborting assign run!\n");
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		    return -1;
		}
		# Loop again to reap child above before exit.
	    }
	}
    }
    else {
	#
	# Change our session so the child can get a killpg without killing
	# the parent. 
	#
        POSIX::setsid();
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	exec("nice $WRAPPER2 $cmd $args > assign.log 2>&1");
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	die("Could not start assign!\n");
    }
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    TBDebugTimeStamp("assign finished");
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    # Check cancel flag before continuing. 
    if ($experiment->canceled()) {
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	tberror({cause => 'canceled', severity => SEV_IMMEDIATE,
		 error => ['cancel_flag']},
		"Cancel flag set; aborting assign run!\n");
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	return -1;
    }

    # Check for possible full filesystem ...
    if (-z "assign.log") {
	tbnotice("assign.log is zero length! Stopping ...\n");
	return -1;
    }

    #
    # Saving up assign.log coz each swapin/modify is different and it
    # is nice to have every mapping for debugging and archiving
    # purposes We do not call it .log though, since we do not want it
    # copied out to the user directory every swapin. See Experiment.pm
    #
    system("/bin/cp assign.log ${prefix}.assign");

    #
    # We no longer care what assign has to say when it fails.
    # Any relevent info was already sent to stderr so just 
    # tell the caller whether we want to keep trying or not.
    #
    if ($assignexitcode) {
	return (($assignexitcode == 1) ? 1 : -1);
    }
    #
    # If we were doing the precheck, go ahead and exit now - there is no
    # useful information to parse out
    #
    if ($precheck) {
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	chat("Precheck succeeded.\n");
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	return 0;
    }
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  skiprun:
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    chat("Reading assign results.\n");
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    if (!open(ASSIGNFP, "assign.log")) {
	print("Could not open assign logfile! $!\n");
	return -1;
    }
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    # New solution each time.
    $vtop->ClearSolution();

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    TBDebugTimeStamp("ReadSolution started");
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    if ($vtop->ReadTextSolution(*ASSIGNFP) != 0) {
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	print("Could not parse assign logfile! $!\n");
	return -1;
    }
    close(ASSIGNFP);
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    TBDebugTimeStamp("ReadSolution ended");
    
    if (defined($vtop->rspec())) {
	TBDebugTimeStamp("Map Geni Resources Started");
	if ($vtop->MapResources() != 0) {
	    print("Could not map external resources! $!\n");
	    return -1;
	}
	TBDebugTimeStamp("Map Geni Resources ended");
    }
    TBDebugTimeStamp("InterpNodes Started");
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    if ($vtop->InterpNodes() != 0) {
	print("Could not interpret nodes.\n");
	return -1;
    }
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    TBDebugTimeStamp("InterpNodes ended, AllocNodes Started");
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    # Check cancel flag before continuing. 
    if ($experiment->canceled()) {
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	tberror({cause => 'canceled', severity => SEV_IMMEDIATE,
		 error => ['cancel_flag']},
		"Cancel flag set; aborting assign run!\n");
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	return -1;
    }
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    my $retval = $vtop->AllocNodes();
    if ($retval != 0) {
	if ($retval < 1) {
	    print("Could not allocate any nodes.\n");
	    return -1;
	}
	return 1;
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    }
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    TBDebugTimeStamp("AllocNodes ended, InterpLinks Started");
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    if ($vtop->InterpLinks() != 0) {
	print("Could not setup links\n");
	return -1;
    }
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    TBDebugTimeStamp("InterpLinks ended, InitializePhysNodes Started");
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    if ($vtop->InitializePhysNodes() != 0) {
	print("Could not InitializePhysNodes\n");
	return -1;
    }
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    TBDebugTimeStamp("InitializePhysNodes ended");
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    if (! ($impotent || $regression || $alloconly)) {
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	TBDebugTimeStamp("ReserveSharedBandwidth started");
	if ($experiment->ReserveSharedBandwidth($updating) != 0) {
	    print("Could not reserve shared bandwidth\n");
	    return -1;
	}
	TBDebugTimeStamp("ReserveSharedBandwidth ended");
    }
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    return 0;
}

#
# In regression mode we want to save  the physical state and then clear
# the physical resources. 
#
sub FinalizeRegression($)
{
    my ($error) = @_;
    my $cwd;

    chomp($cwd = `/bin/pwd`);
    if (!$error) {
	chat("Saving physical state in regression mode\n");
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	if (system("/bin/rm -rf $pid-$eid.pstate")) {
	    tberror("Could not clean physical state directory\n");
	    return -1;
	}
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	if ($experiment->BackupPhysicalState("$cwd/$pid-$eid.pstate", 1)
	    != 0) {
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	    print STDERR "Could not save physical state!\n";
	    exit(1);
	}
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	# Generate a vtop file with all resources fixed.
	chat("Generating new vtop file with all resources fixed.\n");
	if (! open(VTOPFILE, "> $pid-$eid.fixed")) {
	    tberror("Could not open $pid-$eid.fixed: $!\n");
	    return -1;
	}
	if ($vtop->PrintTop(*VTOPFILE) != 0) {
	    tberror("Could not print fixed vtop file for $experiment\n");
	    return -1;
	}
	close(VTOPFILE);
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    }
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    return 0
	if ($noregfree);
    
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    chat("Removing physical state in regression mode\n");
    if ($experiment->RemovePhysicalState() != 0) {
	print STDERR "Could not remove physical state!\n";
	exit(1);
    }

    if ($vtop->newreservednodes()) {
	my @newreservednodes = $vtop->newreservednodes();
	system("export NORELOAD=1; $NFREE -x $pid $eid @newreservednodes");
	if ($?) {
	    exit(1);
	}
    }
    return 0;
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}
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#
# Print a solution in rspec format.
#
sub PrintSolution()
{
    my $output = undef;
    
    if ($outfile ne "-") {
	if (! open(OUTFILE, "> $outfile")) {
	    tberror("Could not open $outfile: $!\n");
	    return -1;
	}
	$output = *OUTFILE;
    }
    if ($vtop->PrintSolution($output) != 0) {
	tberror("Could not print solution for $experiment\n");
	return -1;
    }
    close($output)
	if (defined($output));
    return 0;
}

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# We will come through here no matter how we exit.
END {
    # Watch for getting here cause of a die()/exit() statement someplace.
    my $exitcode = $?;
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    #
    # Do not want to leave this around, it will lock the pool daemon out.
    #
    if ($gotlock) {
	DBQueryFatal("update emulab_locks set value=value-1 ".
		     "where name='pool_daemon'");
	$gotlock = 0;
    }

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    if ($exitcode && $exitcode != $WRAPPER_FAILED) {
	$exitcode = $WRAPPER_FAILED|$WRAPPER_FAILED_FATALLY;
    }
    
    if ($warnings > 0) {
	tberror("$warnings warnings.\n");

	$exitcode |= $WRAPPER_FAILED;
    }

    # Set recover bit if we are going to fail.
    $exitcode = $exitcode|$WRAPPER_FAILED_CANRECOVER
	if ($exitcode && !$NoRecover);

    # And change the exitcode to be what we want it to be.
    $? = $exitcode;
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}

sub fatal(@)
{
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    #
    # Free any newly reserved nodes (in update mode) so that tbswap knows
    # it is safe to recover the experiment. If we bypass this and leave
    # through the END block then NoRecover will still be set and tbswap
    # will know to swap the experiment out. 
    #
    if ($updating) {
	if (defined($vtop)) {
	    my @newreservednodes = $vtop->newreservednodes();
	    my $NoRecover = $vtop->norecover();
	
	    if (@newreservednodes) {
		$NoRecover = 0
Leigh B. Stoller's avatar
Leigh B. Stoller committed
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		    if (system("$NFREE -x $pid $eid @newreservednodes") == 0);
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	    }
	    else {
		# When not updating this is meaningless to tbswap.
		$NoRecover = 0;
	    }
	}
    }
    
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    tberror(@_);

    # We next go to the END block above.
    exit($WRAPPER_FAILED);
}
sub debug($)
{
    if ($verbose) {
	print $_[0];
    }
}
sub chat($)
{
    if (! $quiet) {
	print $_[0];
    }
}