newimageid_ez.in 21.7 KB
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#!/usr/bin/perl -wT
#
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# Copyright (c) 2000-2014 University of Utah and the Flux Group.
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# 
# {{{EMULAB-LICENSE
# 
# This file is part of the Emulab network testbed software.
# 
# This file is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it
# under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
# your option) any later version.
# 
# This file is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Affero General Public
# License for more details.
# 
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
# along with this file.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
# 
# }}}
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#
use English;
use strict;
use Getopt::Std;
use XML::Simple;
use Data::Dumper;
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use URI::Escape;
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#
# Back-end script to create new Image descriptors (EZ Form.)
#
sub usage()
{
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    print("Usage: newimageid [-v] [-a] [-s] <xmlfile>\n");
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    exit(-1);
}
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my $optlist = "dvfas";
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my $debug   = 0;
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my $force   = 0;
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my $verify  = 0;	# Check data and return status only.
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my $allpc   = 0;        # insert mappings for all pc types.
my $skipadmin = 0;      # Skip SLOT_ADMINONLY checks.
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#
# Configure variables
#
my $TB		= "@prefix@";
my $TBOPS       = "@TBOPSEMAIL@";
my $TBAUDIT	= "@TBAUDITEMAIL@";
my $TBGROUP_DIR	= "@GROUPSROOT_DIR@";
my $TBPROJ_DIR	= "@PROJROOT_DIR@";

#
# Untaint the path
#
$ENV{'PATH'} = "$TB/bin:$TB/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin";
delete @ENV{'IFS', 'CDPATH', 'ENV', 'BASH_ENV'};

#
# Turn off line buffering on output
#
$| = 1;

#
# Load the Testbed support stuff.
#
use lib "@prefix@/lib";
use libdb;
use libtestbed;
use User;
use Project;
use Image;
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use OSinfo;
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use Node;
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# Protos
sub fatal($);
sub UserError(;$);
sub escapeshellarg($);

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# Set this is we need to instert an os_submap entry.
my $parentos;

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#
# Parse command arguments. Once we return from getopts, all that should be
# left are the required arguments.
#
my %options = ();
if (! getopts($optlist, \%options)) {
    usage();
}
if (defined($options{"d"})) {
    $debug = 1;
}
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if (defined($options{"f"})) {
    $force = 1;
}
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if (defined($options{"v"})) {
    $verify = 1;
}
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if (defined($options{"s"})) {
    $skipadmin = 1;
}
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if (defined($options{"a"})) {
    $allpc = 1;
}
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if (@ARGV != 1) {
    usage();
}
my $xmlfile  = shift(@ARGV);

#
# Map invoking user to object. 
# If invoked as "nobody" we are coming from the web interface and the
# current user context is "implied" (see tbauth.php3).
#
my $this_user;

if (getpwuid($UID) ne "nobody") {
    $this_user = User->ThisUser();

    if (! defined($this_user)) {
	fatal("You ($UID) do not exist!");
    }
    # You don't need admin privileges to create new Image descriptors.
}
else {
    #
    # Check the filename when invoked from the web interface; must be a
    # file in /tmp.
    #
    if ($xmlfile =~ /^([-\w\.\/]+)$/) {
	$xmlfile = $1;
    }
    else {
	fatal("Bad data in pathname: $xmlfile");
    }

    # Use realpath to resolve any symlinks.
    my $translated = `realpath $xmlfile`;
    if ($translated =~ /^(\/tmp\/[-\w\.\/]+)$/) {
	$xmlfile = $1;
    }
    else {
	fatal("Bad data in translated pathname: $xmlfile");
    }

    # The web interface (and in the future the xmlrpc interface) sets this.
    $this_user = User->ImpliedUser();

    if (! defined($this_user)) {
	fatal("Cannot determine implied user!");
    }
}

#
# These are the fields that we allow to come in from the XMLfile.
#
my $SLOT_OPTIONAL	= 0x1;	# The field is not required.
my $SLOT_REQUIRED	= 0x2;  # The field is required and must be non-null.
my $SLOT_ADMINONLY	= 0x4;  # Only admins can set this field.
#
# XXX We should encode all of this in the DB so that we can generate the
# forms on the fly, as well as this checking code.
#
my %xmlfields =
    # XML Field Name        DB slot name         Flags             Default
    ("imagename"	=> ["imagename",	$SLOT_REQUIRED],
     "nodetype"		=> ["nodetype",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL],
     "nodeclass"	=> ["nodeclass",	$SLOT_OPTIONAL],
     "pid"		=> ["pid",		$SLOT_REQUIRED],
     "gid"		=> ["gid",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL],
     "description"	=> ["description",	$SLOT_REQUIRED],
     "loadpart"		=> ["loadpart",		$SLOT_REQUIRED],
     "OS"		=> ["OS",		$SLOT_REQUIRED],
     "version"		=> ["version",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL,	   ""],
     "path"		=> ["path",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL,    ""],
     "node_id"		=> ["node_id",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL,    ""],
     "osfeatures",	=> ["osfeatures",	$SLOT_OPTIONAL,	   ""],
     "op_mode",		=> ["op_mode",		$SLOT_REQUIRED],
     "mtype_*"		=> ["mtype",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL],
     "wholedisk",	=> ["wholedisk",	$SLOT_OPTIONAL,    0],
     "max_concurrent",	=> ["max_concurrent",	$SLOT_OPTIONAL,    0],
     "shared",		=> ["shared",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL,    0],
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     "global",		=> ["global",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL,    0],
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     "noexport",	=> ["noexport",		$SLOT_OPTIONAL,    0],
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     "mbr_version",	=> ["mbr_version",	$SLOT_OPTIONAL],
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     "metadata_url",	=> ["metadata_url",	$SLOT_ADMINONLY],
     "imagefile_url",	=> ["imagefile_url",	$SLOT_ADMINONLY],
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     "reboot_waittime",	=> ["reboot_waittime",	$SLOT_OPTIONAL],
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     "hash",		=> ["hash",		$SLOT_ADMINONLY],
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     "nextosid",	=> ["nextosid",		$SLOT_ADMINONLY],
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     "def_parentosid",	=> ["def_parentosid",	$SLOT_OPTIONAL],
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);

#
# Must wrap the parser in eval since it exits on error.
#
my $xmlparse = eval { XMLin($xmlfile,
			    VarAttr => 'name',
			    ContentKey => '-content',
			    SuppressEmpty => undef); };
fatal($@)
    if ($@);

#
# Process and dump the errors (formatted for the web interface).
# We should probably XML format the errors instead but not sure I want
# to go there yet.
#
my %errors = ();

#
# Make sure all the required arguments were provided.
#
my $key;
foreach $key (keys(%xmlfields)) {
    my (undef, $required, undef) = @{$xmlfields{$key}};

    $errors{$key} = "Required value not provided"
	if ($required & $SLOT_REQUIRED  &&
	    ! exists($xmlparse->{'attribute'}->{"$key"}));
}
UserError()
    if (keys(%errors));

#
# We build up an array of arguments to pass to Image->Create() as we check
# the attributes.
#
my %newimageid_args = ();

#
# Wildcard keys have one or more *'s in them like simple glob patterns.
# This allows multiple key instances for categories of attributes, and
# putting a "type signature" in the key for arg checking, as well.
#
# Wildcards are made into regex's by anchoring the ends and changing each * to
# a "word" (group of alphahumeric.)  A tail * means "the rest", allowing
# multiple words separated by underscores or dashes.
#
my $wordpat = '[a-zA-Z0-9]+';
my $tailpat = '[-\w]+';
my %wildcards;
foreach $key (keys(%xmlfields)) {
    if (index($key, "*") >= 0) {
	my $regex = '^' . $key . '$';
	$regex =~ s/\*\$$/$tailpat/;
	$regex =~ s/\*/$wordpat/g;
	$wildcards{$key} = $regex;
    }
}
# Key ordering is lost in a hash.
# Put longer matching wildcard keys before their prefix.
my @wildkeys = reverse(sort(keys(%wildcards)));

foreach $key (keys(%{ $xmlparse->{'attribute'} })) {
    my $value = $xmlparse->{'attribute'}->{"$key"}->{'value'};
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    if (!defined($value)) {	# Empty string comes from XML as an undef value.
	$xmlparse->{'attribute'}->{"$key"}->{'value'} = $value = "";
    }
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    print STDERR "User attribute: '$key' -> '$value'\n"
	if ($debug);

    my $field = $key;
    my $wild;
    if (!exists($xmlfields{$key})) {

	# Not a regular key; look for a wildcard regex match.
        foreach my $wildkey (@wildkeys) {
	    my $regex = $wildcards{$wildkey};
	    if ($wild = $key =~ /$regex/) {
		$field = $wildkey;
		print STDERR "Wildcard: '$key' matches '$wildkey'\n"
		    if ($debug);
		last; # foreach $wildkey
	    }
	}
	if (!$wild) {
	    $errors{$key} = "Unknown attribute";
	    next; # foreach $key
	}
    }

    my ($dbslot, $required, $default) = @{$xmlfields{$field}};

    if ($required & $SLOT_REQUIRED) {
	# A slot that must be provided, so do not allow a null value.
	if (!defined($value)) {
	    $errors{$key} = "Must provide a non-null value";
	    next;
	}
    }
    if ($required & $SLOT_OPTIONAL) {
	# Optional slot. If value is null skip it. Might not be the correct
	# thing to do all the time?
	if (!defined($value)) {
	    next
		if (!defined($default));
	    $value = $default;
	}
    }
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    if ($required & $SLOT_ADMINONLY && !$skipadmin) {
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	# Admin implies optional, but thats probably not correct approach.
	$errors{$key} = "Administrators only"
	    if (! $this_user->IsAdmin());
    }
	
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    #
    # Special case nextosid so it can be in pid,osname format. 
    #
    if (($dbslot eq "nextosid" || $dbslot eq "def_parentosid") &&
	$value =~ /^.+,.+$/) {
	my ($pid,$osname) = ($value =~ /^(.*),(.*)$/);
	
	# Now check that the value is legal.
	if (! TBcheck_dbslot($pid, "projects",
			     "pid", TBDB_CHECKDBSLOT_ERROR)) {
	    $errors{$key} = TBFieldErrorString();
	    next;
	}
	if (! TBcheck_dbslot($osname, "os_info",
			     "osname", TBDB_CHECKDBSLOT_ERROR)) {
	    $errors{$key} = TBFieldErrorString();
	    next;
	}
    }
    else {
	# Now check that the value is legal.
	if (! TBcheck_dbslot($value, "images",
			     $dbslot, TBDB_CHECKDBSLOT_ERROR)) {
	    $errors{$key} = TBFieldErrorString();
	    next;
	}
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    }
    $newimageid_args{$key} = $value;
}
UserError()
    if (keys(%errors));

#
# Options for using this page with different types of nodes.
# nodetype controls the view and trumps nodeclass.
# nodeclass determines what node types are visible from the DB.
#
my $nodeclass;
if (exists($newimageid_args{"nodetype"}) && 
    $newimageid_args{"nodetype"} == "mote") {
    $nodeclass = "mote";
} else {
    # Defaults to PC view.
    if (!exists($newimageid_args{nodeclass})) {
	$nodeclass = "pc";
    } else {
	$nodeclass = escapeshellarg($nodeclass);
    }
}

#
# Need a list of node types. We join this over the nodes table so that
# we get a list of just the nodes that are currently in the testbed, not
# just in the node_types table.  Limit by class if given.
#
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my $types_querystring;
if ($allpc) {
    $types_querystring = "select nt.type,nt.class from node_types as nt ".
	"left join node_type_attributes as a on a.type=nt.type ".
	"where a.attrkey='imageable' and a.attrvalue!='0'";
}
else {
    $types_querystring = "select distinct n.type,nt.class from nodes as n ".
	"left join node_types as nt on n.type=nt.type ".
	"left join node_type_attributes as a on a.type=n.type ".
	"where a.attrkey='imageable' and ".
	"      a.attrvalue!='0' and n.role='testnode'";
}
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if ($nodeclass) {
    $types_querystring .= " and nt.class='$nodeclass' ";
}
my $types_result = DBQueryFatal($types_querystring);

# Save the valid types in a new array for later.
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my %mtypes_array;
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if ($types_result->numrows) {
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    while (my ($type,$class) = $types_result->fetchrow_array()) {
	$mtypes_array{$type} = $class;
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	$xmlfields{"mtype_$type"} = ["mtype", $SLOT_OPTIONAL];
    }
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}
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else {
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    $mtypes_array{"pc"} = "pc";
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    $xmlfields{"mtype_pc"} = ["mtype", $SLOT_OPTIONAL];
}

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#
# Now do special checks.
#

my $isadmin = $this_user->IsAdmin();
my $imagename = $newimageid_args{"imagename"};
my $OS = $newimageid_args{"OS"};

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# In this form, we make the images:imagename and the os_info:osname the
# same.
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if ( length($imagename) > TB_OSID_OSNAMELEN()) {
    UserError("Descriptor Name: Too long! ".
    "Must be less than or equal to " . TB_OSID_OSNAMELEN());
}

my $project = Project->Lookup($newimageid_args{"pid"});
if (!defined($project)) {
    UserError("Project: No such project");
}

my $group;
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if (exists($newimageid_args{"gid"})) {
    my $gid = $newimageid_args{"gid"};
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    $group = Group->LookupByPidGid($project->pid(), $gid);
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    if (!defined($group)) {
	UserError("Group: No such group $gid");
    }
}
else {
    $group = $project->GetProjectGroup();    
}

# Permission check if we managed to get a proper group above.
if ($group &&
    ! $group->AccessCheck($this_user, TB_PROJECT_MAKEIMAGEID())) {
    UserError("Project: Not enough permission");
}

#
# Only admin types can set the global bit for an image. Ignore silently.
#
my $global = 0;
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if (($isadmin || $skipadmin) &&
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    exists($newimageid_args{"global"}) &&
    $newimageid_args{"global"} eq "1") {
    $global = 1;
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} else {
    delete $newimageid_args{"global"};
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}

my $shared = 0;
if (exists($newimageid_args{"shared"}) &&
    $newimageid_args{"shared"} eq "1") {
    $shared = 1;
}
# Does not make sense to do this. 
if ($global && $shared) {
    UserError("Global: Image declared both shared and global");
}

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if (exists($newimageid_args{"metadata_url"})) {
    $newimageid_args{"metadata_url"} =
	uri_unescape($newimageid_args{"metadata_url"})
}
if (exists($newimageid_args{"imagefile_url"})) {
    $newimageid_args{"imagefile_url"} =
	uri_unescape($newimageid_args{"imagefile_url"})
}

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# Nextosid check. Must exist. admin check done above.
if (exists($newimageid_args{"nextosid"})) {
    my $nextos = OSinfo->Lookup($newimageid_args{"nextosid"});

    if (!defined($nextos)) {
	UserError("Nextosid: Does not exist");
    }
    # Might be in pid,osname format.
    $newimageid_args{"nextosid"} = $nextos->osid();
}
# Ditto def_parentosid
if (exists($newimageid_args{"def_parentosid"})) {
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    $parentos = OSinfo->Lookup($newimageid_args{"def_parentosid"});
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    if (!defined($parentos)) {
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	UserError("def_parentosid: Does not exist");
    }
    # Might be in pid,osname format.
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    $newimageid_args{"def_parentosid"} = $parentos->osid();
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}

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#
# The path must not contain illegal chars and it must be more than
# the original /proj/$pid we gave the user. We allow admins to specify
# a path outside of /proj though.
# 
if (!exists($newimageid_args{"path"}) ||
    $newimageid_args{"path"} eq "") {
    UserError("Path: Missing Field");
}
elsif (! $isadmin) {
    my $pdef = "";
    
    if (!$shared &&
	exists($newimageid_args{"gid"}) &&
	$newimageid_args{"gid"} ne "" &&
	$newimageid_args{"gid"} ne $newimageid_args{"pid"}) {
	$pdef = "$TBGROUP_DIR/" .
	    $newimageid_args{"pid"} . "/" . $newimageid_args{"gid"} . "/";
    }
    else {
	$pdef = "$TBPROJ_DIR/" . $newimageid_args{"pid"} . "/images/";
    }

    if (index($newimageid_args{"path"}, $pdef) < 0) {
	UserError("Path: Invalid Path");
    }
}

# We allow loadpart=0 for whole-disk images in the Long Form, and it uses the
# same table_regex checking patterns.  Here "wholedisk" is a separate checkbox.
my $loadpart = $newimageid_args{"loadpart"};
if ($loadpart < 1 || $loadpart > 4) {
    UserError("DOS Partion: Out of range.");
} 

#
# Check sanity of node name and that user can create an image from it.
#
my ($node, $node_id);
if (exists($newimageid_args{"node_id"}) &&
    $newimageid_args{"node_id"} ne "") {

    if (!($node = Node->Lookup($newimageid_args{"node_id"}))) {
	UserError("Node: Invalid node name");
    }
    elsif (!$node->AccessCheck($this_user, TB_NODEACCESS_LOADIMAGE())) {
	UserError("Node: Not enough permission");
    }
    else {
	$node_id = $node->node_id();
    }
}

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#
# If no MBR version was specified, and a snapshot node was given,
# try to deduce the default MBR version based on what is currently
# on the node we are snapshotting.
#
if (!exists($newimageid_args{"mbr_version"}) && defined($node_id)) {
    my $mbrvers = 1;

    #
    # If there is only one MBR version for all images on the disk,
    # use that.  Otherwise, if there is no or ambiguous info, default
    # to version 1.
    #
    my $query_result =
	DBQueryFatal("select mbr_version from partitions as p, images as i ".
		     " where p.imageid=i.imageid and p.node_id='$node_id' ".
		     " group by mbr_version");
    if ($query_result && $query_result->numrows == 1) {
	($mbrvers) = $query_result->fetchrow_array();	
    }
    $newimageid_args{"mbr_version"} = $mbrvers;
}

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#
# See what node types this image will work on. Must be at least one!
#
UserError("Node Types: Must have at least one node type")
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    if (!keys(%mtypes_array));
my $node_types_selected = 0;
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# Check validity of mtype_* args, since the keys are dynamically generated.
my @mtype_keys = grep(/^mtype_/, keys(%newimageid_args));
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foreach $key (@mtype_keys) {
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    my $value = $newimageid_args{$key};
    print STDERR "mtype: '$key' -> '$value'\n"
	if ($debug);

    my $type = $key;
    $type =~ s/^mtype_//;
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    # Treat pcvm special for now.
    if ($type eq "pcvm" ||
	grep(/^${type}$/, keys(%mtypes_array))) {
	$node_types_selected++
	    if ($value eq "1");
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    }
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    else {
	$errors{$key} = "Illegal node type."
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    }
}
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#
# When -a specified, add mappings for all pc types, does not matter if
# there are nodes of that type. Skip the stub pc/pc entry though.
#
if ($allpc) {
    foreach my $type (keys(%mtypes_array)) {
	my $class = $mtypes_array{$type};
	next
	    if ($class ne "pc" || $type eq $class);

	$newimageid_args{"mtype_${type}"} = "1";
	$node_types_selected++;
    }
}

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UserError("Node Types: Must select at least one node type")
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    if ($node_types_selected == 0 && !$force);
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#
# We perform a further check for non-admins.  When a node to snapshot
# has been specified, we check the OSID of the appropriate partition
# and see which node types it is appropriate for, and further restrict
# the list as necessary.  This prevents creation of custom images based on
# old OSes from being checked as runnable on newer HW where they do not
# stand a chance.
#
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if (!$isadmin && defined($node) && !$node->isvirtnode()) {
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    my $query_result =
	DBQueryFatal("select oi.type from osidtoimageid as oi ".
		     "left join partitions as p on oi.osid=p.osid ".
		     "where p.node_id='$node_id' and p.partition=$loadpart");
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    if ($query_result->numrows != 0) {
	my %otypes;
	while (my ($ntype) = $query_result->fetchrow_array()) {
	    $otypes{$ntype} = 1;
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	}
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	my @invalid_node_types;
	foreach my $ntype (@mtype_keys) {
	    $ntype =~ s/^mtype_//;
	    if (!exists($otypes{$ntype})) {
	        push @invalid_node_types, $ntype;
	    }
        }
	if (@invalid_node_types) {
	    UserError("Node Types: Current image on $node_id".
		      " cannot run on the following node types: ". 
		      join(' ', @invalid_node_types));
        }
    } else {
	UserError("Partition: No image originally loaded in partition $loadpart on $node_id; this is probably not the partition you meant to save");
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    }
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}

# XXX  Allowable OS types, OS features, and OpModes need to be
# XXX  converted from constants in osiddefs.php and put into the DB.
# XXX  Validity checks go here and in the similar place in newosid.in .
my %osid_reboot_waitlist = ("Linux", 120, "Fedora", 120, "FreeBSD", 120,
			    "NetBSD", 120, "Windows", 240, "TinyOS", 60,
			    "Oskit", 60, "Other", 60);

#
# Reboot waittime. Only admin users can set this. Grab default
# if not set.  If no default, complain (unless they failed to specify an OS
# in which case we will complain about that instead).
#
my $reboot_waittime;
if (!exists($osid_reboot_waitlist{$OS})) {
    UserError("OS: Invalid OS");
} elsif (exists($newimageid_args{"reboot_waittime"})) {
    $reboot_waittime = $newimageid_args{"reboot_waittime"}
} else {
    $reboot_waittime = $osid_reboot_waitlist{$OS};
}

exit(0)
    if ($verify);

#
# Now safe to create new OS and image descriptors.
#
# We pass the imagename along as an argument to Create(), so remove it from
# the argument array.  (Same name is used for both Creates.)
#
delete($newimageid_args{"imagename"});

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#
# XXX note that osid "path" is not the same as imageid "path".  The former
# is for multiboot (aka OSKit) kernels.  So we remove the path arg temporary.
#
my $ipath = $newimageid_args{"path"};
delete($newimageid_args{"path"});

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# Cross-connect: Make the os descriptor first with the imagename, then take
# the osid index and use it as the imageid index as well.
$newimageid_args{"ezid"} = 1;
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# OSInfo->Create args not quite the same as Image->Create ones so copy 
# newimageid_args into a new hash and fix up values.
my %newosid_args = %newimageid_args;
$newosid_args{"shared"} = $newimageid_args{"global"} 
    if exists $newimageid_args{"global"};
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my $usrerr;
my $new_osinfo = OSinfo->Create($project, $this_user, $imagename,
694
				\%newosid_args, \$usrerr);
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UserError($usrerr)
    if (defined($usrerr));
fatal("Could not create new OSID!")
    if (!defined($new_osinfo));

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$newimageid_args{"path"} = $ipath;

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my $osid = $new_osinfo->osid();

#
# Special option. Whole disk image, but only one partition that actually
# matters. 
#
my $loadlen  = 1;
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$newimageid_args{"part${loadpart}_osid"} = $osid;
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if ($newimageid_args{"wholedisk"}) {
    $loadlen  = 4;
    $loadpart = 0;
}
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$newimageid_args{"loadpart"} = $loadpart;
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$newimageid_args{"loadlength"} = $loadlen;
$newimageid_args{"default_osid"} = $osid;

# Create the osidtoimageid mapping too.
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$newimageid_args{"makedefault"} = 1
    if ($node_types_selected);
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my $new_image = Image->Create($project, $group, $this_user, $imagename, $osid,
			      \%newimageid_args, \$usrerr);
UserError($usrerr)
    if (defined($usrerr));
fatal("Could not create new Image!")
    if (!defined($new_image));

my $imageid = $new_image->imageid();

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#
# Insert a submap entry.
#
if (defined($parentos)) {
    $new_osinfo->SetRunsOnParent($parentos);
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    #
    # Temp hack until we put all mappings into XML file.
    #
    if ($parentos->osname() =~ /^XEN4/) {
	my $other = ($parentos->osname() =~ /^XEN41/ ?
		     "XEN43-64-STD" : "XEN41-64-STD");

	my $otheros = OSinfo->LookupByName($other);
	if (defined($otheros)) {
	    $new_osinfo->SetRunsOnParent($otheros);
	}
    }
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}

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# The web interface requires this line to be printed.
print "IMAGE $imagename/$imageid has been created\n";

exit(0);

sub fatal($)
{
    my ($mesg) = @_;

    print STDERR "*** $0:\n".
	         "    $mesg\n";
    # Exit with negative status so web interface treats it as system error.
    exit(-1);
}

sub UserError(;$)
{
    my ($mesg) = @_;

    if (keys(%errors)) {
	foreach my $key (keys(%errors)) {
	    my $val = $errors{$key};
	    print "${key}: $val\n";
	}
    }
    print "$mesg\n"
	if (defined($mesg));

    # Exit with positive status so web interface treats it as user error.
    exit(1);
}

sub escapeshellarg($)
{
    my ($str) = @_;

    $str =~ s/[^[:alnum:]]/\\$&/g;
    return $str;
}