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#!/usr/bin/perl -w
#
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# Copyright (c) 2009-2011 University of Utah and the Flux Group.
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# 
# {{{EMULAB-LICENSE
# 
# This file is part of the Emulab network testbed software.
# 
# This file is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it
# under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
# your option) any later version.
# 
# This file is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Affero General Public
# License for more details.
# 
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
# along with this file.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
# 
# }}}
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#
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# To set this script up:
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# 1) Copy or link it to .git/hooks/post-receive in your repository. Make sure
#    it's world-readable and executable.
# 2) Set configuration options by editng the values of variables directly
#    below
#       OR
#    Set the simple values with git options: run
#       git config --add hooks.gitmail.<optname> value
#       (for example:
#           git config --add hooks.gitmail.alwaysmail ricci@cs.utah.edu
# 3) Test it by running it with the -d and -t options, which will not send
#    mail and will give you a chance to make sure everything looks right
#
# TODO:
#    Users can add notifications for themselves
#

use strict;
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use IPC::Open2;
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use POSIX 'setsid';
use Getopt::Long;
sub get_config($$);
my $CONFIGBASE = "hooks.gitmail";

######################################################################
# Configuration Options
# Options that use get_config can be set using 'git config' - if not
# set, the second parameter is used as the default
######################################################################

#
# If debugging is enabled, prints a lot of messages and doesn't actually send
# mail.
#
my $debug = get_config("debug",undef);

#
# If set, just picks up the most recent commits instead of reading them from
# stdin. Note that this one doesn't look in the git config; that wouldn't
# make any sense.
#
my $testmode = undef;

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#
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# If set, hide trivial merges (those where no diff hunks needed to be modified
# as part of the merge).  Trivial merges that have a non-empty commit message
# are still shown in case the committer decided to document the merge.
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#
my $hide_trivial_merges = get_config("hidetrivialmerges",undef);

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#
# Command-line options - have to do this before setting other options, since
# we want to be able to turn on debugging early
#
my %opt;
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Getopt::Long::Configure("no_ignore_case");
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if (!GetOptions(\%opt, 'd', 'h', 't', 'T=s', 'c=s', 'C', 'o=s@')
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        || @ARGV || $opt{h}) {
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    print STDERR "Usage: gitmail [-h|-d]\n";
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    print STDERR "  -h     this message\n";
    print STDERR "  -d     enable debugging output and don't send mail\n";
    print STDERR "  -t     test mode - operate on last 3 commits to master\n";
    print STDERR "  -T br  like '-t', but use branch 'br' instead of master\n";
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    print STDERR "  -c n   in test mode, use the last n commits for testing \n";
    print STDERR "  -C     in test mode, pretend the ref was just created\n";
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    print STDERR "  -o o=v give option o the value v (may be given multiple\n";
    print STDERR "         times)\n";
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    exit 1;
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}

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my $testbranch = "master";
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my $testcommits = 3;
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my $testcreate = 0;
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if ($opt{d}) { $debug    = 1; }
if ($opt{t}) { $testmode = 1; }
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if ($opt{T}) { $testmode = 1; $testbranch = $opt{T} }
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if ($opt{c}) { $testcommits = $opt{c} }
if ($opt{C}) { $testcreate = 1; }
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#
# Name of this repository - set it to a string to get it included in the
# mail subject line and the X-Git-Repo header
#
my $reponame = get_config("reponame",undef);

#
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# Data structure mapping branch names and path names to email address. Each
# entry is a triple:
#    Branch name
#    File path
#    Mail address
# If *both* the branch and path match for a commit, mail will be sent to the
# associated address. The branch and paths are interpreted as perl regexps,
# with the special value 'undef' matching anything at all. Any of these may
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# be array references: for the branch and path fields, if *any* of the
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# elements in the array match, the field is considered to match. For the email
# address field, the mail will be sent to all addresses in the array.
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#
# *NOTE* This are perl regexps, not shell globs! *NOTE*
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# *NOTE* This can also be read from a file - see below *NOTE*
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#
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my @mailto = (
  # Branch              # Path             # Send mail to
# Examples
# [ undef,              undef,             'cvs-testbed@flux.utah.edu' ],
# [ undef,              'snmpit',         ['ricci@flux.utah.edu',
#                                          'sklower@vangogh.cs.berkeley.edu']],
# [ ['^ricci-',
#    '^test-'],         'assign/',         'ricci+assign@flux.utah.edu'],
# [ 'gitmail',          'tools/git',       'ricci+git@flux.utah.edu']
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);

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#
# If set, look in a file for the @mailto structure.  This file should be
# executable perl code that returns an array following the same format as the
# @mailto array below. For example, the file could contain:
# ( [ undef, undef, 'me@example.com'] )
#
# *NOTE* If this is set, overrides the @mailto setting above *NOTE*
#
my $mailconfigfile = get_config("mailconfigfile",undef);

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#
# Default mail address - if none of the more specific regular expressions
# match, send to this address
#
my $defmail = get_config("defmail",undef);

#
# If set, *always* send mail to this address (even if one or more regexps
# match). ($defmail will still be used if no regexps match)
#
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my @alwaysmail = get_config("alwaysmail",undef);

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#
# This works exactly like alwaysmail, but it causes seperate mail to get sent
# to each address (this mail is also seperate from the 'main' message that will
# get sent to all of the other addresses)
#
my @archivemail = get_config("archivemail",undef);

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#
# If set, set the 'Reply-To' header in the mail, so that discussion can
# take place on, for example, a particular development mailing list
#
my $replyto = get_config("replyto",undef);
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#
# If set, set the 'From' header in the mail - useful when being called
# from outside to set make the sender look right
#
my $mailfrom = get_config("mailfrom",undef);

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#
# If set to true, detach and run in background - the push doesn't return until
# the hook finishes, so doing this means the pusher doesn't have to wait for
# us to finish
# Note: Not well tested!
#
my $detach = get_config("detach",undef);

#
# If set to true, send a separate mail message for every single commit. If
# false, pushes of multiple commits along a branch get included in the same
# mail.
#
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my $separate_mail = get_config("separatemail",undef);

#
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# Select a style for displaying commits.
# Supported styles are:
#   default - default style, includes commig log and summary of changed files
#   diff    - include a diff, like 'git show' does by default
#   wdiff    - like diff, but word-diff (useful for LaTeX, etc.)
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#
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my $commit_style = get_config("commitstyle","default");

#
# If set, overrides the options to 'git show' that would be set by the
# 'commitstyle' option.
#
my $showcommit_args = get_config("showcommitargs",undef);
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#
# If set, check all commit objects to see if they exist in the repository
# at the specified path.  If a commit object exists in this repository,
# do not include its log in the email message.
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# Note: This should point at the .git directory - for a 'bare' repository,
# this is just the path the repository. For a 'reglar' repository, this is the
# .git/ directory *inside* the repositry.
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#
my $exclude_repo = get_config("excluderepo",undef);

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#
# If set, these values will be used to create 'X-Git-Repo-Keyword' headers, one
# for each value.  This is to facilitate filtering of commit mails for those only
# interested in certain projects.
#
my @repo_keywords = get_config("keyword",undef);

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#
# If defined, produce a summary at the top of the mail if there are at least
# this many commits
#
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my $summary_threshold = get_config("summarythreshold",2);

#
# Disable summry messages; they are now on by default
# this many commits
#
my $disable_summary = get_config("nosummary",undef);
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#
# Style used for displaying summaries. Supported styles:
#   hashes - Include hash and summary
#   bare   - Include summary only
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#   list   - Like bare, but formatted to look more like a list
#   name   - Prefix summary with author name
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#
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my $summary_style = get_config("summarystyle","list");
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#
# If set, puts a set of patches at the bottom of the mail, after all
# commit messages
#
my $include_patches = get_config("includepatches",undef);

#
# Patch style: currently supported options are 'default' and 'word'
#
my $patch_style = get_config("patchstyle","default");

#
# Limit to the number of lines in an individual patch
#
my $patch_size_limit = get_config("patchsizelimit",10000);

#
# Limit to the number of patches to include in a single mail
#
my $max_patches = get_config("maxpatches",20);

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#
# URL for a gitweb server for this repository. If set, links will
# be sent for each commit pointing to the entry on gitweb
# For example: http://git-public.flux.utah.edu/?p=emulab-devel.git
#
my $gitweb_url = get_config("gitweburl",undef);

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# 
# URL for a gitlab server for this repository. If set, links will
# be sent for each commit pointing to the entry on gitlab
# For example: https://gitlab.flux.utah.edu/emulab/emulab-devel
#
my $gitlab_url = get_config("gitlaburl",undef);

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#
# If true, include clone URLs in the mail. These will be guessed from
# the local hostname and the path
#
my $include_urls = get_config("includeurls",1);

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#
# If set, and includeurls is too, override the SSH clone URL
#
my $ssh_clone_url = get_config("sshcloneurl",undef);

#
# Same as above, but for read-only clone
#
my $ro_clone_url = get_config("rocloneurl",undef);

#
# If set, include this URL at tne end of the mail to direct readers
# to the repo's webpage
#
my $web_url = get_config("weburl",undef);

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######################################################################
# Constants
######################################################################

#
# Programs we use
#
my $GIT = "git";
my $SENDMAIL = get_config("sendmail","sendmail");
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my $HOSTNAME = get_config("hostname","hostname");
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#
# Magic 'hash' that indicates an empty or non-existant rev
#
my $EMPTYREV = "0"x40;

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#
# Separator between commits
#
my $SEP = "\n" . "-"x72 . "\n\n";

#
# Separator between body parts
#
my $BODYSEP = "\n" . "="x72 . "\n\n";

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#
# Types of changes
#
my $CT_CREATE = "create";
my $CT_UPDATE = "update";
my $CT_DELETE = "delete";
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my $CT_REWIND = "rewind";
my $CT_REBASE = "rebase";
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#
# Types of clone URLs
#
my $CLONE_SSH    = "ssh";
my $CLONE_PUBLIC = "public";

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#
# Tired of typing this and getting it wrong
#
my $STDERRNULL = " 2> /dev/null";

######################################################################
# Function Prototypes
######################################################################
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sub fix_truefalse($);
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sub change_type($$$);
sub ref_type($);
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sub rev_type($);
sub revparse($);
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sub short_hash($);
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sub changed_files(@);
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sub get_mail_addresses($@);
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sub get_merge_base($$);
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sub get_summary($);
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sub uniq(@);
sub flatten_arrayref($);
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sub commit_mail($$$\@$@);
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sub get_commits($$$);
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sub send_mail($$$@);
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sub short_refname($);
sub debug(@);
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sub object_exists($$);
sub filter_out_objects_in_repo($@);
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sub generate_messageid();
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sub get_hostname();
sub get_pathname();
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sub get_clone_url($);
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######################################################################
# Main Body
######################################################################

debug("starting");

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#
# Read from the mail config file, if requested. We do this before detaching
# so that we can report an error if one occurs.
#
if ($mailconfigfile) {
    #
    # We open the file, read the contents, then eval them. If we didn't get any
    # errors, the result becomes the new contents of the @mailto array
    #
    if (!open(MCF,"<$mailconfigfile")) {
        warn "gitmail: Unable to open config file $mailconfigfile - $!\n";
    } else {
        my @mailcode = <MCF>;
        close MCF;

        #
        # Have to turn array back into a single string before we can call
        # eval on it. Put the result in a temp. variable so that we don't
        # overwrite @mailto if there is an error
        #
        my @mailconfig = eval join("\n",@mailcode);

        #
        # If there were any errors in the eval, they will be found in the magic
        # variable $@ - however, they will also have been printed to stderr, so
        # don't print again
        #
        if ($@) {
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            warn "gitmail: Error in $mailconfigfile: $@\n";
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        } else {
            @mailto = @mailconfig;
        }
    }
}

#
# Get the actual references
#
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my @reflines;
if ($testmode) {
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    my $fullref = `$GIT rev-parse --symbolic-full-name $testbranch`;
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    if (!$fullref) {
	    exit(1);
    }
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    my $newrev = `$GIT rev-parse $fullref $STDERRNULL`;
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    chomp $newrev;

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    my $oldrev;
    if ($testcreate) {
        $oldrev = $EMPTYREV;
    } else {
        $oldrev = "$newrev~'$testcommits'";
    }

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    #
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    # Provide a simple way to grab some commits 
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    #
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    @reflines = ("$oldrev $newrev $fullref");
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} else {
    #
    # Get all of the references that are being pushed from stdin - we do this in
    # one slurp so that we can detach below
    #
    @reflines = <STDIN>;
    debug("finished reading stdin");
}

#
# Detach?
#
if ($detach && !$debug) {
    # Stolen from perlipc manpage
    chdir '/'               or die "Can't chdir to /: $!";
    open STDIN, '/dev/null' or die "Can't read /dev/null: $!";
    open STDOUT, '>/dev/null'
                            or die "Can't write to /dev/null: $!";
    defined(my $pid = fork) or die "Can't fork: $!";
    exit if $pid;
    setsid                  or die "Can't start a new session: $!";
    open STDERR, '>&STDOUT' or die "Can't dup stdout: $!";
}

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#
# Figure out args we'll use to 'git show'
#
if (!defined($showcommit_args)) {
    if ($commit_style eq "default") {
        $showcommit_args = "--numstat --shortstat";
    } elsif ($commit_style eq "diff") {
        $showcommit_args = "";
    } elsif ($commit_style eq "wdiff") {
        $showcommit_args = "--word-diff";
    } else {
        warn "gitmail: Bad commit display style '$commit_style'\n";
        $showcommit_args = "--numstat --shortstat";
    }
    debug("Using predefined commit args: '$showcommit_args'");
} else {
    debug("Using showcommit_args: '$showcommit_args'");
}

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#
# Loop over all of the references we got on stdin
#
foreach my $refline (@reflines) {
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    my @commits;
    my @changed_files;

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    chomp $refline;
    debug("Read line '$refline'");

    #
    # Each line we get on stdin gives us an old revision, a new revision, and
    # a reference (such as the branch name). It's our job to figure out what
    # happened in the middle
    #
    my ($oldrev, $newrev, $refname) = split(/\s+/, $refline);
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    my $ref_type = ref_type($refname);
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    #
    # Use rev-parse so that fancy symbolic names, etc. can be used
    # Note: revparse can die if the name given is bogus
    #
    $oldrev = revparse($oldrev);
    $newrev = revparse($newrev);

    #
    # Figure out what type of change occured (update, creation, deletion, etc.)
    # and what type of objects (commit, tree, etc.) we got
    #
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    my $ct = change_type($oldrev,$newrev,$ref_type);
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    my $old_type = rev_type($oldrev);
    my $new_type = rev_type($newrev);

    debug("Change type: $ct ($old_type,$new_type)");

    #
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    # For now, only handle commit objects.  Tag objects require extra work.
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    #
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    if ($new_type && $new_type ne "commit") {
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        debug("Skipping non-commit");
        next;
    }

    #
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    # Figure out which commits we're interested in based on reference type
    # and change type.
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    #
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    if ($ref_type eq 'tag' || $ref_type eq 'note') {
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	if ($ct eq $CT_DELETE) {
	    # We want to know where the tag used to point before deletion
	    push @commits, $oldrev;
	} else {
	    # Tags only have delete, create, and update.  Rewind and rebase
	    # don't make sense in tag context.
	    #
	    # We only care about the new value of the tag here.
	    push @commits, $newrev;
	}
    } elsif ($ref_type eq 'branch') {
	if ($ct eq $CT_DELETE) {
	    # We want to know where the branch used to point before deletion
	    push @commits, $oldrev;
	} elsif ($ct eq $CT_REWIND) {
	    # There's no new history to show, but we still want to see where
	    # the branch now points.
	    push @commits, $newrev;
	} else {
	    @commits = get_commits($oldrev,$newrev,$refname);
	    # We only want to see *new* commits, which means that commits already
	    # in the main repository need to be excluded too.
	    if (defined $exclude_repo) {
		@commits = filter_out_objects_in_repo($exclude_repo, @commits);
	    }
	}
    }

    next unless (@commits);
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    debug("commits are: ", join(" ",@commits));

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    @changed_files = changed_files(@commits);
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    debug("Changed files: ", join(",",@changed_files));

    #
    # Based on the list of files, figure out who to mail
    #
    my @mailaddrs = get_mail_addresses($refname,@changed_files);

    #
    # Send off the mail!
    #
    if (@mailaddrs) {
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        commit_mail($ct,$oldrev,$newrev,@commits,$refname,@mailaddrs);
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    }
}

debug("finishing");

######################################################################
# Functions
######################################################################

#
# Does this change represent the creation, deletion, or update of an object?
# Takes old and new revs
#
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sub change_type($$$) {
    my ($oldrev, $newrev, $ref_type) = @_;
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    #
    # We can detect creates and deletes by looking for a special 'null'
    # revision
    #
    if ($oldrev eq $EMPTYREV) {
        return $CT_CREATE;
    } elsif ($newrev eq $EMPTYREV) {
        return $CT_DELETE;
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    } elsif ($ref_type eq 'tag' || $ref_type eq 'note') {
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	    return $CT_UPDATE;
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    } else {
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	my $merge_base = get_merge_base($oldrev,$newrev);
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	my $oldrev = revparse($oldrev);
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	my $newrev = revparse($newrev);
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	if ($merge_base eq $oldrev) {
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	    return $CT_UPDATE;
	} elsif ($merge_base eq $newrev) {
	    return $CT_REWIND;
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	} else {
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	    return $CT_REBASE;
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	}
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    }
}

#
# Find out what type an object has
#
sub rev_type($) {
    my ($rev) = @_;
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    chomp $rev_type;
    return $rev_type;
}

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#
# Find out what type of reference this is
#
sub ref_type($) {
    my ($ref) = @_;
    my $type;
    if ($ref =~ m#^refs/heads/#) {
	    $type = 'branch';
    } elsif ($ref =~ m#^refs/tags/#) {
	    $type = 'tag';
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    } elsif ($ref =~ m#^refs/notes/#) {
	    $type = 'note';
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    }
    return $type;
}

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#
# Parse (possibly) symbolic revision name into hash
# Note: Dies if the revision name is bogus!
#
sub revparse($) {
    my ($rev) = @_;
    open(RP,"$GIT rev-parse $rev $STDERRNULL |");
    my $parsedrev = <RP>;
    my $okay = close(RP);
    if (!$okay) {
        die "gitmail: $rev is not a valid revision\n";
    }
    chomp $parsedrev;
    return $parsedrev;
}

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#
# Take a git hash and return the short (abbreviated) form.
#
sub short_hash($) {
    my ($hash) = @_;
    my $short = `$GIT rev-parse --short $hash $STDERRNULL`;
    chomp($short);
    return $short;
}

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#
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# Given a list of commit object hashes, return the list of files changed by
# all commits.
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#
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sub changed_files(@) {
    my %files;
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    debug("running '$GIT diff-tree --stdin -r --name-only --no-commit-id' on '@_'");
    my $pid = open2(\*OUT, \*IN, "$GIT diff-tree --stdin -r --name-only --no-commit-id");
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    print IN "$_\n" for (@_);
    close(IN);

    while (<OUT>) {
	    chomp;
	    $files{$_} = 1;
    }
    close(OUT);
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    waitpid($pid, 0);
    my $rc = $? >> 8;
    if ($rc) {
	    die "'git diff-tree' exited with return code $rc\n";
    }

    return keys(%files);
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}

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#
# Given a refname and a list of filenames, return the set of email addresses
# the report should be sent to
#
sub get_mail_addresses($@) {
    my ($refname, @changedfiles) = @_;
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    my (@addrs,@archiveaddrs);
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    my $matched = 0;

    #
    # Note: we use flatten_arrayref so that either individual strings or array
    # references containing lists of addresses can be used
    #

    #
    # If there's an address we're always supposed to send to, include that now
    #
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    if (@alwaysmail) {
        push @addrs, @alwaysmail;
        debug("Used alwaysmail address(es) " . join(",",@alwaysmail));
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    }

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    #
    # If there are any 'archive' mail addresses, put them into array refs,
    # which will cause them to get sent separately
    #
    if (@archivemail) {
        push @archiveaddrs, map {[$_]} @archivemail;
        debug("Used archivemail address(es) " . join(",",@archivemail));
    }


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    #
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    # Find out if this is a branch, and of so, what it's name is. If it's not,
    # set the branch name to be empty, so that only empty regexps will match
    # it
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    #
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    my $branchname = "";
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    if ($refname =~ /^refs\/heads\/(.*)/) {
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       $branchname = $1;
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    }

    #
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    # Loop through each entry, making sure both branch and path match
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    #
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    ENTRY: foreach my $entry (@mailto) {
        my ($branches, $paths, $addresses) = @$entry;
        my @branches = flatten_arrayref($branches);
        my @paths = flatten_arrayref($paths);
        my @addresses = flatten_arrayref($addresses);

        #
        # If the branch doesn't match, go on to the next entry
        #
        my $branch_matched = 0;
        BRANCH: foreach my $branchRE (@branches) {
            if (!defined($branchRE)) {
                debug("Empty branch matched");
                $branch_matched = 1;
                last BRANCH;
            } elsif ($branchname =~ $branchRE) {
                debug("Matched branch regexp /$branchRE/");
                $branch_matched = 1;
                last BRANCH;
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            }
        }
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        if (!$branch_matched) {
            next ENTRY;
        }

        #
        # If the path doesn't match, go on to the next entry
        #
        my $paths_matched = 0;
        PATH: foreach my $regexp (@paths) {
            if (!defined($regexp)) {
                debug("  Empty path matched");
                $paths_matched = 1;
                last PATH;
            }
            # Have to check against every file in the changeset
            foreach my $file (@changedfiles) {
                if ($file =~ $regexp) {
                    debug("  Matched path regexp /$regexp/");
                    $paths_matched = 1;
                    last PATH;
                }
            }
        }

        if (!$paths_matched) {
            debug("  Path match failed");
            next ENTRY;
        }

        #
        # Great, made it through - we add all addresses, we'll weed out
        # duplicates later
        #
        debug("  Adding adddresses ", join(",",@addresses));
        $matched = 1;
        push @addrs, @addresses;
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    }

    #
    # Fall back to default if no matches (note that an earlier match with an
    # empty list of addresses will cause this case to not be triggered - this
    # is intentional)
    #
    if (!$matched && defined($defmail)) {
        @addrs = flatten_arrayref($defmail);
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        debug("Used default address $defmail");
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    }
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    #
    # Pull out unique values to return
    #
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    return (uniq(@addrs),@archiveaddrs);
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}

#
# Return only the unique elements of the supplied list. Input does not have
# to be sorted, sort order of output is undefined.
#
sub uniq(@) {
    my %uniq;
    map { $uniq{$_} = 1 } @_;
    return keys %uniq;
}

#
# If the parameter is a scalar, just return a one-element array containing the
# scalar. If it's a reference to an array, return the array referenced.
#
sub flatten_arrayref($) {
    my ($ref) = @_;
    if (ref($ref) eq "ARRAY") {
        return @$ref;
    } else {
        return ($ref);
    }
}

#
# Send mail about a regular update commit
#
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sub commit_mail($$$\@$@) {
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    my ($ct,$oldrev,$newrev,$commits,$refname,@mailaddrs) = @_;
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    #
    # Construct the subject line. For now, we just say what repo (if defined)
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    # and what branch/tag it happened on
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    #
    my $subject = "git commit: ";
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    my $ref_type;
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    my $short_rev;
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    if (defined($reponame)) {
        $subject .= "[$reponame] ";
    }
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    $ref_type = ref_type($refname);
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    $subject .= $ref_type . ' ' . short_refname($refname);
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    my $what_happened;
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    if ($ct eq $CT_UPDATE) {
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        $what_happened .= 'updated';
    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_REWIND) {
        $what_happened .= 'rewound';
    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_REBASE) {
        $what_happened .= 'rebased';
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    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_CREATE) {
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        $what_happened .= 'created';
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    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_DELETE) {
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        $what_happened .= 'deleted';
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    }

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    $subject .= ' ' . $what_happened;
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    my $actionstring = ucfirst($ref_type) . ' ' . short_refname($refname) .
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                       " has been $what_happened";
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    $short_rev = `$GIT rev-parse --short $refname $STDERRNULL`;
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    chomp $short_rev;
    $subject .= " ($short_rev)" if ($short_rev);

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    if ($ct eq $CT_REBASE) {
        $actionstring .= ".  The following commits are new or have been modified:";
    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_REWIND) {
        $actionstring .= "  to point to the following commit:";
    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_DELETE) {
	$actionstring .= ".  It previously pointed to the following commit:";
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    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_UPDATE) {
        my $oldshort = short_hash($oldrev);
        my $newshort = short_hash($newrev);
	$actionstring .= ": $oldshort..$newshort";
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    }

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    $actionstring .= "\n\n";

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    #
    # Make a pretty summary of commits if there are enough of them
    #
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    my $summary = "";
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    if (!$disable_summary && defined($summary_threshold)
            && scalar(@$commits) >= $summary_threshold && !$separate_mail) {
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        my @summaries;
        foreach my $rev (@$commits) {
            push @summaries, get_summary($rev);
        }
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        $summary = join("\n",@summaries) . "\n" . $BODYSEP;
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    }

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    my @commitmessages;
    my @patches;
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    foreach my $rev (@$commits) {
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        #
        # Just use regular git show command, with purty +/- summary at the
        # bottom (formatted to be narrow enough for email)
        #
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        my $showcommand = "$GIT show $showcommit_args '$rev'";
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        debug("running '$showcommand'");
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        my @commit_text = `$showcommand`;
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        if ($hide_trivial_merges) {
	        my $is_merge = 0;
	        my $body_lines = 0;
	        my $subject;
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	        my @diff_lines;

		# This is a bit of a hack.  It assumes that the output
		# of git-show will not change.  We could use --pretty
		# to produce exactly the format we want, but since we've
		# already called git-show we'll just use that.
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	        for (@commit_text) {
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		        $is_merge = 1 if (/^Merge:/);
			if (/^ /) {
				if (not defined $subject) {
					$subject = $_;
				} else {
					$body_lines++;
				}
			}
		}
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		if ($is_merge) {
			@diff_lines = `$GIT diff-tree --no-commit-id --cc $rev`;
		}
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		if ($is_merge && !@diff_lines && !$body_lines) {
			# We have a trivial merge, i.e. no hunks were modified as
			# part of the merge.  We still want to show the commit if
			# the commit message is non-standard.
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			next;
		}
	}
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        #
        # Add a URL to look at the commit if set for this repo
        #
	if (defined($gitweb_url)) {
            my $shortrev = short_hash($rev);
	    push @commit_text, "\n${gitweb_url};a=commitdiff;h=$shortrev\n";
        }

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        #
        # Similar thing, but for gitlab
        #
	if (defined($gitlab_url)) {
            my $shortrev = short_hash($rev);
	    push @commit_text, "\n${gitlab_url}/commit/$shortrev\n";
        }
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        #
        # Grab patches - we do this seperately so that we can put them down
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        # below the commit logs. (Note: we don't print patches when a ref is
        # deleted, that doesn't make any sense.)
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        #
	my @patch_text;
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	if ($ct ne $CT_DELETE &&
                defined($include_patches) && $include_patches &&
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                scalar(@$commits) <= $max_patches) {
	    my $patchcommand = "$GIT show --format='format:commit %H'";
	    if ($patch_style eq "word") {
	        $patchcommand .= " --word-diff";
            }
	    $patchcommand .= " '$rev'";
	    debug("running '$patchcommand'");
	    @patch_text = `$patchcommand $STDERRNULL`;

            # Just nuke the patch if it's too long
            if (scalar(@patch_text) > $patch_size_limit) {
                @patch_text = ();
            }
        }

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        if ($separate_mail) {
            # Send this message by itself
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            send_mail($subject,
                $actionstring . join("",@commit_text) . "\n" .
                    join("",@patch_text),
                short_refname($refname),
                @mailaddrs);
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        } else {
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            push @commitmessages,\@commit_text;
            if (scalar(@patch_text)) {
                push @patches, \@patch_text;
            }
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        }
    }

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    #
    # Show clone URLs
    #
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    my $cloneurls = "";
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    if ($include_urls) {
        my $ssh_url = get_clone_url($CLONE_SSH);
        my $public_url = get_clone_url($CLONE_PUBLIC);

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        $cloneurls .= $BODYSEP;
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        $cloneurls .= "Clone via ssh: $ssh_url\n";
        if ($public_url) {
            # This one might not be set, since the repo may only be
            # accessable through ssh
            $cloneurls .= "Clone read-only: $public_url\n";
        }
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        if ($web_url) {
            $cloneurls .= "Web: $web_url\n";
        }
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        $cloneurls .= "\n";
    }

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    #
    # Send all the changes together in one message
    #
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    if (!$separate_mail && @commitmessages) {
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        send_mail($subject,
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            $actionstring .
            $summary .
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            join($SEP, map { join "",@$_} @commitmessages) .
            (scalar(@patches) ? "$BODYSEP" : "") .
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            join("\n", map { join "",@$_} @patches) .
            $cloneurls,
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            short_refname($refname),
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            @mailaddrs);
    }
}

#
# Given two revisions, get a list of the commits that occured between them
# TODO: Consider leaving out already-reachable commits like the contrib script
#       does, or at least making it an option
#
sub get_commits($$$) {
    my ($oldrev,$newrev,$refname) = @_;
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    my $ct = change_type($oldrev,$newrev, ref_type($refname));
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    #
    # If this is an update, we can just ask git for the revisions between the
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    # two revisions we were given.
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    #
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    if ($ct eq $CT_UPDATE) {
	my $revstring = "$oldrev..$newrev";

	debug("running '$GIT rev-list --reverse --date-order '$revstring'");
	my @revs = `$GIT rev-list --reverse --date-order '$revstring'`;
	chomp @revs;
        return @revs;
    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_REBASE) {
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        debug("running '$GIT cherry '$oldrev' '$newrev'");
	# Only return revs prefixed with a '+' since commits prefixed with a
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	# '-' are already in the repository with a different commit hash.
	#
	# The '-' commits are the same as their non-rebased counterparts, except
	# their ancestry is different.  For the email messages, we don't care
	# about these since we should have seen the original commits already.
	#
	# The '+' commits are either new or are rebased commits whose *content*
	# has changed.  We definitely want to see these.  Note that this only
	# applies to the content of the commit, not the commit message.
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	my @revs;
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	my @all_revs;
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	for (`$GIT cherry '$oldrev' '$newrev'`) {
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		debug($_);
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		chomp;
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		@_ = split /\s+/, $_;
		unshift @revs, $_[1] if ($_[0] eq '+');
		unshift @all_revs, $_[1];
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	}
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	# If cherry finds that all of the commits are already present,
	# report 'em all anyway.  We still need to know that the rebase
	# happened, and reporting just the head doesn't make any sense.
	@revs = @all_revs if (!@revs);
        return @revs;
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    } elsif ($ct eq $CT_CREATE) {
        #
        # If it's a create, we have to be a bit more fancy: we look for all
        # commits reachable from the new branch, but *not* reachable from any
        # other branch (otherwise, we get all of the history back to the dawn
        # of time). I stole this magic from the contrib post-receive-email hook
        # from the git distro.
        #

        #
        # Get the list of all other branch heads
        #
        my @other_branches = `$GIT for-each-ref --format='%(refname)' refs/heads/ | grep -F -v $refname`;
        chomp @other_branches;

        my $other_branches = join(" ",@other_branches);
        debug("other branches are: '$other_branches'");

        #
        # Get a list of commits that are reachable from this branch, and no
        # others.
        #
        debug("running '$GIT rev-parse --not $other_branches | $GIT rev-list --pretty --stdin $newrev'");
        my @commits = `$GIT rev-parse --not $other_branches | $GIT rev-list --reverse --date-order --stdin $newrev`;

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        # We always want to be notified when a branch is created, so if there are no commits reachable
        # from only this branch just report on the head of the branch.
        push @commits, $newrev if (!@commits);

        debug("commits are @commits");

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        chomp @commits;
        return @commits;
    }

}

#
# Send out some mail (or not, if in debug mode)
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# If any parameters are references to lists, then we send a seperate peice
# of mail to each of those lists
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#
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sub send_mail($$$@) {
    my ($subject, $body, $refname, @to) = @_;
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    #
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    # Generate our own messageid - this will be helpful if we are sending
    # multiple copies to multiple addesses, so that people's duplicate
    # supression can pick up on the fact that they are the same message
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    #
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    my $messageid = generate_messageid();
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    my @regular_addresses = grep { ref($_) ne "ARRAY" } @to;
    my @list_refs = grep { ref($_) eq "ARRAY" } @to;

    debug("regular addresses are: ", join(",",@regular_addresses));
    debug("there are " . scalar(@list_refs) . " list_refs");

    foreach my $mailto (\@regular_addresses, @list_refs) {

        # The list ref could be empty (eg. if there were no @regular_addresses)
        next unless @$mailto;

        print "Sending email notification to ", join(",",@$mailto), "\n";

        if ($debug) {
               open(MAIL,">&STDERR");
               print MAIL "\n\n";
        } else {
               # sendmail args:
               # -oem causes errors in mail to be "mailed back"
               # -odb deliver mail in background
               # -t causes sendmail to look in the message for 'To:' 'Cc:' and
               #    'Bcc:' lines
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               my $mailfrom_str = "";
               if ($mailfrom) {
                   $mailfrom_str = "-f$mailfrom";
               }
               open(MAIL, "| $SENDMAIL -odb -oem $mailfrom_str -t");
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        }

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        # If requested, set the From header
        if (defined($mailfrom)) {
            print MAIL "From: $mailfrom\n";
        }

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        print MAIL "To: " . join(", ",@$mailto) . "\n";
        print MAIL "Subject: $subject\n";
        print MAIL "Message-Id: $messageid\n";
        
        # If requested, set the Reply-To header
        if (defined($replyto)) {
            print MAIL "Reply-To: $replyto\n"
        }

        #
        # Add an X-Git-Repo header to help people procmail
        #
        if (defined($reponame)) {
            print MAIL "X-Git-Repo: $reponame\n";
        }
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	if (@repo_keywords) {
		@repo_keywords = map { split /\s+/ } @repo_keywords;
		print MAIL "X-Git-Repo-Keyword: $_\n" for (@repo_keywords);
	}
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        print MAIL "X-Git-Ref: $refname\n";
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        #
        # Add headers to help people figure out where this repo lives
        #
        print MAIL "X-Git-Repo-Host: " . get_hostname() . "\n";
        print MAIL "X-Git-Repo-Path: " . get_pathname() . "\n";

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        #
        # Marks end of headers
        #
        print MAIL "\n";

        print MAIL $body;
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        if ($debug) {
            print MAIL "\n\n";
        }
    }
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}

#
# Given a full refname, pull off the last part for pretty printing
#
sub short_refname($) {
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    my ($ref) = @_;
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    my $refname = `$GIT rev-parse --abbrev-ref $ref $STDERRNULL`;
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    chomp $refname;

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    # Fall back to full name if rev-parse fails for some reason
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    $refname = $ref if (!$refname);
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    debug("got short refname \"$refname\"");


    # If the ref didn't get shortened, it may be because it was deleted.  Just
    # chop off 'refs/heads' or 'refs/tags' and return the rest.
    if ($refname =~ m#^refs/(?:heads|tags)/(.*)#) {
	    $refname = $1;
    }

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    return $refname;
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}

#
# Print only if in debug mode
#
sub debug(@) {
    if ($debug) {
        print STDERR "*** gitmail: ", @_, "\n";
    }
}

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#
# Return the input value, unless it's 'true' (in which case return 1), or
# 'false' (in which case return 0)
#
# Intended to be used by map'ing over arrays of config options
#
sub fix_truefalse($) {
    my ($val) = @_;
    if (defined($val)) {
        if ($val eq 'true') {
            return 1;
        } elsif ($val eq 'false') {
            return 0;
        } else {
            return $val;
        }
    } else {
        return $val;
    }
}

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#
# Return either the config value associated with the repo or the second
# argument, which supplies the default.
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# Note: 'true' and 'false' are special values, which turn into '1' and '0'
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#
sub get_config($$) {
    my ($var,$default) = @_;
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    my $multivalue = 0;

    # This lets us check whether the caller wanted multiple values or not -
    # if we were called in list context, this will be true
    if (wantarray()) {
        $multivalue = 1;
    }

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    #
    # Allow the user to override on command line
    #
    if ($opt{o}) {
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        my @values;
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        foreach my $pair (@{$opt{o}}) {
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            my ($name,$value) = split /=/, $pair, 2;
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            if ($name eq $var) {
                debug("Using config value $value for $name from command line");
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                if ($multivalue) {
                    push @values, $value;
                } else {
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                    return fix_truefalse($value);
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                }
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            }
        }
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        if ($multivalue && (@values > 0)) {
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            return map {fix_truefalse($_)} @values;
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        }
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    }

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    my $getcommand = "--get";
    if ($multivalue) {
        $getcommand = "--get-all";
    }

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    # Note: We have to use 'git', not '$GIT' here, since the latter is fetched
    # using this function
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    my @value = `git config $getcommand $CONFIGBASE.$var`;
    chomp @value;

    if (@value) {
        if ($multivalue) {
            foreach my $value (@value) {
                debug("Got $value from git config for $var");
            }
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            return map {fix_truefalse($_)} @value;
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        } else {
            debug("Got $value[0] from git config for $var");
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            return fix_truefalse($value[0]);
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        }
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    } else {
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        if (!$multivalue) {
            debug("Using " , defined($default)?$default : "(undef)" , " for $var");
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            return fix_truefalse($default);
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        } else {
            # Multivalue always returns the empty array for the defauly
            debug("Using the emtpy list for $var");
            return ();
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        }
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    }
}

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#
# Returns the merge base (i.e., common ancestor) of
# the two supplied revisions.
#
sub get_merge_base($$)
{
	my ($rev_a, $rev_b) = @_;
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	my $mb = `$GIT merge-base '$rev_a' '$rev_b'`;
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	chomp $mb;

	return $mb
}

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#
# Returns a one-line summary of the given commit. Ensures that the resulting
# line is suitable for mail (ie. truncates it to 72 characters)
# (assumes the object passed in is a commit object; doesn't check!)
#
sub get_summary($) {
    my ($rev) = @_;
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    my $oneliner;
    if ($summary_style eq "hashes") {
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        $oneliner = `$GIT show -s --oneline $rev`;
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    } elsif ($summary_style eq "bare") {
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        $oneliner = `$GIT show -s --format='format:%s' $rev`;
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    } elsif ($summary_style eq "list") {
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        $oneliner = `$GIT show -s --format='format: - %s' $rev`;
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    } elsif ($summary_style eq "name") {
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        $oneliner = `$GIT show -s --format='format:%cN: %s' $rev`;
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    } else {
        warn "gitmail: Bad summary style '$summary_style'\n";
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        $oneliner = `$GIT log --oneline $rev`;
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    }
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    chomp $oneliner;
    return substr($oneliner,0,72);
}

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#
# Returns 1 if the given object (identified by hash) exists in the given
# repository (identified by path); 0 if it does not .
#
sub object_exists($$) {
    my ($obj, $repo) = @_;

    #
    # 'cat-file -e' is like 'test -e', and don't be fooled by the name, it
    # works on non-files too
    #
    debug("running $GIT --git-dir='$repo' cat-file -e $obj");
    my $rv = system "$GIT --git-dir='$repo' cat-file -e $obj";
    if ($rv) {
        return 0;
    } else {
        return 1;
    }
}

#
# Return a list of all objects from the input list that do *not* exist in
# the given repo
#
sub filter_out_objects_in_repo($@) {
    my $repo = shift @_;
    return grep { !object_exists($_,$repo)} @_;
}
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#
# Generate a value suitable for use in a Message-Id header
#
sub generate_messageid() {
    # First part: current time
    my $first = time();
    # Second part: some random junk
    my $second;
    foreach my $i (0 .. 8) {
        $second .= sprintf "%02x", int(rand(256));
    }
    # Third part: hostname
    my $hostname = `$HOSTNAME -f`;
    chomp $hostname;

    my $msgid = "<$first.$second\@$hostname>";

    debug("generated message id $msgid");

    return $msgid;
}
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#
# Get the hostame - right now, only supports using the 'hostname' command, by
# might be configurable at some point in the future
#
sub get_hostname() {
    my $hostname = `$HOSTNAME -f $STDERRNULL`;
    chomp $hostname;
    return $hostname;
}

#
# Gets the path for the repo
#
sub get_pathname() {
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    # Unfortunately, older versions of git don't have '--show-toplevel'
    #my $pwd = `$GIT rev-parse --show-toplevel $STDERRNULL`;
    my $pwd = `pwd`;
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    chomp $pwd;
    return $pwd;
}
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